4 Management Business And Corp. Goverment


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4 Management Business And Corp. Goverment

  2. 2. Management Processes <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Actuating </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul>
  3. 3. Planning <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Activity A Activity B Activity N </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Organization Design <ul><li>The Mechanisms Which Define the Features of the Organization and Which Serve to Link the Different Parts of the Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Job Description </li></ul><ul><li>SOP </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dimension of Organization Design <ul><li>Centralization </li></ul><ul><li>The locus of decision making authority along the vertical dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Formalization </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitness of expectation regarding work means and production </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Number of different components or sub system in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of organization: Number of level and span of control </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1 2C 2D 2C 3A 3B 3C 2A 2B Configuration Span of Control (Horizontal Integration) Horizontal Complexity (Differentiation ) Vertical Complexity (Differentiation ) Mechanisms of Vertical Integration - Centralization - Formalization Configuration (Number of Level) 1 3 2
  7. 7. Form of Organizational Design <ul><li>Simple Design </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Divisional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerate Design </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Design </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Component <ul><li>Top Management </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Management </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Core </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Support Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Support Staff </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hybrid Structure Top Operational Services T e c h n I c a l A d m i n Middle
  10. 10. Controlling Planning Actuating Evaluation Yes No Feedback
  11. 11. Management Control System <ul><li>Concerned with processes and procedures related to planning, measuring, and controlling all activities within the organization </li></ul>
  12. 12. Generalized Structure of Management Control System Objectives Performance Criteria Performance Evaluation Modified Performance Criteria Corrective Action System Operation Non Performance Justified ? Performance Criteria Need Change? No No No Yes Yes Yes Performance Criteria Met ?
  13. 13. Level of Management System Corporate/Business Business/Functional Operationa l Middle Top Operational
  14. 14. Attention of Organizational Level Org. Level Mgt Level Performance Org. Focus Mgt. Attn Corporate Top Return Gov.Structue Fiscal Business Middle Market Share Process Market Cust.Satisfactn Operation Operational Efficiency Work Process Productivity
  15. 15. Time Frame <ul><li>Operational Functional Business Corporate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategic Linkages <ul><li>Corporate Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Business Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Operation/Production Management </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s major goal, policies, and action sequences into cohesive whole </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dimension of Strategy <ul><li>1. Effective formal strategies contain 3 essential elements: Goal/objective, Policy and Program </li></ul><ul><li>2. Effective strategies develop around a few key concepts and thrust, which give cohesion, balance and focus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Strategy deals not just with the unpredictable but also the unknowable </li></ul><ul><li>4. Each strategy must be more or less complete in itself, congruent with level of decentralization intended </li></ul>
  19. 19. Criteria for Effective Strategy <ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated and committed leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  20. 20. Corporate Strategy <ul><li>Scope : Corporate/ Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives : Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : ROI/RONA/ROE….. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market Development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product Development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Business Strategy <ul><li>Scope : SBU </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : Market Share </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Functional Strategy <ul><li>Scope : Business Function </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : Competitive Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operation Strategy <ul><li>Scope : Production/operation </li></ul><ul><li>Objective : Competitive Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Performance : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Example of Operation Objective <ul><li>QUALITY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAHUN INI 5 TAHUN YAD KOMPETITOR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Kepuasan konsumen 75 % 85 % 75 % </li></ul><ul><li>Persentase scrapdan reject 15 % 5 % 10 % </li></ul><ul><li>Biaya garansi ( % penjualan) 1 % 0.5 % 1% </li></ul><ul><li>COST </li></ul><ul><li>COGM ( % COGS ) 55 % 45 % 50% </li></ul><ul><li>ITO 41 x 52 x 50 x </li></ul>
  26. 26. Example of Operation Objective <ul><li>DELIVERY </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAHUN INI 5 TAHUN YAD KOMPETITOR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fill Rate 90% 95% 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Time (minggu ) 3 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Waktu untuk 10 bulan 6 bulan 8 bulan </li></ul><ul><li>mengenalkan produk baru </li></ul><ul><li>Waktu perubahan kapasitas 3 bulan 3 bulan 3 bulan </li></ul>
  27. 27. Operation Management <ul><ul><ul><li>Scope : Production/operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objective : Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Strategic Implementation <ul><li>Strategic Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>SOP </li></ul>
  29. 29. Strategic Decision <ul><li>Determine the overall direction of an enterprise and its ultimate viability in light of predictable, the unpredictable, and unknowable changes that may occur in its most important surrounding environment </li></ul>
