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  • 1. NURSING RESEARCHPrepared by:Adrian R. Adriano, R.N., R.M., M.A.N.
  • 2. RESEARCH From an etymological context, re-search simply mean means “to search again”  cerchier - meaning to seek or to search  re – repetition A systematic, empirical, controlled and critical investigation of a hypothetical proposition related to natural phenomenon (Kerlinger)
  • 3. RESEARCH An honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the purpose of discovering new facts which will contribute to the present body of knowledge and can lead to effective solution of existing problems (Philippine Nurses Association Research Committee)
  • 4. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH Description  Research aims at describing a phenomenon that relates to the nursing profession.  It also observes, defines and documents nursing situation inquiry
  • 5. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH Explanatory  Research seeks clarification of a prevailing situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred. “Why does this happen?”
  • 6. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH Exploration  Research explores the phenomenon by observing and recording events and situations occurring in that phenomenon.  It answers “what” questions on the phenomenon searching for illustrative examples in order to become familiar with the phenomenon and understand it more precisely and accurately
  • 7. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH Experimentation  Research anticipates possible psychological and physiological reactions to nursing interventions.  Research provides a basis for decisions by eliminating barriers and sourcing ways and strategies that would bring about effective client care outcomes
  • 8. PHASES OF RESEARCH Conceptual Phase Design and Planning Phase Empirical Phase Analytical Phase Dissemination Phase
  • 9. CONCEPTUAL PHASE Formulate and Delimit the Problem Review the Related Literature Develop a Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Define the Variables Formulate the Hypothesis
  • 10. DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE Select Research Design Formulate Treatment Program Identify the Population to be Studied Design the Sampling Plan Specify Methods to Measure Variables Apply Ethical Principles Review and Finalize Research Plan
  • 11. EMPIRICAL PHASE Collect the Data Prepare Data for Analysis
  • 12. ANALYTICAL PHASE Analyze the Data Interpret the Results
  • 13. DISSEMINATION PHASE Communicate the Findings Utilize Research Evidence in Practice
  • 14. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Problem –a situation in need of a solution Criteria of a Good Research Problem: FIRES  Feasible  Interest  Researchable  Ethical  Significant
  • 15. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Sources of a Good Research Problem: CLIENT  C - Concepts  L - Literatures  I - Issues  E - Essays  N - Nursing Problems  T - Theories
  • 16. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Title  A general idea of what the research study is all about  A research title must be clearly stated, concise, and should be limited to at most 15 words at least (Neiswiadomy, 2008)
  • 17. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Introduction  Also known as the background of the study  The introduction serves as the spring board for the statement of the problem and includes:  The context of the problem and its historical background  Authoritative viewpoints on the problem  The researcher‟s interest in working on the problem  The purpose of the study in relation to the problem
  • 18. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem  Refers to the question that the research seeks to answer and is stated consists of:  MAJOR PROBLEM – the main issue to be answered  MINOR PROBLEMS – sub-problems which reflects the objectives of the study  And may be of two forms:  INTERROGATIVE FORM - question form  DECLARATIVE FORM – sentence form
  • 19. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Purpose of the Study  Describes the intent of the inquiry and the rationale for it  GOALS – expressed in broad statement of purpose  OBJECTIVES – expressed in a statement that pinpoints the main concern or intent of the inquiry SMARTER  S - SPECIFIC  M - MEAURABLE  A - ATTAINABLE  R - REALISTIC/RESULT ORIENTED  T - TIME-BOUND  E - EVIDENCED-BASED  R - REWARDING
  • 20. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Assumptions  Statements or assertions taken for granted or are considered true eve if they have not yet to proven scientifically and has three types:  UNIVERSAL ASSUMPTIONS – beliefs taken as true by most people, and still need testing or verification  STUDY ASSUMPTIONS – assertions needed in the pursuit of the study  RESEARCH-BASED ASSUMPTION – generated by previous research in a field of study
