Experimental research

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Experimental research

  1. 1. WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION<br />
  2. 2. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH<br />Intervention Research:<br /> - Experimental Research<br />Non-Intervention Research:<br /> - Correlation Research<br /> - Survey Research<br />
  3. 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH<br />An experiment research is a research situation where at least one independent variable, called the experimental variable, is deliberately manipulated or varied by the researcher.<br />The purpose of experimental research is to study cause and effect relationships.<br />
  4. 4. VARIABLE<br />Independent Variable<br /> experimental or treatment variable (it is the cause)<br />Dependent Variable/Measured Variable<br /> is what is measured to assess the effects of the independent variable<br />
  5. 5. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN<br />
  6. 6. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN<br />
  7. 7. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN<br />
  8. 8. INSTRUMENT<br />tools researchers use to collect data for research studies (alternatively called “tests”)<br />The types of instruments:<br />1. Cognitive Instruments<br />2.Affective Instruments<br />3.Projective Instruments<br />
  9. 9. COGNITIVE INSTRUMENTS<br />Measure an individual’s attainment in academic areas typically used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses.<br />Types of cognitive instruments:<br /><ul><li>achievement tests</li></ul>provide information about how well the test takers have learned what they have been taught in school<br /><ul><li>aptitude tests</li></ul>measure the intellect and abilities not normally taught and often are used to predict future performance<br />
  10. 10. Affective instruments<br /> Measure characteristics of individuals along a number of dimensions and to assess feelings, values, and attitudes toward self, others, and a variety of other activities, institutions, and situations.<br />
  11. 11. Types of affective instruments:<br />attitude scales<br />self-reports of an individual’s beliefs, perceptions, or feelings about self, others, and a variety of activities, institutions, and situations<br />values tests<br />measure the relative strength of an individual’s valuing of theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious values<br />personality inventories<br />an individual’s self-report measuring how behaviors characteristic of defined personality traits describe that individual<br />
  12. 12. Projective instruments<br />Measure a respondent’s feelings or thoughts to an ambiguous stimulus<br />Primary type of projective test:<br /><ul><li>associational tests</li></ul>participants react to a stimulus such as a picture, inkblot or word onto which they project a description.<br />
  13. 13. Two issues in using instruments<br />1.Validity: the degree to which the instrument measures what it purports to measure<br />2.Reliability: the degree to which the instrument consistently measures what it purports to measure<br />
  14. 14. VALIDITY<br />
  15. 15. Types of validity<br />1. Content validity<br />the degree to which an instrument measures an intended content area.<br />2.Criterion-related validity<br />an individual takes two forms of an instrument which are then correlated to discriminate between those individuals who possess a certain characteristic from those who do not<br />3.Construct validity<br />a series of studies validate that the instrument really measures what it purports to measure<br />
  16. 16. RELIABILITY<br />
  17. 17. Types of reliability...<br />1.Stability (“test-retest”): <br />the degree to which two scores on the same instrument are consistent over time<br />2.Equivalence (“equivalent forms”): <br />the degree to which identical instruments (except for the actual items included) yield identical scores <br />3.Internal consistency (“split-half” reliability with Spearman-Brown correction formula , Kuder-Richardson and Cronback’s Alpha reliabilities, scorer/rater reliability): <br />the degree to which one instrument yields consistent results<br />

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