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Introduction to Bibliographic Citation
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Introduction to Bibliographic Citation

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What is bibliographic citation? Why do we have to use it? This introduction to bibliographic citation explains its uses and purposes.

What is bibliographic citation? Why do we have to use it? This introduction to bibliographic citation explains its uses and purposes.

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  • 1. Bibliographic Citation An Introduction
  • 2. WARNING  This is not a definitive or binding representation of format accepted by all instructors.  It is essential that you consult with your instructor before submitting your paper for a grade.  Your instructor is the final authority regarding acceptable format and style for papers and other written assignments.
  • 3. Three areas of concern: Part I: Formatting your paper Part II: The reference list Part III: Parenthetical, or in- text, citation
  • 4. Part I: Formatting your paper Margins Font size Spacing How to number pages Running header Title page (or not)
  • 5. Part I: Formatting your paper  Use 8½ X 11 inch paper  12 point, New Times Roman, or similar font  1 inch margins  Double-space your text  Use a running header  Number pages consecutively, starting on the first page
  • 6. Part II: The reference list  References, Works Cited, Bibliography  List the sources you used to write your paper  Start references on a new page after the body of your text.  List sources alphabetically, by author’s last name  If author is unknown, list source by title
  • 7. Part II: The reference list  The purpose of the reference list is to:  Identify and credit the sources you used  Enable the reader to locate your sources  APA style is used in the social sciences, education, engineering and business.  MLA is used mostly in the humanities disciplines (history, literature, fine arts)
  • 8. A few examples… Books  MLA Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2004. Print.  APA Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 9. A few examples…  Part of a nonperiodical (e.g., a book chapter)  MLA Lipson, Charles. “Plagiarism and Academic Honesty.” Integrity in Scholarship. Ed. Sean Jones. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2004. 32-48. Print.  APA Lipson, C. (2004). Plagiarism and academic honesty. In S. Jones (Ed.), Integrity in scholarship (pp. 32-48). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 10. A few examples…  Periodicals  MLA Sacks, Samuel. “Fraud Risk: Are You Prepared?” Journal of Accountancy 198.3 (2004): 57-63. Print.  APA Sacks, S. E. (2004). Fraud risk: are you prepared? Journal of Accountancy, 198(3), 57-63.
  • 11. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text, citation  Within the body of your text, you must cite your sources as you use them.  You must cite any and all data, facts, information, opinions, ideas, tables, charts, graphics, photographs, etc. that you obtained in your research.  References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited.
  • 12. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text, citation  MLA Paraphrasing One idea is to surround quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas (Lipson 48). In Doing honest work in college, Lipson (48) suggests surrounding quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas. ___________________________________________ Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2004. Print.
  • 13. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text, citation  MLA Direct quote Lipson’s first rule of academic honesty is, “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it” (3). “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it,” is a good rule to keep in mind (Lipson 3). ____________________________________________ Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2004. Print.
  • 14. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text, citation  APA Paraphrasing One idea is to surround quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas (Lipson, 2004). In Doing honest work in college, Lipson (2004) suggests surrounding quotations with big Q’s to distinguish the author’s words from your own ideas. ___________________________________________ Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • 15. Part III: Parenthetical, or in-text, citation  APA Direct quote Lipson’s first rule of academic honesty is, “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it” (2004, p. 3). A good rule to follow is “When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it” (Lipson, 2004, p. 3). ___________________________________________ Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • 16. Conclusion  Formatting rules make research papers uniform and easy to read  The ability to verify facts through proper citation of sources is essential to good scholarship  In-text citation and the reference list  Identify and credit the sources you used  Enable the reader to locate your sources