Discourse properties


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Discourse properties

  1. 1. M. Riza Fajri 2007-32-053 Ari Yuliana 2007-32-080 Dian Ika D.S 2007-32-090 M. Abdul Nafik 2007-32-191 Feny Agustina 2007-32-228
  2. 3. FORMAL AND CONTEXTUAL LINKS <ul><li>We can describe the two ways of approaching language as “ contextual “, referring to facts outside language, and “ formal “, referring to facts inside language. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal links between sentences and between clauses are know as “ Cohesive Devices “. </li></ul>
  3. 4. COHESION IN ENGLISH <ul><li>Reference Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>Subtitution and Ellipsis Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Clausal </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction Adversative </li></ul><ul><li>Additive </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Causal </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical Cohesion Reiteration </li></ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul><ul><li>{ Halliday and Hasan 1976} </li></ul>
  4. 5. PERSONAL REFERENCE <ul><li>Personal reference items, are expre s sed through pronouns and determiners. They serve to identify individuals and objects that are named at some other point in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Mikhail Gorbachev didn’t have to change the world. He could have chosen to rule much as his predecessors did. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Demonstrative reference is expressed through determiners and adverbs. These items can represent a single word or phrase, or much longer chunks of text – ranging across several paragraph s or even several pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that his country had to change, Gorbachev could have become a cautious modernizer in the Chinese fashion, promoting economic reform and sponsoring new technology while holding firm against political change . This did not happen. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Comparative reference is expressed through adjectives and adverbs and serves to compare items within a text in terms of identity or similarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>A: Would you like these seats ? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, as a matter of fact, I’d like the other seats . </li></ul>
  7. 8. Substitution <ul><li>There are three types of substitution - nominal, verbal and causal. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each type follow. </li></ul><ul><li>NOMINAL SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>There are some new tennis balls in the bag. These ones ’ve lost their bounce. </li></ul><ul><li>VERBAL SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>A: Annie says you drink too much . </li></ul><ul><li>B: So do you! </li></ul><ul><li>CLAUSAL SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>A: Is it going to rain? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I thing so. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Ellipsis <ul><li>Ellipsis occurs when some essential structural element is omitted from a sentence or clause and can only be recovered by referring to an element in the predicting text. </li></ul><ul><li>As with substitution, there are three types of ellipsis – nominal, verbal and clausal. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each type follow. </li></ul><ul><li>NOMINAL ELLIPSIS </li></ul><ul><li>My kids play an awful lot of sport both ( ) are incredibly energetic. </li></ul><ul><li>VERBAL ELLIPSIS </li></ul><ul><li>A: Have you been working? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes ,I have ( ). </li></ul><ul><li>CLAUSAL ELLIPSIS </li></ul><ul><li>A: Why’d you only set three places? Paul’s staying for dinner, isn’t he? </li></ul><ul><li>B: Is he? He didn’t tell me ( ). </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Conjunction differs from reference, substitution and ellipsis in that it is not a device for reminding the reader of previously mentioned entities, actions and states of affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four different types of conjunction – temporality, causality, addition and adversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each type follow. </li></ul><ul><li>ADVERSATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>I’m afraid I’ll be home late tonight. However , I won’t have to go in until late tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>From a marketing view point, the popular tabloid encourages the reader to read the whole page instead of choosing stories. And isn’t that what any publisher wants? </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Continued ... </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPORAL </li></ul><ul><li>Brick tea is a blend that has been compressed into a cake. It is taken mainly by the minority groups in China. First , it is ground to a dust. Then it is usually cooked in milk. </li></ul><ul><li>CLAUSAL </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese tea is becoming increasingly popular in restaurant, and even in coffee shops. This is because of the growing belief that is has several health-giving properties. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Lexical cohesion <ul><li>Lexical cohesion occurs when two words in a text are semantically related in some way – in other words, they are related in terms of their meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>The two major categories of Lexical Cohesion are : </li></ul><ul><li>Reiteration Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym </li></ul><ul><li>Superordinate </li></ul><ul><li>General Word </li></ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul>
  12. 13. REITERATION <ul><li>Reiteration includes repetition, synonym or near synonym, super-ordinate, and general word. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of each type follow. </li></ul><ul><li>REPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>What we lack in a newspaper is what we should get. In a word, a ‘popular’ newspaper may be the winning ticket. </li></ul><ul><li>SYNONYM </li></ul><ul><li>You could try reversing the car up the slope . The incline isn’t all that steep. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Continued … </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERORDINATE </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia has arrived with the cold and wet conditions. The illness is striking everyone from infants to the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL WORD </li></ul><ul><li>A : Did you try the steamed buns ? </li></ul><ul><li>B : Yes, I didn’t like the things much. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Collocation <ul><li>Collocation can cause major problems for discourse analysis because it includes all those items in a text that are semantically related. In some cases this makes it difficult to decide for certain whether a cohesive relationship exists or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Most linguists who have written about cohesion admit that lexical collocation is a problem, and some refuse to deal with it because of this. The problems arise because collocation is expressed through open rather than closed class items. In contrast, there is no limit to the items that can be used to express collocation. This means that it is difficult to establish sets of regularly co-occurring words and phrases. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Continued … </li></ul><ul><li>An additional problem is the fact that many lexical relationships are text- as well as context-bound. This means that words and phrases that are related in one text may not be related in another. For example, the words neighbour and scoundrel are not related at all. However, in the following text they are synonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbour has just let one of his trees fall my garden. </li></ul><ul><li>And the scoundrel refuses to pay for the damage he has caused. </li></ul>