PrOPRIeTARY OPERATING SySTeM
Computer operating system that functions on only one type of computer. Proprietary
operating systems limit the ability of Software applications to run on other systems and also limit
the market for any Application Software.
Proprietary operating system is one where an company designs, develops and markets it
as their own system. Windows is one, OS X is another. You must buy it from them or one of their
resellers. Linux is an open source os which you can do what you want with it after you download
it for free from the internet. This is what open source means. Do not confuse proprietary
operating systems with proprietary applications or software. These are programs developed by a
specific company for a specific purpose when off the shelf software will not meet their needs.
LYNUX WORKS-is a software company based in San Jose California, which produces
embedded operating system and tools for embedded systems development.
The LynxOS RTOS is a Unix-like real-time operating system from LynuxWorks
(formerly "Lynx Real-Time Systems"). Sometimes known as the Lynx Operating System,
LynxOS features full POSIX conformance and, more recently, Linux compatibility. LynxOS is
mostly used in real- time embedded systems, in applications for avionics, aerospace, the military,
industrial process control and telecommunications.
1. Micrium's uC/OS-II RTOS can run on Tensilica's Diamond Standard CPU and
controller cores (the Diamond Standard 108Mini, 212GP, 232L, and 570T) as well as
most Xtensa configurations that don't employ the floating point unit
2. MicroC/OS-II (commonly termed µC/OS-II or uC/OS-II), is a low-cost priority-based
pre-emptive real time multitasking operating system kernel for microprocessors, written
mainly in the C programming language. It is mainly intended for use in embedded
3. MICROSOFT CORPORATION (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEX: 4338) is a multinational
computer technology corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a
wide range of software products for computing devices. Microsoft rose to dominate the
home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by
the Windows line of operating systems. Its products have all achieved near-ubiquity in
the desktop computer market.
4. XENIX is a version of the Unix operating system, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T
in the late 1970s. The Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) later acquired exclusive rights to the
software, and eventually began distributing it as SCO UNIX.
5. MSX-DOS is a Disk operating system developed by Microsoft for the 8-bit home
computer standard MSX, and is a cross between MS-DOS rev 1.0 and CP/M.
6. MS-DOS (short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system
commercialized by Microsoft. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS
family of operating systems and was the main operating system for personal computers
during the 1980s. It was based on the Intel 8086 family of microprocessors, particularly
the IBM PC and compatibles. It was gradually replaced on consumer desktop computers
by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various
generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system and Linux. MS-DOS was known
before as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) and 86-DOS
7. Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 is an operating system (OS) designed for embedded
systems including PDAs and mobile phones, working within the constraints of the slow
processors and reduced amount of memory available on these devices. It can run on
several different types of processor and has support for real time programming. The
successor to Windows CE 3.0 is Windows CE 4.0.
8. WINDOWS MOBILE is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic
applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. . It is designed to be
somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows, feature-wise and aesthetically.
9. WINDOWS CE 5.0 (codenamed "Macallan") is a successor to Windows CE 4.2, the
third release in the Windows CE .NET family. Windows CE 5.0 like its predecessors is
marketed towards the embedded device market and independent device vendors.
Windows CE 5.0 is billed as a low-cost, compact, fast-to-market, real-time operating
system available for x86, ARM, MIPS, and SuperH microprocessor-based systems.
10. WINDOWS 1.0 is a 16-bit graphical operating environment that was released on 20
November 1985. It was Microsoft's first attempt to implement a multi-tasking
graphical user interface-based operating environment on the PC platform. Windows 1.0
was the very first version of Windows launched. It was succeeded by Windows 2.0.
11. WINDOWS 2.0 was a 16-bit Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based
operating environment that superseded Windows 1.0. Windows 2.0 was supplemented by
Windows/286 and Windows/386 in 1988. Windows 2.0, Windows/286 and Windows/386
were superseded by Windows 3.0 in May 1990.
12. WINDOWS 3.0 is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on
22 May 1990. It became the first widely successful version of Windows and a powerful
rival to Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga on the GUI front. It was succeeded
by Windows 3.1.
13. WINDOWS 3.1X is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on
personal computers. The line began with Windows 3.1, which was released in March
1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and
1994 until the line was superseded by Windows 95.
14. WINDOWS 3.2 was first released in Simplified ChineseMicrosoft released a
Simplified Chinese version of Windows for the Chinese market. The updated system
identified itself as Windows 3.2. The update was limited to this language version, as it
fixed only issues related to the complex writing system of the Chinese language. 
Windows 3.2 was generally sold by computer manufacturers with a ten disk version of
MS-DOS that also had Simplified Chinese characters in basic output and some translated
15. WINDOWS 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system.
It was released on August 24 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from
the company's previous Windows products. During development it was referred to as
Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago.
16. WINDOWS 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on 25
June 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a
hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product based on MS-DOS. Windows 98 was succeeded
by Windows Me on 14 September 2000.
17. WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION, OR WINDOWS ME (IPA pronunciation:, is a
hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on 14 September 2000 by
Microsoft. It was originally codenamed Millennium.Shortly after Windows Me was
released, Microsoft launched a campaign-initiative to promote Windows Me in the
United States, which they dubbed the Meet Me Tour.
18. OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later
developed by IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2," because it
was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal
System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers
19. WINDOWS NT 3.1 is the first release of Microsoft's Windows NT line of server and
business desktop operating systems, and was released to manufacturing on 27 July 1993.
The version number was chosen to match the one of Windows 3.1, the then- latest
operating environment from Microsoft, on account of the similar visual appearance of the
20. WINDOWS NT 3.5 is the second release of the Microsoft Windows NT operating
system. It was released on September 21, 1994.One of the primary goals during Windows
NT 3.5's development was to increase the speed of the operating system; as a result, the
project was given the codename "Daytona" in reference to the Daytona International
Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida.
