11 Operation System Design And Planning
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11 Operation System Design And Planning

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    11 Operation System Design And Planning 11 Operation System Design And Planning Presentation Transcript

      • OPERATION SYSTEM DESIGN and
      • PLANNING
    • Operation System Design
      • The Integration of Product and Service Delivery With the Facilities and Process Technologies Over the Life Cycle of the Operations System , Which Permits Production of Goods and Service at Desired Quality, Volumes, and Cost
    • Framework
      • Marketing Strategy Capacity Strategy
      • Organization Design
      Operation System Design OS Life Cycle OS Characteristics Process Technology Diffusion
    • Operation System Life Cycle
        • 1. Birth of the Operation System
        • 2. Product/Service Design and Process Technology Selection
        • 3. Design of Operation System
        • 4. Star up of the Operation System
        • 5. Growth of Volume
        • 6. Stable State
        • 7. Decline and Renewal of the System
    • Product/Service Start-up Growth Stable Decline Volume Low Increasing High Declining Variety Unique Inc.Standard Emergence High Standard Dom. Design Process Technology Organization Project Small Batch Line flow Line flow Job shop Assembly Assembly I nnovation High Medium Medium Low Integration Low Medium Medium High I ndustry Structure Small Consolidation Few large Survivor competitor and fallout competitor Competitive Flexibility Quality and Price(cost) Price(cost) Priority Flexibility Delivery Product/Service and Process Technology Life Cycles
    • Operation System
      • 1. Classical
          • Project
          • Job Shop
          • Flow Shop
      • 2. Emerging
          • Variable Production Line
          • Manufacturing Cells
          • FMS
          • CIM
    • Equipment and Physical Layout Characteristics
      • Project Job Shop Flow Shop
      • Size of Facility Varies Small Large
      • Process Flow Circumference Num, Pattern Rigid
      • Equipment General General Specialized
      • Capital Ints. Varies Low High
      • Capital Add. Incremental Small Large Chunk
      • Speed of Process Varies Slow Fast
      • Control Worker Worker & Process Design
      • Tech. Change Slow Average Fast
    • Direct Labor and Work Force Characteristics
      • Project Job Shop Flow Shop
      • Labor value added High Average Very Low
      • Job content scope Large Average Small
      • Skill level High Average Low
      • Wage rate High Average Low
      • Worker training V. High High Low
    • Material and Information Control Characteristics
      • Project Job Shop Flow Shop
      • Material Requirement Varies Unpredictable Predictable
      • Vertical Integration None Limited Back&Forwd
      • Inv. Raw Material None Small Large
      • WIP Large Large Small
      • Finished Goods None Small High
      • QC Responsibility D. Labor D. labor QC Specialist
      • Prod/Serv, Information V. High High Low
      • Scheduling Uncertain Changes Inflexible
    • Process Management Characteristic
      • Project Job Shop Flow Shop
      • Challenges Estimating Lab.Utilization Avoid Downtime
      • Sequencing Debottlenecking Time Expansion
      • Pacing Learning Curve Cost Minimizing
      • Tools PERT/ Load Chart Line Balancing
      • CPM Optimization
    • Variable Production Line
      • Dedicated High Volume Lines That Are Reconfigured to Permit Some Process Variation and Thus Several Different Products or Service
    • Manufacturing Cell (MC)
      • Dedicated Subset of Manufacturing System Designed to Process Part Families or Product Group
      • Economies of Set-up
      • Employee Learning
      • Reduced WIP
      • Shorter Throughput Time
      • Improved Responsiveness to Customer
    • Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
      • Integrates and Enhances the Flexibility of Manufacturing Cell Through the Use of Centralized Control Systems
      • Flexibility Approaching Job Shop With Material Handling Capability of a Flow Lines
    • Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
      • Application of a computer system to link several separated information systems and technologies at different functional level
      • Simplify, Automate and Integrate
    • Stage Toward A CIM Batch/Lot Process MRPII/SPC JIT &MC Focused factory Stable Flow FMS CAD/CAM Robotics AMH/GT CIM Information System Integration Traditional Mfg. Variable Line Stage 3 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 4 To CIM Process Technology Process Control System
    • Operation Flexibility
      • Ability to Respond the Changes in Customer Requirements
      • Product/Service Process Technology
      • *Volume * Changeover
      • *Mix * Scheduling
      • *Modification * Innovation
    • Product/Service Flexibility
      • Volume
      • Ability to respond quickly to changes in the amount of particular product or service that is required
      • Mix
      • Ability to react quickly to changes in mix or proportion of products of a product family that are produced
      • Modification
      • Ability to incorporate changes in product characteristics and to develop and produce newly designed product
    • Process Flexibility
      • Allows the operation manager to deploy or
      • re-deploy resources in response to variations in products/services, availability of resources, or process technology
      • 1. Changeover Flexibility
      • 2. Scheduling Flexibility
      • 3. Innovation Flexibility
    • Process Flexibility
      • Changeover Flexibility
      • Ability to respond rapidly to different production set-ups required for various products
      • Scheduling Flexibility
      • Ability to vary the routing, sequence, or production
      • lot-sizes to accommodate required production volume
      • Innovation Flexibility
      • Ability to define and implement new technologies in production processes with minimal disruption
    • Characteristics of Process Flexibility
      • Type of Flexibility Respond To Subcategories
