Kingdom plantae

4,124 views
3,744 views

Published on

Kingdom plantae

  1. 1. Kingdom Plantae Botany - the study of plants.
  2. 2. Plants Body type: multicellular with cell walls made of cellulose Prokaryotic / Eukaryotic: Eukaryotic Food consumption: photosynthesis (absorbs light) Reproduction: both sexual and asexual Environments: land and water Hetero / Chemo / Autotrophic: Autotrophic
  3. 3. Characteristics     Organisms within Kingdom Plantae are multicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic and they lack mobility. Plants produce food via photosynthesis and have cell walls composed of cellulose. The history of life on earth and the success of many organisms depend on the success of plants. Plants are loosely organized into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue and seeds.
  4. 4. Evolution of Plants Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Flowers; Seeds Enclosed in Fruit Mosses and their relatives Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue Green algae ancestor
  5. 5. Diversity of Plants Cone-bearing plants 760 species Ferns and their relatives 11,000 species Flowering plants 235,000 species Mosses and their relatives 15,600 species
  6. 6. Evolution of Plants  The evolution of plants has resulted in increasing levels of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through bryophytes, lycopods, ferns to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today. While many of the groups which appeared earlier continue to thrive, especially in the environments in which they evolved, for a time each new grade of organization became more "successful" than its predecessors.
  7. 7. Three Main Parts of Plants   Roots penetrate the soil and anchor the plant to the ground. The roots absorb minerals and water from the soil to be used in photosynthesis.
  8. 8. Three Main Parts of Plants   Leaves provide a large surface area for the absorption of sunlight. Photosynthesis occurs inside the chloroplasts of the cells of the leaves
  9. 9. Three Main Parts of Plants   Stems are composed of rigid tissue that raise and support the leaves. Stems also transport substances from the roots to leaves and from the leaves to roots.
  10. 10. Classification of Plants    Plants are divided into the four main groups based on two major characteristics: presence or absence of vascular tissue and seeds. Vascular tissue - tissue that transports water and sugars throughout an entire plant. Seeds are structures that contain an embryo, stored food and an outer coat.
  11. 11. Vascular tissue  Vascular tissue - tissue that transports water and sugars throughout an entire plant.  Plants lacking vascular tissue are called bryophytes. Plants which have vascular tissue are called tracheophytes. 
  12. 12.  Vascular tissue is made up of xylem and phloem cells.   Xylem carries water and minerals to the leaves. Phloem transports food synthesized in leaves throughout the plant.
  13. 13. Plant Structures   Plants contain structures other than the three main parts mentioned earlier and these structures have very specific functions. Plant structures include rhizoids, xylem, phloem, cuticle and stomata.
  14. 14. Plant Structures  Rhizoids Rhizoids are small hair-like structures that transport materials and anchor the plant.
  15. 15. Plant Structures   Xylem and Phloem Xylem are hollow tubes made of dead cells that transport water from roots to leaves. Phloem are hollow tubes made of living cells that transport glucose made during photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
  16. 16. Plant Structures   Cuticle The cuticle is a waxy covering on the stems and leaves of plants. The cuticle prevents water loss in plants
  17. 17. Plant Structures    Stomata Stoma are microscopic openings or pores in leaves. The stoma are the pores through which the exchange of gases occurs in plants. Some water is also lost through the stoma in a process known as transpiration.
  18. 18. Plant Reproduction     Sexual Reproduction Plants carry out sexual reproduction which means the meeting of male and female gametes. Mosses and ferns rely on rain and dew to transport the male gametes. Seed producing plants rely on wind and insects to carry the male gametes to the female parts of plants. After fertilization the zygote develops in the seed where it can remain dormant for long periods of time and survive drought, freezing and even fire.
  19. 19. Plant Reproduction  Asexual Reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur. In seed plants, the offspring can be packaged in a protective seed, which is used as an agent of dispersal.
  20. 20. Life Cycles of Plants  An alternating cycle of both a haploid gamete stage (Gametophyte) and a diploid spore stage (Sporophyte). This cycle is known as the Alternation of Generations   Sporophytes produce haploid spores through meiosis (division of the chromosome) that can grow without any fertilization. The spore grows into a gametophyte that produce male and female gametes that can fuse and develop into another sporophyte
  21. 21. Alternation of Generations
  22. 22. Division of Kingdom Plantae
  23. 23. Bryophytes  Non-vascular plants:  Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
  24. 24. BRYOPHYTES (Phylum Bryophyta)     Nonvascular land plants use diffusion and osmosis to transport materials throughout the plant. small in size they grow close to the ground in moist, shaded areas. lack true roots, stems and leaves, they are anchored to the ground by structures called rhizoids. Bryophytes are the only plants to have a life cycle that is predominantly in the haploid gametophyte stage. They produce male and female gametes that require water to allow the sperm to swim to an egg creating a zygote that will develop into a new sporophyte.