21. WINDOWS NT 3.51 is the third release of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating
systems. It was released on May 30, 1995, nine months after Windows NT 3.5.
22. WINDOWS NT 4.0 is a preemptive, graphical and business-oriented operating system
designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. It is
a release of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating systems and was released to
manufacturing on 29 July 1996. It is a 32-bit Windows system available in both
workstation and server editions with a graphical environment similar to that of Windows
95. The "NT" designation in the product's title initially stood for "New Technology"
according to Microsoft's then-CEO Bill Gates, but now no longer has any specific
23. WINDOWS 2000 is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on
business desktops, notebook computers, and servers. Released on 17 February, 2000, it
was the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the final release of Microsoft Windows to
display the "Windows NT" designation. It was succeeded by Windows XP for desktop
systems in October 2001 and Windows Server 2003 for servers in April 2003.
24. WINDOWS XP is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on
personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and
media centers. The name "XP" is short for "experience"
25. WINDOWS SERVER 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system
produced by Microsoft. Introduced on 24 April 2003 as the successor to Windows 2000
Server, it is considered by Microsoft to be the cornerstone of its Windows Server System
line of business server products
26. WINDOWS FUNDAMENTALS FOR LEGACY PCS ("WinFLP") is a thin client
operating system from Microsoft, based on Windows XP Embedded, but optimized for
older, less powerful hardware. It was released on 8 July 2006. Windows Fundamentals
for Legacy PCs is not a full-fledged general purpose operating system. It includes only
certain functionality for local workloads such as security, management, document
viewing related tasks and the .NET Framework. It is designed to work as a client-server
solution with RDP clients or other third party clients such as Citrix ICA.
27. WINDOWS VISTA is an operating system developed by Microsoft for use on personal
computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, Tablet PCs, and media center
PCs. Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn". Development was
completed on November 8, 2006; over the following three months it was released in
stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers, and retail
28. WINDOWS HOME SERVER, code-named Quattro, is a home server operating system
from Microsoft. Announced on 7 January 2007, at the Consumer Electronics Show by
Bill Gates, Windows Home Server is intended to be a solution for homes with multiple
connected PCs to offer file sharing, automated backups, and remote access. It is based on
Windows Server 2003  Service Pack 2
29. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 is the most recent release of Microsoft Windows' server
line of operating systems. Released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially
released on 27 February 2008, it is the successor to Windows Server 2003, released
nearly five years earlier. Originally known as Windows Server Codename "Longhorn",
Microsoft chairman Bill Gates announced its official title (Windows Server 2008) during
his keynote address at WinHEC 16 May 2007.
30. WINDOWS 7 (formerly codenamed Blackcomb and Vienna) is the next release of
Microsoft Windows, an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal
computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, Tablet PCs, notebooks and
media center PCs.
31. WINDOWS PREINSTALLATION ENVIRONMENT (WinPE) is a lightweight
version of Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 or Windows Vista that is used for the
deployment of workstations and servers. It is intended as a 32-bit or 64-bit replacement
for MS-DOS during the installation phase of Windows, and can be booted via PXE, CD-
ROM, USB flash drive or hard disk.
32. SINGULARITY is an experimental operating system being built by Microsoft
Research since 2003. It is intended as a highly-dependable OS in which the kernel, device
drivers, and applications are all written in managed code.
33. MIDORI is the code name for a managed code operating system being developed by
Microsoft Research. It has been reported to be a possible commercial implementation of
the Singularity operating system, a research project started in 2003 to build a highly-
dependable operating system in which the kernel, device drivers, and applications are all
written in managed code. It was designed for concurrency, and can run applications in
multiple places. It also features an entirely new security model that sandboxes
applications for increased security.
34. NOVELL Inc. (NASDAQ: NOVL) is a global software corporation based in the United
States specializing in enterprise operating systems such as SUSE Linux Enterprise and
Novell NetWare; identity, security and systems management solutions; and collaboration
solutions. Together with WordPerfect, Novell was instrumental in making the Utah
Valley a focus for high-technology software development. Today this area has many
small companies whose employees have previously worked at Novell. The name for the
company Novell was suggested by George Canova’s wife who mistakenly thought that
“Novell” meant “new” in French. (In fact, the feminine singular of “new” in French is
35. NETWARE The first commercial release of NetWare was version 1.5.In January 1983,
the company’s name was shortened to Novell Inc., and Raymond Noorda became the
head of the firm. Also in 1983, the company introduced its most significant product, the
multi-platform network operating system (NOS), Novell NetWare. Novell based its
network protocol on Xerox network services (XNS), and created its own standards from
IDP and SPP, which it named Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) and Sequenced
packet exchange (SPX).
36. SUSE Linux is a major operating system. The developer rights are owned by Novell,
Inc. SUSE is also a founding member of the Desktop Linux Consortium. There are two
(2) major distributions of SUSE Linux currently active: *SUSE Linux Enterprise
37. NEXT PRESENTEE
38. RCA Corporation, founded as Radio Corporation of America, was an electronics
company in existence from 1919 to 1986. Today, the RCA trademark is owned by the
French conglomerate Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a
company owned by Thomson. The trademark is used by two companies, namely Sony
Music Entertainment and Thomson SA, which licenses the name to other companies like
Audio ox and TCL Corporation for products descended from that common ancestor.
39. Original RCA logo, revived by BMG for sound recordings after it bought GE's interest in
the record company. Unlike this picture, it was colored red. It was affectionately known
as "the Meatball" to RCA insiders.