      • Changeover Product/service Product/service volume
      • ( market driven) Product/service range
      • Product/service mix
      • Product/service
      • modification
      • Scheduling Availability of Material
      • resources Equipment
      • (resources driven) Labor
      • Innovation Product/service Process Technology
      • Process Technology Process Control
      • or Information Technology
      • (technology driven)
    • Product/Service -Process Technology Continuum
    • Focus
      • A Clear and sharply defined set of products, technologies, volumes and markets
      • Process Focus
      • Product/Service Focus
    • Product/Service -Process Technology Diffusion
      • Process Product/Service Volume
      • Technology Low High
      Project Job Shop Disconnected Line Connected Line Continuous Enhanced Standardization (Right lateral Movement) Flexible Processes (Upward Movement) Enhanced Process Flow( Downward Movement) Modular Structure/ Variable Processing Line (Left lateral Movement )
    • Operation System Decision Making
      • Position
      • Major Technology Choice
      • Equipment Selection & Specification
      • and
      • Layout Design
      • Operation Planning
    • Position
      • 1. Competitive Positioning on the Product/Service-Process Technology Continuum
      • 2. Definition of the Position on the Continuum
      • 3. Identification of the Direction and Momentum of Movement Which Are Projected
        • a. Right Lateral Movement
        • b. Left Lateral Movement
        • c. Upward Movement
        • d. Downward Movement
    • Major Technology Choice
      • Selecting the Process Technology of the Manufacturing or Service Operation, using:
        • Classification Of Manufacturing Processes
        • Classification Of Service Processes
      • Selecting the Supporting Information System
    • Classification Of Manufacturing Processes
      • 1. Processes for Changing Physical Properties
      • 2. Processes for Changing the Shape of Material
      • 3. Processes for Machining Parts to a Fixed Dimension
      • 4. Processes for Obtaining a Surface Finish
      • 5. Processes for Joining Parts or Materials
    • Classification Of Service Processes
      • 1. Process for relocating goods
      • 2. Process for storing goods
      • 3. Process for exchanging items
      • 4. Process for physical transformation
      • 5. Process for physiological transformation
      • 6. Process for information transformation
    • Equipment Selection & Specification And Layout Design
      • Selecting Equipment to be used,
        • a. General-purpose or Specialized Equipment
        • b. Material Handling System
      • Allocating Available Facilities
      • (Layout Design)
    • Equipment Selection Alternatives
      • General Purpose Specialized
      • Cost Low High
      • Operator skill&control High , more control Low, less control
      • Output rate Low-human pace High-machine pace
      • Setup time Lower-problem pre- High-problem ran-
      • dictable &controllable dom & highly tech.
      • Maintenance Cost Low-lower skill req’ed High
      • Product/service Based on human High-based on
      • Quality control machine accuracy
      • WIP High Low
      • Absolescence Slower High
    • Material Handling
      • 1. Increasing Speed and Precision
      • 2. Maximizing the Use of Space and Equipment
      • 3. Increasing Safety and Working Condition
      • 4. Reducing Damage
      • 5. Increasing Control
    • Principles of Material Handling
      • 1 . Minimize the Number of Material Moves
      • 2. Maximize the Unit Load Handled
      • 3. Maximized Safety of Material Handling Equipment
      • 4. Simplify the Material Handling Process
      • 5. Maximize Pace Utilization
      • 6. Integrate Storage and Handling System
      • 7. Integrate Materials and Information Flows
      • 8. Minimize Human Effort
      • 9. Design for Improved Operability, Reliability, Maintainability and Flexibility
    • Types of Layout
      • A. Traditional Layout
        • 1. Fix Position Layout
        • 2. Process Layout
        • 3. Product Layout
      • B. Automated Layout
        • 4. Cellular Layout
        • 5. Modular Layout
    • Operation Planning
      • Creating Schedule
      • Assessing That Schedule Through the Appropriate Capacity Evaluation Method
    • OPERATION PLANNING
    • Vertical Linkages
      • Corporate Strategy
      • Business Strategy
      • Functional Strategy
      • Operation/Production Management
    • Operation Planning Cycle
      • Sales Target
      • Operation Target
      • Operation Schedule
      • Material Machine Worker
      • Operation Plan
      • Shop Floor Operation
      • Evaluation
    • Operation Planning System
      • Input : Sales Target
      • Output : Operation Schedule
      • Method: Traditional, MRP or JIT
      • Performance Criteria: QCDFS
    • Performance Criteria
      • Quality
      • Cost
      • Delivery
      • Flexibility
      • Safety
    • Example of Operation Objective
      • Quality
              • This Year 5 Next Year Competitor
      • Customer Satisfaction 75 % 85 % 75 %
      • Scrap and Reject 15 % 5 % 10 %
      • Warranty ( % COGS) 1 % 0.5 % 1%
      • Cost
      • COGM ( % COGS ) 55 % 45 % 50%
      • ITO 41 x 52 x 50 x
    • Example of Operation Objective
      • Delivery
      • This Year 5 Next Year Competitor
      • Fill Rate 90% 95% 95%
      • Lead Time (week) 3 1 1
      • Flexibility
      • Time to Introduce New Product 10 month 6 month 8 month
      • Time to Change Over Capacity 3 month 3 month 3 month
    • Operation Planning Method
      • Traditional MRP JIT
    • Traditional
              • Push Method
              • Statistical and Optimization
              • Partial Approach
              • Flexible
    • MRP
              • Pull Method
              • Time Phasing
              • Logical Approach
              • Integrated Approach
              • Information Based
    • JIT
              • Pull Method
              • Time Phasing
              • Elimination Waste Approach
              • Integrated Approach
              • Cultural Based