  30. 30. Implementation Hierarchy Philosophy Corporate Business Operation Program & Budget Policy Guidelines Procedures and Rules Ends Means
  31. 31. Goal <ul><li>Goal state what is to be achieved and when results are to be accomplished but they do not state how the results are to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic goals is major goals that affect the entity’s overall direction and viability </li></ul>
  32. 32. Policy <ul><li>Policy is rules or guidelines that express the limits within which action should occur </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic policies is major policies that guide the entity’s overall direction and posture or determine its viability </li></ul>
  33. 33. Policy Development Business & Operation Strategies Resources Evaluation of Environment Cost Quality Delivery Flexibility Feedback and Contn.Improv Capacity Others PPC Integration Facilities Technology Volume Scale/Scope Loading Size Location Focus Automation Lead/Lag Prod. Design Supplier Customer Material Workforce R & D Quality Performance Measure
  34. 34. Policy Implementation Processes Definition of Program Goal Resourcing Program & Action Plan Implementation & Management of Program Process Review Management Review Program Goal Sales Revenues & Budgets Distribution Budgets Operating Budgets Sales Price & Volume Labor Material & Overhead Rules & Directives Operating Procedures Variance Adjustment Performance Monitoring Budget Review & Dec. Processes
  35. 35. Program <ul><li>Programs specify the step-by-step sequence of actions necessary to achieve major objective </li></ul><ul><li>Program express how objectives will be achieved within the limits set by policy </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic programs is a major programs that determine the entity’s overall thrust and viability </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hierarchy of Program <ul><li>Main Program </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul>
  37. 37. PPBS <ul><li>Strategic Implementation Plan based on Strategic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>PPBS has 4 principle components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy Guide Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of Program and Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information System </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. (PPBS) Planning Programming and Budgeting System
  39. 39. PPBS ? <ul><li>Cara ( ways ) perencanaan dan penganggaran untuk mencapai tujuan ( end ) dengan memanfaatkan sarana dan sumberdaya ( means ) yang tersedia atau yang dapat disediakan, secara sistematis dan berkesinambungan </li></ul>
  40. 40. Characteristics <ul><li>1. Systemic Approach </li></ul><ul><li>2. Output Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>3. Based on Program Structure </li></ul><ul><li>4. Balance Between Autonomy and Direction ( Top Down & Bottom Up) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Based on Rolling Plan </li></ul>
  41. 41. Requirement for Implementation <ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul>
  42. 42. Components of PPBS <ul><li>1. Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>2. Structure of Program </li></ul><ul><li>3. Information System </li></ul>
  43. 43. Cycle of PPBS <ul><li>Urutan kegiatan yang mengatur seluruh urutan dan jadwal kegiatan perencanaan, pelaksanaan dan pengendalian program </li></ul>
  44. 44. Cycle of PPBS RUP BOD Unit Pengusul J M A M F J A D N O S J O S A J J M A M F J N MPK UP ER RA EP D EP Pelaksanan Program TS TS + 1 Monitoring & Control
  45. 45. Structure of Program <ul><li>Menggambarkan hirarkhi program yang disusun dengan bertitik tolak dari rencana strategis dan dijabarkan kedalam kegiatan operasional ( proyek ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rencana Strategis </li></ul><ul><li>Program Utama </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>Proyek </li></ul>
  46. 46. Structure of Program R. Stratrgis Program Utama Program 1. Meningkatkan Effisiensi 2. Meningkatkan Mutu 3. Meningkatkan Citra 1. Menata PPBS 2. TQM 3. Kelembagaan dan organisasi 4. Sistem Reward 1. Penataan produk dan proses 2. Penerapan CBL 3. Penerapan TQA 1. Program Produk Unggulan 2. Aliansi Strategik
  47. 47. Information System <ul><li>Merupakan urat nadi PPBS dimana prinsip perencanaan Bottom up dan Top Down diimplementasikan </li></ul><ul><li>PCM </li></ul><ul><li>UP </li></ul><ul><li>RA </li></ul>
  48. 48. Program Coordinate Memo <ul><li>Dokumen yang berisi arahan, program dan prioritas serta pagu anggaran yang tersedia </li></ul>
  49. 49. Usulan Proyek <ul><li>Dokumen yang berisikan proyek-proyek yang diusulkan untuk dilaksanakan pada tahun mendatang (TS +1) </li></ul><ul><li>Permasalahan yang dihadapi </li></ul><ul><li>Hasil yang diharapkan </li></ul><ul><li>Spesifikasi proyek </li></ul><ul><li>Anggaran </li></ul>
  50. 50. Budgeting <ul><li>Rencana tahunan yang berisi program dan anggaran yang diperlukannya </li></ul><ul><li>Rencana Anggaran diajukan oleh BOD untuk mendapat persetujuan dari RUPS </li></ul>
  51. 51. Corporate Governance
  52. 52. Stockholder Board of Director Officers Manager Employee Board of Commissioner
  53. 53. Major Stakeholder Involved in Corporate Government Corporate Governance Employees Stockholder Board of Commissioner Management Board of Director
  54. 54. Stockholder Board of Director Officers Manager Employee Board of Commissioner
  55. 55. Board of Commissioner <ul><li>Controller Body and Guide the Board of Director </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed by Stockholder and responsible to Stockholder </li></ul><ul><li>Directing, guiding and controlling the BOD </li></ul>
  56. 56. Board of Director <ul><li>Top executive body in the corporation and nominated by stockholder </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for establishing corporate objectives, developing policy, and selecting top level personnel to carry out these objectives and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Review management’s performance to be sure that the company is well run and stakeholder’s interest are promoted </li></ul>
  57. 57. Management <ul><li>Carry out business and management processes based on objectives and policies decided by board of director </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for economic survival of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing the interest of stakeholder in such a way in order the company can achieve its objectives. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Employee <ul><li>Carry out the day to day operation of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for productivity and efficiency of business and management processes </li></ul>