  • 21. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Definition of Terms  Facilitates better understanding of the study by explaining the meaning of terms or variables as they are used in the study and is of 2 types:  CONCEPTUAL DEFINTION – SUBJECTIVE/THEORETICAL/TEXTUAL DEFINITION a definition universally understood taken from books, encyclopedia, dictionary  OPERATIONAL DEFINITION – OBJECTIVE/PRACTICAL/FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION the researcher‟s own definition of terms as used in the study  LEXICAL/AUTHORITATIVE DEFINITION – taken from authorities on the subjects or terms being defined
  • 22. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Significance of the Study  Cites the importance, responsiveness, or relevance of the expected outcomes of the investigation and its probable effects on a nursing theory or practice and should benefit:  NURSING PROFESSION  PUBLIC  NURSING SERVICE  NURSING EDUCATION  NURSING PRACTITIONERS  NURSING STUDENTS  HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORS
  • 23. STEP 1 – THE PROBLEM Scope and Delimitation  SCOPE– spells the context of the study in terms of subject, concepts, and specific characteristics of the phenomenon, treatment, sampling and time frame  DELIMITATION –sets the parameters of the study by accepting what should be included, and rejecting what should be excluded
  • 24. STEP 2 – RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review  Consists of a collection of pertinent readings, published or unpublished, data-based research reports or article, in local or foreign settings and has two types:  CONCEPTUAL/THEORETICAL LITERATURE – non-research reference materials  RESEARCH/EMPIRICAL LITERATURE – studies and researches or theses dissertations whether published or unpublished
  • 25. STEP 2 – RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review  The primary purpose is to know what is already known and unknown on the topic and has two sources:  PRIMARY SOURCES – a research study written by the original researcher  SECONDARY SOURCES – a research study written by someone other than the researcher
  • 26. STEP 2 – RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review  Plagiarism – publication of another authors ideas, or expressions as ones own original work  SUMMARIZING – author‟s idea is shorten and expressed briefly  QUOTING – direct verbatim reproduction of the actual statements of the author  PARAPHRASING – material is stated in researcher‟s own words  ACKNOWLEDGING – citing the author of the material  FOOTNOTES – citing reference at the bottom of the page  ENDNOTES – placed at the end of the sentence of an article, chapter, book or essay
  • 27. STEP 2 – RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW Electronic Literature Searches  CINAHL – Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature  MEDLINE – Medical Literature Online  Cochrane Database  EMBASE – Excerpta Medica databse  PsycINFO – Psychology Information
  • 28. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Construct  Highly abstract, complex phenomena that are not observable Concept  A basic idea about a phenomenon Proposition  A statement of the relationship between concepts Theory  A supposition or system of ideas that are interrelated Framework  The structure of the idea or concept and how it is put together
  • 29. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Theoretical Framework  A study based on a theory  A structure which uses deductive reasoning to make predictions about how phenomena would behave if the theories were true
  • 30. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  MCGILL THEORY OF NURSING (Moyra Allen) – Nursing is the science of health-promoting interactions  OPEN SYSTEMS (Imogene King) – Personal systems, interpersonal systems, and social systems are dynamic and interacting within which transactions occurs  THEORY OF CULTURE CARE DIVERSITY AND UNIVERSAILITY (Madeline Leininger) – Caring is a universal phenomenon but varies transculturally
  • 31. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  CONSERVATION MODEL (Myra Levine) – Conservation of integrity contributes to maintenance of a person‟ wholeness  HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS MODEL (Betty Neuman) – Each person is a complete system; the goal of nursing is to assist in maintaining client system ability  HEALTH AS EXPANDING CONSCIOUSNESS (Margaret Newman) – Health is viewed as an expansion of consciousness with health and disease parts of the same whole; health is an evolving pattern of the whole in time, space and movement
  • 32. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  SELF CARE (Dorothea Orem) – Self care activities are what people do on their behalf to maintain health and well-being  THEORY OF HUMAN BECOMING (Rosemarie Rizzo Parse) – Health and meaning are co-created by indivisible humans and their environment  SCIENCE OF UNITARY HUMAN BEINGS (Martha Rogers) – The individual is a unified whole in constant interaction with the environment