40. TSOS -stands for Time Sharing Operating System; it was an operating system for RCA
(Radio Corporation of America) mainframes of the RCA Spectra 70 series. RCA was in
the computer business until 1971. Then it was sold to Sperry Corporation; Sperry offered
TSOS renaming it to VS/9. In the mid seventies, an enhanced version of TSOS was
offered by the German company Siemens and was called BS2000 here. While Sperry
(respectively Univac after the company was renamed) discontinued VS/9 in the early
80's, BS2000, now called BS2000/OSD is still offered by Fujitsu Siemens Computers and
used on their mainframe customers primarily in Europe. TSOS was the first operating
system that supported virtual addressing of the main storage. Beyond that it provided a
unique user interface for both, time sharing and batch which was a big advantage over
IBM's OS/360 or their successors MVS, OS/390 and z/OS as it simplified the operation.
41. Xenix, Unix System III based distribution for the Intel 8086/8088 architecture Xenix 286,
Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80286 architecture Xenix 386,
Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80386 architecture SCO Unix,
SCO UNIX System V/386 was the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T
to use the UNIX System trademark (1989). Derived from AT&T System V Release 3.2
with an infusion of Xenix device drivers and utilities plus most of the SVR4 features
42. SCO Open Desktop, the first 32-bit graphical user interface for UNIX Systems running
on Intel processor-based computers. Based on SCO Unix SCO Open Server 5, AT&T
UNIX System V Release 3 based UnixWare 2.x, based on AT&T System V Release
4.2MP UnixWare 7, UnixWare 2 kernel plus parts of 3.2v5 (UnixWare 2 + Open Server
5 = UnixWare 7). Referred to by SCO as SVR5 SCO Open Server 6, SVR5 (UnixWare
7) based kernel with SCO Open Server 5 application and binary compatibility, system
administration, and user environments
43. SCO Open Server, previously SCO UNIX and SCO Open Desktop (SCO ODT), is a
closed source version of the Unix computer operating system developed by Santa Cruz
Operation (SCO) and now maintained by the SCO Group. Xenix is a version of the Unix
operating system, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T in the late 1970s. The Santa Cruz
Operation (SCO) later acquired exclusive rights to the software, and eventually began
distributing it as SCO UNIX
44. Xenix was Microsoft's version of Unix intended for use on microcomputers; since
Microsoft was not able to license the "UNIX" name itself, they gave it an original name.
The -ix ending follows a convention used by many other Unix-like operating systems.
Microsoft purchased a license for Version 7 Unix from AT&T in 1979, and announced
on August 25, 1980 that it would make it available for the 16-bit microcomputer market.
The initial port of Xenix to the Intel 8086/8088 architecture was performed by The Santa
Cruz Operation. Xenix varied from its 7th Edition origins by incorporating
elements from BSD, and soon possessed the most widely installed base of any Unix
flavour due to the popularity of the inexpensive x86 processor.
45. Microsoft did not sell Xenix directly to end users; instead, they licensed it to software
OEMs such as Intel, Tandy, Altos and SCO, who then ported it to their own proprietary
computer architectures. Microsoft Xenix originally ran on the PDP-11; the first port was
for the Zilog Z8001 16-bit processor. Altos shipped a version for their Intel 8086 based
computers early in 1982, Tandy Corporation shipped TRS-XENIX for their 68000-based
systems in January 1983, and SCO released their port to the IBM PC in September 1983.
A port to the 68000-based Apple Lisa also existed. At the time, Xenix was based on
AT&T's UNIX System III. Version 2.0 of Xenix was released in 1985 and was based on
UNIX System V. An update numbered 2.1.1 added support for the Intel 80286 processor.
Subsequent releases improved System V compatibility. In 1986, SCO ported Xenix to the
386 processor, a 32-bit chip. Xenix 2.3.1 introduced support for i386, SCSI and
46. SCO UNIX/SCO Open Desktop SCO UNIX was the successor to SCO Xenix, derived
from AT&T System V Release 3.2 with an infusion of Xenix device drivers and utilities.
SCO UNIX System V/ 386 Release 3.2.0 was released in 1989 as the commercial
successor to SCO Xenix. The base operating system did not include TCP/IP networking
or X Window System graphics. Shortly after the release of this bare OS, SCO shipped an
integrated product under the name of SCO Open Desktop, or ODT. 1994 saw the release
of SCO MPX, an add-on SMP package. At the same time, AT&T completed its merge of
Xenix, BSD, SunOS and System V features into System V Release 4. SCO UNIX
remained based on System V Release 3, but eventually added home-grown versions of
most of the features of Release 4.
47. SCO Open Server 5, an AT&T UNIX System V Release 3 based operating system, was
initially released by The Santa Cruz Operation in 1992. Based on SCO UNIX 3.2v4, SCO
Open Server 5 would become SCO's primary product and serve as the basis for products
like Pizza Net (the first Internet based food delivery system done in partnership with
Pizza Hut) and Global Access (the first commercially licensed and bundled Internet
Operating System). Due to its large installed base, SCO Open Server 5 continues to be
actively maintained by SCO with major updates having occurred as recently as March
48. SCO Open Server 6, an AT&T UNIX System V Release 4.2MP based operating system,
was initially released by The SCO Group in 2005. It includes support for large files,
increased memory, and multi-threaded kernel (light- weight processes) and is referred to
as SVR5. SCO Open Server 6 contains the UnixWare 7 SVR5 kernel integrated with
SCO Open Server 5 application and binary compatibility, Open Server 5 system
administration, and Open Server 5 user environments.
49. SCO OpenServer has primarily been sold into the Small and Medium Business market
(SMB). It is widely used in small offices, point of sale ( POS) systems, replicated sites,
and back office database server deployments. Prominent SCO Open Server customers
include McDonalds, Taco Bell, Big O Tires, Pizza Hut, Costco pharmacy, NASDAQ,
The Toronto Stock Exchange, BaNco do Brazil, many banks in Russia and China, and the
railway system of India.