  25. 25. Tracheophytes  Vascular plants:  Ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms Sporophyte dominated life cycle  Seedless (spore bearing)  Seeded Plants
  26. 26. TRACHEOPHYTES (Phylum Tracheophyta)   Tracheophytes have vascular tissues (xylem & phloem). That allow plants to grow much taller, by being able to draw water up through their bodies. Means of reproduction:   spores: for club mosses, horsetails, and ferns. seeds: for flowering plants (angiosperms) and conifers (gymnosperms).
  27. 27. Seedless Vascular Plants (Ferns)   Reproduce by spores, and have an alternation of generations that is dominated by the sporophyte life cycle. (opposite nonvascular) Ferns are the most diverse seedless vascular plant. (dinner to decorations)
  28. 28. Seed Producing Tracheophytes  There are two main groupings for seed producing plants:   Gymnosperms (conifers and relatives)- cone bearing plants that have seeds exposed on their cones scales. Angiosperms (flowering plants) – plants with protected reproductive structures that have adaptations to increase the likelihood of reproduction.
  29. 29.   Plant Distribution Plants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.) Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests.
  30. 30. Importance of Plants  The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethno botany; some consider economic botany to focus on modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany focuses on indigenous plants cultivated and used by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.
  31. 31. What distinguishes Kingdom Plantae from all the other kingdoms?  The cells of kingdom plantae have cell walls made of cellulose that are used to support the plant. This cell wall is not a semi-permeable membrane and the cell cannot transport material and nutrients in and out of the cell walls. For this function there is the large central vacuole that stores water and chemicals for use inside of the cell. Another characteristic belonging only to kingdom plantae is their chloroplasts, the organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy inside the plant where the energy is stored as sugar. Their ability to convert inorganic matter (atmospheric CO2) to organic matter using photosynthesis keeps us humans in kingdom animalia alive.
  32. 32. Plants are nothing but life, so take good care for us to survive.
  33. 33. The End  Keep Calm and Thank you for listening 
  34. 34. Members- AC101         Michelle Ortiz Christine Lopez Kyleeh Dequino Elaiza Olegario Joanna Punzalan Jessa Molarto Christina Tale Jamil Saquilayan
  35. 35. What is a Seed?   A seed is a multi-cellular structure containing an embryo and a food source. The embryo consists of a:     An immature root An immature shoot One or two seed leaves Seeds have hard protective structures and can survive without water for years. They can also be carried great distances by animals etc…
  36. 36. Gymnosperms    Have all normal plant characteristics Have seeds on their cone scales Most are coniferous trees (pines, spruce, etc…)
  37. 37. Survival Strategies      Reproduction with male pollen and pollen tubes removes the need for moisture. Protective bark prevents water loss Shape helps prevent snow/ice damage, and increases the area for photosynthesis to occur. Needle-like leaves have thick cuticle and sunken stomata to prevent water loss. Do not loose their needles so photosynthesis can begin earlier and they do not need extra nutrients to grow new leaves.
  38. 38. Angiosperms (flowering plants)   Plants that protect their seeds within the body of a fruit. Make up ¾’s of all plants, including:   Trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, water plants, etc… Divided into two large classes based on the number of seed leaves (cotyledons)   Monocots – one seed leaf (grasses, lilies) Dicots – two seed leaves (roses, peas, maple trees)
  39. 39. Diversity and success of the Angiosperms :    The angiosperms are the most diverse plant group. They can self-pollinate (clone) or crosspollinate with another plant. Also, this diversity is due to a variety of other factors, such as:
  40. 40. 1) Presence of specialized structures  Plants attract animal pollinators with colour and a supply of food (often nectar) to carry pollen from plant to plant     Different flower colors, smells, and shapes attract different pollinators. Eg. Bees can’t see red, so they are often on blue or yellow flowers. Flies are attracted to flowers such as stink-cabbage. Many insects see UV spectrum. (See Fig. 6.14, pg. 177)
  41. 41. 2) Seeds are protected    Flowers are sporophytes that do not produce spores. The pollen grains, and the eggs are all that remain of the gametophyte generation. The embryo is enclosed in hard tissue to form a seed. The seed case enables the embryonic plant to survive adverse weather conditions such as drought, hot or arid periods and cold.
  42. 42. 3) Function of the fruit in seed dispersal   Some seeds in fruits are easily dispersed by wind and by water. Eg. Coconut Some fruits are eaten and dispersed by animals. The seed resist digestion and will pass intact in an animal’s feces to germinate in a new spot.
  43. 43. 4) The presence of specialized tissues  Some plants possess special tissues and behaviours to help them survive heat, cold, and droughts.  Eg. small leaf hairs and sunken stomata help to reduce water loss.
  44. 44. Now make like a tree and leave!!

×