  • 33. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  ADAPTATION MODEL (Sister Callista Roy) – Humans are adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation  THEORY OF CARING (Jean Watson) – Caring is the moral idea, and entails mind-body-soul engagement with one another
  • 34. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  BECKER”S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL (1976) – a framework for explaining people‟s health-related behavior  LAZARUS AND FOLKMAN‟S THEORY OF STRESS AND COPING (1984) – explain people‟s methods of dealing with stress, posts that coping strategies are learned
  • 35. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Most Commonly used by nurse researchers  AJZEN THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIIOR (1980)- provides a framework for understanding the relationships among a person‟s attitude, intentions, and behavior  BANDURA‟S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (1997) – explains human behavior using the concepts of self- efficacy, outcome expectations, and incentives
  • 36. STEP 3 – FRAMEWORK Conceptual Framework  A study based on a specified conceptual model
  • 37. STEP 4 – DEFINING VARIABLES Variables  Measurable qualities, properties, or characteristics of people, things, events, or situations under study that vary from one subject to another and can be classified as:  EXPLANATORY VARIABLES  EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
  • 38. STEP 4 – DEFINING VARIABLES Explanatory Variables  Refers to the variables under study that varies or assumes different values  INDEPENDENT VARIABLES – (CAUSE) factors manipulated by the researcher also called EXPERIMENTAL/TREATMENT/CAUSAL/STIMULUS VARIABLES  DEPENDENT VARIABLES – (EFFECT) factors that are affected by the independent variable also called CRITERION/EFFECT/RESPONSE/OUTCOME VARIABLES  INTERVENING VARIABLES – factors that can come between the IV and DV and can influence the latter also called CORRELATED/MEDIATOR VARIABLE
  • 39. STEP 4 – DEFINING VARIABLES Extraneous Variables  Or EXOGENOUS VARIABLES are not the direct foci of the study but tends to affect the result to certain extent and has two types  ORGANISMIC VARIABLES – physiological, psychological and demographic factors of the population  ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES – economic, anthropological, sociological, and physical factors that influence the phenomenon under study
  • 40. STEP 5 – FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis  Statements of the researcher‟s expectations regarding relationship between and among variables under investigation and can either be:  SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS – states an expected relationship between 1 independent variable and one dependent variable also known as UNIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS  COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS – predicts the relationship between two or more independent variables and 2 or more dependent variables also known as MULTIVARIATE HYPOTHESIS
  • 41. STEP 5 – FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis  An intellectual proposition formulated to explain observed facts or conditions in order to guide the investigation further and can either be:  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS – statements of expected outcome between variables also known as SUBSTANTIVE/DECLARATIVE/ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS  NULL HYPOTHESIS – states that there is no significant relationship between the independent and dependent variable also known as STATISTICAL/SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS
  • 42. STEP 5 – FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis  It must be empirically testable and verifiable, which means that it is capable of being tested in the “real world” by observations gathered through the human senses and can either be:  DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS – specifies clearly the characteristics or qualities of the variables, the nature and extent of relationship between variables and the expected outcome of such relationship  NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS - merely predicts the type of relationship but does not predict the nature and extent of relationship the specific qualities of the variables
  • 43. STEP 6 – RESEARCH DESIGN Research Design  The researcher‟s overall plan of how the study will be conducted  Contains details such as type of data to be collected, the techniques or the means used to obtain these data, basis of choosing subjects, how to determine sampling size, instruments to be used  The BLUEPRINT of the study and can either be:  QUANTITATIVE  QUALITATIVE
  • 44. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Quantitative  Associated with quantity  Can perform mathematics  And can be:  EXPERIMENTAL  QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL  NON-EXPERIMENTAL