50. SCO Skunk ware / Open Source All versions of SCO Open Server have included
significant open source components including BIND/ X11/Sendmail/DHCP/Perl/Tcl and
others. Later releases are bundled with numerous additional open-source applications
including Apache, Samba, MySQL, PostgreSQL, OpenSSH, Mozilla, KDE, a wide
variety of graphics web and X11 libraries (gwxlibs package), and most recently Open
Office for Open Server 6. All versions of SCO operating system distributions
including SCO Open Server also have an extensive set of open source packages available
for free download via the SCO Skunk ware site.
51. SCO Skunk ware / Open Source All versions of SCO Open Server have included
significant open source components including BIND/X11 /Sendmail/DHCP/Perl/Tcl and
others. Later releases are bundled with numerous additional open-source applications
including Apache, Samba, MySQL, PostgreSQL, OpenSSH, Mozilla, KDE, a wide
variety of graphics web and X11 libraries (gwxlibs package), and most recently Open
Office for Open Server 6. All versions of SCO operating system distributions
including SCO Open Server also have an extensive set of open source packages available
for free download via the SCO Skunk ware site.
52. UnixWare merger SCO purchased the right to distribute UnixWare system and its System
V Release 4 code base from Novell in 1995. Novell retained copyrights and patents to
Unix, whereas SCO maintains ownership of derivative works of Unix since the purchase.
SCO was eventually able to re- use some code from that version of UnixWare in later
releases of Open Server. Until Release 6, this came primarily in the compilation system
and the UDI driver framework and the USB subsystem written to it.
53. By the end of the 1990s, there were around 15,000 value-added resellers (VARs) around
the world who provided solutions for customers of SCO's UNIX systems. SCO
announced on August 2, 2000 that it would sell its Server Software and Services
Divisions, as well as UnixWare and Open Server technologies, to Caldera Systems, Inc.
The purchase was completed in May 2001. The remaining part of the SCO company, the
Tarantella Division, changed its name to Tarantella, Inc., while Caldera became Caldera
International, and subsequently in 2002 the SCO Group.
54. •The SCO Group continued the development and maintenance of Open Server. They
currently continue to maintain the now obsolete 5.0.x branch derived from 3.2v5.0.x; the
most recent of these is 5.0.7. •On June 22, 2005, Open Server 6.0 was released,
codenamed "Legend", the first release in the new 6.0.x branch. SCO Open Server 6 is
based upon the System V Release 5 UNIX kernel and features multi-threading
application support for C, C++, and Java applications through the POSIX interface. Open
Server 6 features kernel-level threading (not found in 5.0.x). •Some improvements over
Open Server 5 include improved SMP support (support for up to 32 processors), support
for files over 1 terabyte on a partition (larger network files supported through NFSv3),
better file system performance, and support for up to 64GB of memory. •Open Server 6.0
maintains backward-compatibility for applications developed for Xenix 286 onwards.
55. •Some improvements over Open Server 5 include improved SMP support (support for up
to 32 processors), support for files over 1 terabyte on a partition (larger network files
supported through NFSv3), better file system performance, and support for up to 64GB
of memory. •Open Server 6.0 maintains backward-compatibility for applications
developed for Xenix 286 onwards. SCO Open Server SCO Open Server 5, an AT&T
UNIX System V Release 3 based operating system, was initially released by The Santa
Cruz Operation in 1992.
56. Unicoi Systems, Inc., a leading provider of software solutions to the embedded device
market, announced the availability of its Fusion RTOS for new Blackfin® Processors
from Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI). The release of the Fusion RTOS for these additional
ADI processors provides embedded developers with a high- performance solution
designed specifically for networking and multimedia applications, license-free.
57. Fusion RTOS The Fusion RTOS is a priority based, preemptive, multitasking real-time
operating system designed and optimized for next generation DSP architectures
58. The Fusion RTOS kernel is extremely fast and is capable of a higher level of
performance than any microcontroller based OS can deliver. Minimum context switch
times can be as fast as 190 Cycles (4.75 usec @ 40 MIPs)*. View the Perfomance
Comparison. Supported DSP Families: •Motorola DSP 56800 •Motorola DSP 56800E
•Motorola StarCore •Analog Devices Blackfin •DSPOS was the original project which
would become the royalty free Fusion RTOS
59. Wind River Systems, Inc. is a publicly owned company providing embedded systems,
development tools for embedded systems, middleware, and other types of software. The
company was founded in Berkeley, California in 1981 by Jerry Fiddler and David
60. •VxWorks is a real-time operating system made and sold by Wind River Systems of
Alameda, California, USA. •VxWorks is designed for use in embedded systems.
Unlike "native" systems such as Unix, VxWorks development is done on a "host"
machine running Unix or Windows, cross-compiling target software to run
61. Notable products using VxWorks The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter uses VxWorks •The
Honda Robot ASIMO •The Airbus A400M Airlifter (in development) •The Boeing 787
airliner (in development) •The Boeing 747-8 airliner (in development)
62. •POS (PERQ Operating System) The initial single-task operating system for PERQ
workstations, developed by 3RCC. POS and its utilities were written in PERQ Pascal.
MPOS (Multitasking POS)
63. Pilot was a single-user, multitasking operating system designed by Xerox PARC in early
1977. Pilot was written in the Mesa programming language, totaling about 24,000 lines
64. The Lisp Machine operating system was written in Lisp Machine Lisp. The Lisp Machine
was a single user workstation initially targeted at software developers for artificial
intelligence projects. The Lisp Machine had a large bitmap screen, a mouse, a keyboard,
a network interface, a disk drive and slots for expansion. The operating system was
supporting this hardware
65. The Lisp Machine Operating system provided (among others): •code for a Frontend
Processor •a way to boot the operating system •virtual memory management garbage
collection •drivers for the hardware (mouse, keyboard, screen, disk,) •an interpreter and a
native code compiler for Lisp Machine Lisp •an object system (Flavors) •a window
system and a window manager •a local file system •support for the CHAOS network •an
Emacs-like Editor •a mail program •a Lisp listener •a debugger
66. EOS (Operating System) developed by ETA Systems for use in their ETA-10 line of
supercomputers •EOS was preceded by and was binary executable compatible with the
CDC VSOS operating system for Cyber 205. Like VSOS, EOS had demand paged virtual
memory (the VS part) with 2 pages sizes for improved virtual memory performance with
the ETA's faster hardware pipelines
67. EMBOS, developed by Elxsi for use on their mini-supercomputers •EMBOSS is an
acronym for European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. •EMBOSS is a free
Open Source software analysis package specially developed for the needs of the
molecular biology and bioinformatics user community.
68. GCOS (General Comprehensive Operating System) is a family of operating systems
oriented toward mainframe computers. The original version of GCOS was developed by
General Electric from 1962; originally called GECOS (the General Electric
Comprehensive Operating Supervisor). The operating system is still used today in its
most recent version (GCOS 8) on servers and mainframes produced by Groupe Bull,
primarily through emulation, to provide continuity with legacy mainframe environments.
69. PC-MOS/386 – DOS-like, but multiuser/ multitasking
70. SINTRAN III was a real-time, multitasking, multi-user operating system used with Norsk
Data computers from 1974. Unlike its predecessors SINTRAN I and II, it was entirely
written by Norsk Data. Sintran III was written in NORD PL, intermediate language for
Norsk Data computers.
71. THEOS, which transcribes to "God" in Greek, is an operating system which started out
as OASIS, a microcomputer operating system for small computers that use the Z80
processor. Originally written in the late 1970s by Timothy S. Williams as a low-cost
alternative to the more expensive mini- and mainframe- computers that were popular in
the day, OASIS provided time-sharing multiuser facilities to allow several users to utilize
the resources of one computer. Remember that in the 1970s even very basic computers
cost many thousands of dollars. THEOS is specifically aimed at small business users.
72. TinyOS is a free and open source component-based operating system and platform
targeting wireless sensor networks (WSNs). TinyOS is an embedded operating system
written in the nesC programming language as a set of cooperating tasks and processes. It
is intended to be incorporated into smartdust. TinyOS started as a collaboration between
the University of California, Berkeley in co- operation with Intel Research, and has since
grown to a be an international consortium, the
73. TRS-DOS (which stood for the Tandy Radio Shack - Disk Operating System) was the
operating system for the Tandy TRS-80 line of 8-bit Z-80 micro- computers that were
sold through Radio Shack through the late 1970s and early 1980s.
74. TX990/TXDS, DX10 and DNOS - proprietary operating systems for TI-990
minicomputers DX10 was a general purpose, disk based, multitasking operating system
for the Texas Instruments 990/10, 990/10A and 990/12 minicomputers using the memory
75. MAI Basic Four - An OS implementing Business Basic from MAI Systems. MAI Basic
Four (sometimes written as BasicFour or Basic 4) refers to a variety of Business Basic,
the computers that ran it, and the company that sold them (its name given variously as
MAI Basic Four Inc., MAI Basic Four Information Systems, and MAI Systems
76. Michigan Terminal System - Developed by a group of American Michigan Terminal
System (MTS) is an operating system for the IBM System/360 and its successors that
was developed jointly by the following institutions: •University of Michigan •Wayne
State University •Simon Fraser University •University of Alberta •University of British
Columbia •Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute •Durham University •University of
Newcastle upon Tyne
77. OTHER PROPRIETARY UNIX- LIKE AND POSIX- COMPLIANT
78. ●AEGIS (Apollo Computer) Apollo Computer, Inc., founded 1980 in ν Chelmsford,
Massachusetts by William Poduska (a founder of Prime Computer), developed and
produced Apollo/Domain workstations in the 1980s. Along with Symbolics and Sun
Microsystems, Apollo was one of the first vendors of graphical workstations in the
1980s. In 1981, the company unveiled the DN100 workstation, ν which used the
Motorola 68000 microprocessor. Apollo workstations ran Aegis (later renamed Domain/
OS), a proprietary operating system with a POSIX-compliant UNIX alternative frontend.
From 1980 to 1987, Apollo was the largest manufacturer ν of network workstations. At
the end of 1987, it was third in market share after Digital Equipment Corporation and Sun
Microsystems, but ahead of Hewlett-Packard and IBM. Apollo's largest customers were
Mentor Graphics (electronic design), General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Chicago Research
and Trading (Options and Futures) and Boeing (mechanical design).
79. ●AMIGA UNIX (Amiga ports of Unix System v release 3.2 with amiga A2500UX and
SVR4 with Amiga A3000UX in 1989, last version was in 1992) - is a commodore’s port
of AT&T System V Release 4 to the Amiga with Motorola 68020 and 68030 processors
having FPU and MMU. The two “official” machines which could run Amiga UNIX are
the Amiga 2500UX and 8000UX, however it can run on any amiga that meets its
requirements. ●The system must have a full 68020/68030 with FPU and MMU ● At least
4MB of Fast RAM ●SCSI hard drive attached to a supported controller
80. -This basically includes the Amiga 2000, 2500, 3000D and 3000T with the appropriate
CPU and SCSI controllers. Although the A3000UX has Zorro III capable slots, the only
cards ever supported by AMIX are Zorro II. - In 1990, did a full port of AT&T Unix
System V Release 4 for the Amiga computer family (in addition to the proprietary
AmigaOS shipping with these systems by default), informally known as Amix. Bundled
with the Amiga 3000UX, Commodore's Unix was one of the first ports of SVR4 to the
68k architecture. The Amiga A3000UX model even got the attention of Sun
Microsystems, though ultimately nothing came of it
81. ●CLIX (Intergraph’s System V Implementation) CLIX (Clipper UNIX) -was Intergraph's
commercial offering in the UNIX space back in the late 80's and early 90's. It was the
Operating Environment used on their CLIPPER based line of workstations and servers.