  • 45. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  An inquiry about the cause and effect relationship, and is conducted in a specialized setting such as laboratory, experimental unit, or research center and possess the following characteristics  MANIPULATION – the researcher subjects the respondents of the study to a particular situation  RANDOMIZATION – every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to experimental or control group  CONTROL – the researcher imposes certain conditions over the experimental situation by assigning groups
  • 46. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  TRUE EXPERIMENTAL  PRE-TEST POST-TEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN  POST-TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN  SOLOMON FOUR GROUP DESIGN  ONE SHOT CASE STUDY  ONE GROUP PRE-TEST POST-TEST DESIGN
  • 47. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  TRUE EXPERIMENTAL  Subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group to achieve treatment equality of the group
  • 48. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  PRE-TEST POST-TEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN  Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental and control group, and both groups are exposed to both pre- test and post-test
  • 49. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  POST-TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN  Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental and control group, and both groups are exposed to post-test alone
  • 50. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Research Design  SOLOMON FOUR GROUP DESIGN  Subjects are randomly assigned to 2 experimental and 2 control group. 1 group from experimental and 1 group from control group are pre-tested, the 2 experimental groups receives treatment, and all the groups are given post-test
  • 51. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Pre-experimental Research Design  ONE SHOT CASE STUDY  A single group is exposed to an experimental treatment and observed after the treatment
  • 52. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Pre-experimental Research Design  ONE GROUP PRE-TEST POST-TEST DESIGN  Comparison between a group before and after the experimental treatment
  • 53. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Quasi-Experimental Research Design  One of the elements of true experimental research is missing  NON-EQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGN – like pre-test post-test control group design  TIME SERIES DESIGN – conducts repeated observation before and after the intervention
  • 54. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Non-Experimental Research Design  No manipulation of variables and can be:  DESCRIPTIVE – observe and describe a situation  CORRELATIONAL – examine the strength of relationship  COMPARATIVE – examine the difference between groups
  • 55. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Non-Experimental Research Design  CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN  Involves the collection of data at one point in time
  • 56. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Non-Experimental Research Design  LONGITUDINAL DESIGN  Studies designed to collect data at more than one point in time over an extended period of time
  • 57. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research Design  PHENOMENOLOGICAL  Deals with experiences of individuals within their lives, the interpretations and meanings of individual experiences  LIVED EXPERIENCES OF CALL CENTER AGENTS WITH HIV
  • 58. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research Design  ETHNOGRAPHIC  Deals with the holistic view of the culture, mapping the cognitive world of a culture, and the culture‟s shared meanings  THE LIFESTYLE, BELIEFS, AND HEALTH HABITS OF THE AETAS OF MT. PINATUBO
  • 59. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research Design  HISTORICAL  Description and interpretation of historical events  NURSES PERFORMING SURGICAL ASEPSIS DURING WORLD WAR II
  • 60. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research Design  GROUNDED THEORY – involving the discovery of theory through the analysis of data  SYNTHESIS OF FINDINGS OF 14 STUDIES, WITH THE GOAL OF IDENTIFYING COMMON ELEMENTS OF INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS TO CHANGE A VARIETY OF UNHELTHY EFFORTS. IDENTITY SHIFT WAS DISCOVERED AS A PROCESS
  • 61. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative Research Design  CASE STUDY  An in-depth study or extensive study of a person individual and group  CASE STUDY OF THE NEEDS AND PROBLEMS OF PATIENT X WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
  • 62. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN Validity  The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure.  INTERNAL VALIDITY – the degree to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable  EXTERNAL VALIDTY – concerns the degree to which study results can be generalized to other people and other settings