CLIX was delivered as part of the Intergraph System Software (ISS) Baseline and was
based on AT&T's UNIX System V Operating System. This was my first taste of a true
UNIX O/S and where I first started to learn how to write scripts with the Korn Shell
(ksh). The only prior exposure I had to UNIX was with Domain/OS, but it's UNIX
environments existed on top of an Operating System I already knew, they just offered an
alternative. CLIX was where I really started to develop my love for UNIX based systems.
82. As with most UNIX variants CLIX had a menu based shell for performing most System
Administration tasks. In this case it was known as Distributed System Management
(DSM) and was based on Intergraph's Forms and Menu- Language Interface (FMLI).
DSM provided a set of utilities that could be used to manage several networked servers
from a single server.
83. ● COHERENT (Unix-like OS from Mar k Williams Co. for PC class computer s ) - The
coherent operating system was a Unix - Version 7 clone by the now- defunct Mark
Williams Company, originally produced for the PDP-11 in 1980. A port was introduced
in 1983 as the first Unix-like system for IBM compatible computers. - Coherent was able
to run on most Intel-based - PCs with Intel 8088, 286, and 486 processors and, like a true
Unix, was able to multitask and support users. Coherent also had support for X11 and
MGR windowing system.
84. Later versions of Coherent (version 4 and higher) supported features common in modern
Unix-like systems, including virtual memory with demand paging, a version of
MicroEMACS, access to DOS FAT16 File systems, an optimizing C compiler with
linker, and a modified version of Taylor UUCP. The final releases of Coherent also fully
supported the iBCS COFF binary standard, which allowed binary compatibily with SCO
Unix applications, including WordPerfect, Lotus 1-2-3, and several Microsoft
applications including QuickBASIC, Microsoft Word, and MultiPlan. Coherent predates
both MINIX and Linux by many years.
85. ●DC/OSx (DataCenter/OSx was an operating system for MIPS based system developed
by Pyramid Technology) -was an operating system for MIPS based systems developed by
Pyramid Technology. It ran on its Nile series of SMP machines and was a port of AT&T
System V Release 4 (SVR4). DC/OSx was the first SMP implementation on Unix System
V Release 4. It was later superseded by SINIX, a version of the Unix operating system
from Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme. -Pyramid Technology was a computer
company that produced a number of RISC-based minicomputers at the upper end of the
performance range. They also became the second company to ship a multiprocessor Unix
system (branded OS/x),
86. -in 1985, which formed the basis of their product line into the early 1990s. Pyramid's OS/
x was a dual-universe Unix which supported programs and system calls from both
4.xBSD and AT&T's System V Unix. -In 1995 Pyramid was bought by Siemens AG and
merged into their Siemens Computer Systems US unit. In 1998 this unit was split, with
the services side of the operation becoming Wincor Nixdorf. In 1999 Siemens and Fujitsu
merged their computer operations to form Fujitsu Siemens Computers, and finally
Amdahl was added to the mix in 2000.
87. ● DG/UX (Data general Cor p) was a Unix operating system developed by Data General
ν for its Eclipse MV minicomputer line, and later the AViiON workstation and server
line (both Motorola 88000 and Intel IA-32-based variants). DG/UX 1.00, released in
March, 1985, was based on ν UNIX System V Release 2 with additions from 4.1BSD.
By 1987, DG/UX 3.10 had been released, with 4.2BSD TCP/IP networking, NFS and the
X Window System included. DG/UX 4.00, in 1988, was a comprehensive re- design of
the system. Later versions were based on System V Release 4 DG/UX 1.00, released in
March, 1985, was based on UNIX System V Release 2 with additions from 4.1BSD. By
1987, DG/UX 3.10 had been released, with 4.2BSD TCP/IP networking, NFS and the X
Window System included. DG/UX 4.00, in 1988, was a comprehensive re-design of the
system. Later versions were based on System V Release 4.
88. ● DNIX from DIAB - was a Unix-like real-time operating system from the Swedish
company Dataindustrier AB (DIAB). A version called ABCenix was also developed for
the ABC1600 computer from Luxor. (Daisy Systems also had something called Daisy
DNIX on some of their CAD ISC Systems Corporation (ISC) purchased the right to use
DNIX in the late 1980s for use in its line of Motorola 68k- based banking computers.
(ISC was later bought by Olivetti, and was in turn resold to Wang, which was then
bought by Getronics.
89. This code branch was the SVR2 compatible version, and received extensive modification
and development at their hands. Notable features of this operating system were its
support of demand paging, diskless workstations, multiprocessing, asynchronous I/O, the
ability to mount processes (handlers) on directories in the file system, and message
90. ● DSPano RTOS (POSIX nanoker nel, ) DSP optimized, Open Source DSPnano is an
open source RTOS and Eclipse based tool ν set designed to increase small embedded
signal processing system development productivity and reliability. It supports the full
Microchip family including Microchip's PIC24 16 bit MCUs through the dsPIC 30 30
MIPS DSCs to the dsPIC 33 40 MIPS DSCs. DSPnano V2 is hosted on Windows XP and
Vista, for x86 ν platforms. Support for the entire dsPIC DSC product line and the PIC24
MCU line is available. DSPnano V2 will begin shipping in Q3, 2007. It is priced from
$499 US for a single user. Open source royalty free licenses start at $3999 US.