  • 63. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN INTERNAL VALIDITY  The degree to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable  MATURATION – changes that occur within the subjects during an experimental design  ATTRITION – dropout of subjects  MORTALITY – different dropout rate in experimental and control group  BIAS –when results are attributed to experimental treatment but is already present before the treatment
  • 64. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN INTERNAL VALIDITY  INTRUMENTATION CHANGE – concerns the difference between the pretest and post test due to difference of instrument  TESTING – refers to the influence of the pretest or knowledge of baseline data on post-test scores  HISTORY – occurs when some event besides the experimental treatment occurs during the course of a study and this event influences the dependent variable
  • 65. STEP 5 – RESEARCH DESIGN EXTERNAL VALIDTY  Concerns the degree to which study results can be generalized to other people and other settings  HAWTHORNE EFFECT – occurs when participants respond in a certain manner because they know they are being observed  EXPERIMENTER EFFECT – when researcher characteristics influence subject behavior  ROSENTHAL EFFECT – changes in response due to presence of higher authority  HALO EFFECT – changes in treatment due to positive perception of researcher  HORNS EFFECT – due to negative perception
  • 66. STEP 6 – SAMPLING Sampling  Process of selecting representative portion of the population to represent the entire population
  • 67. STEP 7 – SAMPLING Terminologies  UNIVERSE – totality of elements to which research findings may apply  ELEMENTS – entities which make up the sample and the population  POPULATION – accessible group of individuals from which the sample will be drawn by the researcher  SAMPLE – s portion of the population from which the data will be solicited  SAMPLE SIZE – the number of samples drawn from the entire population
  • 68. STEP 7 – SAMPLING Random Sampling  Or PROBABILITY SAMPLING involves random selection of subjects in the population  SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING – selection of samples on random basis  STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING – divides the population into homogenous subgroups  CLUSTER SAMPLING – or MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING successive selection or random samples from larger to smaller units  SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING – or SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING is the selection of samples according to a predetermined modality
  • 69. STEP 7 – SAMPLING Non-random Sampling  Or NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING involves selection in a non-random way  CONVENIENCE SAMPLING – or ACCIDENTAL SAMPLING uses the most readily available group of people  QUOTA SAMPLING – establishment of desired proportions for some variables of interest according to specific characteristics  PURPOSIVE SAMPLING – or JUDGMENT SAMPLING the subjects are handpicked based on certain qualities for the purpose of the study  SNOWBALL SAMPLING – or NETWORK/REFERRAL/CHAIN involves identifying few persons who meet the inclusion criteria of the study to gain access to other subjects
  • 70. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Ethics  Came form the Greek word „ethikos‟ meaning „the rules of conduct recognized in certain associations or departments of human life”  Nursing research uses human beings as subjects hence, the researcher must exercise caution to protect the rights of the subjects against undue impositions
  • 71. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Nuremberg Code  Stipulated the following as essential requirements of ethical research which are voluntary consent, withdrawal of subjects from study, protection of subjects from physical and mental suffering, injury, disability and death, balance of benefits and risk
  • 72. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Declaration of Helsinki  Introduce distinction between therapeutic and non- therapeutic research.  THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH – patient could benefit from experimental treatment that have beneficial results  NON-THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH – generation of new knowledge which might produce beneficial to future patients but less likely to the actual subjects
  • 73. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Belmont Report  Identified the basic ethical principles in research involving human subjects  BENEFICENCE  JUSTICE  RESPECT FOR HUMAN DIGNITY
  • 74. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Code of Ethics for Nurses  Guide for action based on social values and needs which served as the standards for nurses‟ performance worldwide