91. ●Idris wor kalike from W hitesmiths is a multi-tasking, Unix-like, multi-user, ν real-time
operating system released by Whitesmiths, of Westford, Massachusetts. The product was
commercially available from 1979 through 1988. Idris was originally written for the
PDP-11 by P. J. Plauger, ν who started working on Idris in August 1978. It was binary
compatible with Unix V6 on PDP-11, but it could run on non-memory managed systems
(like LSI-11 or PDP-11/23) as well. The kernel required 31 Kb of RAM, and the C
compiler (provided along with the standard V6 toolset) had more or less the same size. A
specific version of Idris (CoIdris) was packaged as a ν .com file under MS-DOS and used
it for low level I/O services. Idris was ported to the Apple Macintosh (as MacIdris) by
John O'Brien (of Whitesmiths Australia) and remained available until the early 1990s.
92. Although Idris was initially available for the PDP-11, it later ported to run on a number
of platforms, such as the VAX, Motorola 68000, System/370 and Intel 8086. In 1986,
David M. Stanhope and Skip Tavakkolian at Computer Tools International ported Idris to
the Atari ST and developed its ROM boot cartridge. This work also included a port of the
X Window to Idris. Computer Tools and Whitesmiths offered it to Atari as a replacement
for Atari TOS, but eventually marketed it directly to ST enthusiasts. MacIdris ran as an
application under the Finder or Multifinder After Whitesmiths had been merged with
Intermetrics, Idris — along with its development toolchain — was ported to the . INMOS
T800 transputer architecture
93. ●INTERACTIVE UNIX (a por t of the Unix System V operating system for Intel x86 by
INTERACTIVE System CORPORATION ) is a port of the UNIX System V operating
system for ν Intel x86 processors. The system was first released by ν INTERACTIVE
Systems Corporation (ISC) as 386/ix in 1985. At that time it was based on System V.3.0.
Later versions were based on System V.3.2. Sun Microsystems acquired ISC in 1992
from its parent Eastman Kodak; the last version was "System V/386 Release 3.2 Version
4.1.1" released in July 1998. Official support ended in July 2006, 5 years after Sun
withdrew the product from sale. Until version ISA 3.0.1, INTERACTIVE UNIX
supported ν only 16 MB of RAM. In the next versions, it supported 256MB RAM and
PCI bus. EISA versions always support 256MB RAM.
94. ●IRIX from SGI is a computer operating system developed by ν Silicon Graphics, Inc.
(SGI) to run natively on their 32- and 64-bit MIPS architecture workstations and servers.
Based on UNIX System V with BSD extensions, it is capable of extremely long uptimes,
and its XFS file system is regarded as one of the most advanced journaling file systems in
the industry. The IRIX name was first used around the time of release ν 3.0 of the
operating system for SGI's IRIS 4D series of workstations and servers, in 1988. Previous
releases were identified only by the release number prefixed by "4D1-", eg. "4D1-2.2".
The 4D1- prefix continued to be used in official documentation to prefix IRIX release
95. - IRIX 3.x was based on UNIX System V Release 3 with 4.3BSD enhancements, and
incorporated the 4Sight windowing system, based on NeWS and IRIS GL. SGI's own
Extent File System (EFS) replaced the System V filesystem. - IRIX 4.0, released in 1991,
replaced 4Sight with the X Window System (X11R4), the 4Dwm window manager
providing a similar look and feel to 4Sight. - IRIX 5.0, released in 1993, incorporated
certain features of UNIX System V Release 4, including ELF-format executables. -IRIX
5.3 introduced the XFS journaling file system.
96. ●MeikOS MeikOS (also written as Meikos or MEiKOS) was a ν Unix-like transputer
operating system developed for the Computing Surface during the late 1980s. MeikOS
was derived from an early version of MINIX, ν extensively modified for the Computing
Surface architecture. Unlike HeliOS, another Unix-like transputer operating system,
MeikOS was essentially a single- processor operating system with a distributed
filesystem. MeikOS was used in conjunction with the M²VCS (Meiko Multiple Virtual
Computing Surfaces) resource management software which partitioned the processors of
a Computing Surface into domains, managed user access to these domains, and provided
97. - MeikOS had "diskless" and "fileserver" variants, the former running on the seat
processor of an M²VCS domain, providing a command line user interface for a particular
user; the latter running on processors with attached SCSI hard disks, providing a remote
file service (called SFS, Surface File System) to instances of diskless MeikOS. The two
communicated via M²VCS. - MeikOS was made obsolete by the introduction of the In-
Sun Computing Surface and the Meiko MK083 SPARC processor board, which allowed
SunOS and SVCS (Sun Virtual Computing Surfaces, later developed as VCS) to take
over the roles of MeikOS and M²VCS respectively. The last MeikOS release was
MeikOS 3.06, in early 1991.
98. ●NeXTSTEP (develoed by: NEXT, a Unix based OS based on the Mach microker nel)
was the original object-oriented, multitasking ν operating system that NeXT Computer
developed to run on its range of proprietary computers, such as the NeXTcube. Nextstep
1.0 was released on September 18, 1989 after several previews starting in 1986. The last
version, 3.3, was released in early 1995, by which time it ran not only on Motorola 68000
family processors, but also IBM PC compatible x86, Sun SPARC, and HP PA-RISC.
Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X is a direct descendant of Nextstep. Nextstep was a combination of
several parts: a Unix operating system based on the Mach kernel, plusν source code
from BSD Unix Display PostScript and a windowing engineν the Objective-C language
and runtimeν an object-oriented (OO) application layer, including severalν "kits"
development tools for the OO layersν
99. ●OS-9 Unix- like RTOS (OS from Microware for Motorola 6809 based ) microcomputer
s is a family of real-time, process-based, multitasking, ν multi-user, Unix-like operating
systems, developed in the 1980s, originally by Microware Systems Corporation for the
Motorola 6809 microprocessor. It is currently owned by RadiSys Corporation. The OS-9
family was popular for general-purpose ν computing and remains in use in commercial
embedded systems and amongst hobbyists. Today, OS-9 is a product name used by both
a Motorola 68000-series machine language OS and a portable (PowerPC, x86, etc.)
version written in C, originally known as OS 9000.
100.The first version ("OS-9 Level One") , which dates back to 1979–80, was written in
assembly language for the Motorola 6809 CPU, and provided a single 64 KB address
space in which all processes ran. It was developed as a supporting operating system for
the BASIC09 project, contracted for by Motorola as part of the 6809 development. A
later 6809 version ("Level Two") takes advantage of memory mapping hardware,
supported up to 2 MB of memory (ca 1980) in most implementations, and included a
GUI on some . platforms
101.● OS9/68K Unix- like RTOS. (OS from Microware for Motorola 680x0 base )
microcomputers; based on OS-9 Versions of OS-9/68K run on a wide variety of ν 68000
family platforms, including the Sharp X68000 in Japan, some personal computers
intended by their designers as upgrades from the Color Computer (e.g., the 68070 and
68340-based MM/1, and on other computers from Frank Hogg Laboratories, PEP, and
Delmar Co.) It was also ported to the Atari ST by Recc-o-ware in the early 1990s, and
was distributed by Cumana in Europe. A port to the Amiga is also purported to exist.
OS-9/68K is also found in some embedded applications, ν including the Quanta Delta
television broadcast character generator, still in production by ScanLine Technologies in
Utah. While the user-level interface code on this system started at boot time, there was a
hidden, undocumented keyboard sequence that would provide a user with a root shell
prompt in a scroll window on the device's edit- channel monitor.
102.In 1983, OS-9/6809 was ported to Motorola 68000 assembly language and extended
(called OS-9/68K); and a still later (1989) version was rewritten mostly in C for further
portability. The portable version was initially called OS-9000 and was released for 80386
PC systems around 1989, then ported to PowerPC around 1995. These later versions lack
the memory mapping facilities of OS-9/6809 Level Two simply because they do not need
them. They used a single flat address space that all processes share; memory mapping
hardware, if present, is mostly used to ensure that processes access only that memory
they have the right to access. The 680x0 and 80386 (and later) MPUs all directly support
far more than 1MB of memory in any case.
103.OS-9 (especially the 68K version and thereafter) clearly distinguishes itself from the
prior generation of embedded operating systems in many aspects. Runs on 32-bit CPUs.
Clear separation between user mode and supervisor (kernel) mode. Dynamic use of
individually and separately built software components (executable program images and
kernel modules) rather than a statically linked single monolithic image. Unix-like process
name-space model (not memory model) and user shell program. Clear separation between
hardware independent (e.g. file managers) and hardware dependent (e.g. device drivers)
104.OSF/1 -In 1988, during the so-called "Unix wars", DEC joined with IBM, Hewlett-
Packard, and others to form the Open Software Foundation (OSF) to develop a version of
Unix. Dubbed OSF/1, the aim was to compete with System V Release 4 from AT&T and
Sun Microsystems, and it has been argued that a primary goal was for the operating
system to be free of AT&T intellectual property. The fact that OSF/1 was one of the
first operating systems to use the Mach kernel is cited as support of this assertion.
105.OSF/1 AD -OSF/1 AD (Advanced Development) was a distributed version of OSF/1
developed for massively parallel supercomputers by Locus Computing Corporation.
Variants of OSF/1 AD were used on several such systems, including the Intel Paragon
XP/S and ASCI Red, Convex Exemplar SPP-1200 (as SPP-UX) and the Hitachi SR2201
(as HI-UX MPP).
106.OpenStep OpenStep is an object-oriented application programming interface (API)
specification for an object-oriented operating system that uses any modern operating
system as its core, principally developed by NeXT with Sun Microsystems. OPENSTEP
(all capitalized) is a specific implementation of the OpenStep API, developed by NeXT.
107.QNX -is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the
embedded systems market. On September 12, 2007, the source of the QNX kernel was
released for non-commercial use.
108.Solaris -is a Unix-based operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as
the successor to SunOS. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC
systems, as well for being the origin for many innovative features such as DTrace and
ZFS. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86- based workstations and servers from
Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional platforms.
109.RMX -is a real-time operating system designed specifically for use with the Intel 8080
and Intel 8086 family of processors. It is an acronym for Real-time Multitasking
eXecutive. Intel developed iRMX in the late 1970s and originally released it in 1980 to
support and create demand for their processors and Multibus system platforms.
110.Rhapsody -was the code name given to Apple Computer's next-generation operating
system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT in late
1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X in 1998. It consisted primarily of the
OPENSTEP operating system ported to the PowerMac along with new graphics in the
GUI to make it appear more Mac-like.
111.Pardus -Linux distribution is an non secular operating system developed in Turkey, as a
product of the Pardus Project. It was named after the Latin (and scientific) name for the
112.RISC OS -is a computer operating system which was originally developed by Acorn
Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England for their ARM based computers. It was first
released in 1988 as RISC OS 2.00, and replaced Acorn's Arthur operating system, which
was shipped with the first Archimedes computer models in 1987. The operating system
takes its name from the RISC (reduced instruction set computing) architecture used on