  • 75. STEP 8 – ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 5R‟s of the Research Subjects  Right to informed consent  Right not to be harmed  Right to confidentiality and anonymity  Right to full disclosure  Right to refuse or withdraw from participation
  • 76. STEP 9 – DATA COLLECTION Data Collection  Methods researcher to generate new data by the used of instruments/measures
  • 77. STEP 9 – DATA COLLECTION Questionnaires  Most common research instrument  Involves use of pen and paper  DEMOGRAPHIC – data of the subject  OPEN-ENDED – essay; fill in the blanks  CLOSED-ENDED – two alternative questions, multiple choice  CONTINGENCY – relevant for some and not for other respondents
  • 78. STEP 9 – DATA COLLECTION Interview  Second most common research instrument  STRUCTURED – specific questions will only be asked and no additional questions  SEMI-STRUCTURED – free to probe to major questions  UNSTRUCTURED – ordinary question
  • 79. STEP 9 – DATA COLLECTION Observation  Most direct means if you are interested on the behavior of the respondents  NONPARTICPANT OBSERVER (OVERT) – openly identifies that she or he is conducting research  NONPARTICIPANT OBSERVER (COVERT) – is one who does not identify himself to the subjects  PARTICIPANT OBSERVER (OVERT) – involved with participants openly  PARTICIPANT OBSERVER (COVERT) – observer interacts with the participants without the respondents knowledge
  • 80. STEP 10 – ORGANIZATION OF DATA Levels of Measurement  NOMINAL – lowest level of measurement which categorize attributes  ORDINAL – ranks objects based on their relative standing of an attribute  INTERVAL – occurs when researchers can specify the ranking of objects on an attribute and the distance between those objects  RATIO – highest level of measurement which, unlike interval scales, have a rational, meaningful zero
  • 81. STEP 11 – ANALYSIS OF DATA Statistics  DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS – used to synthesize and describe data  INFERENTIAL STATISTICS - Provides a means of drawing conclusions about a population which are based on the laws of probability
  • 82. STEP 11 – ANALYSIS OF DATA Central Tendency  Relates to the way in which quantitative data are specified in its central value  MEAN – the sum is equal to the sum of all values divided by the number of participants  MEDIAN – the point in a distribution that divides the score in half  MODE – the number that occurs most frequently
  • 83. STEP 11 – ANALYSIS OF DATA Variability  "the state or characteristic of being variable", describes how spread out or closely clustered a set of data is  RANGE – the highest score minus the lowest score in a distribution  STANDARD DEVIATION – summarizes the average amount of deviation of values from the mean.  VARIANCE – refers to index of variability. Standard deviation squared
  • 84. STEP 11 – ANALYSIS OF DATA Bivariate Descriptive Statistics  Describes the relationship between two variables  CONTIGENCY TABLES – two dimensional frequency distribution in which the frequencies of two variables are cross- tabulated  CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – relation of two variables  PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT – PEARSON R computed with interval or ratio measures  SPEARMAN‟S RANK ORDER CORRELATION – SPEARMAN RHO for ordinal measures
  • 85. STEP 12 – DISSEMINATION Final step in research process process
  • 86. STEP 13- UTILIZING FINDINGS Final step in research process for the researcher
  • 87. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS OF NURSINGRESEARCH 1859  NOTES ON NURSING – describes Nightingale‟s interest in environmental factors that promote physical and emotional well-being 1900  American Nurses Journal begins publication 1930  American Journal of Nursing publishes clinical case studies 1952  The journal Nursing Research begins publication
  • 88. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS OF NURSINGRESEARCH 1955  Inception of the American Nurse‟s Foundation to sponsor nursing research 1963  International Journal of Nursing Studies begins publication 1965  American Nurse‟s Association begins sponsoring nursing research conferences 1969  Canadian Journal of Nursing Research begins publication
  • 89. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS OF NURSINGRESEARCH 1971  ANA establishes a Commission on Research 1972  ANA establishes its Council of Nurse Researchers 1978  The journals Research in Nursing and Health and Advances in Nursing begin publication 1983  Annual Review of Nursing Research begins publication 1987  The journal Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice begins publication
  • 90. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS OF NURSINGRESEARCH 1989  US agency for Health Care Policy and Research is established 1992  The journal Clinical Nursing Research begins publication 1994  The journal Qualitative Health Research begin 2004  The journal Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing begins publication

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