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# Measurement ans scale

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Measurement and scaling

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### Transcript of "Measurement ans scale"

1. 1. MEASUREMENT DESIGNS
2. 2. Measurement <ul><li>It is the process observing and recording that are collected as apart of research effort. </li></ul>
3. 3. Level of measurement <ul><li>NOMINAL SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDINAL SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>INTERVAL SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>RATIO SCALE </li></ul>
4. 4. NOMINAL SCALE <ul><li>Not really a scale because it don’t scale objects along any dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>It simply label objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is an example of nominal scale </li></ul><ul><li>Male = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Female = 2 </li></ul>
5. 5. Religious Affiliation <ul><li>Hindu = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim = 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh = 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Other = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical data are measured on nominal </li></ul><ul><li>scales which merely assign labels to distinguish categories. </li></ul>
6. 6. ORDINAL SCALE <ul><li>Meets all the nominal condition and also includes ordering… </li></ul><ul><li>Data used must be having transitivity property </li></ul><ul><li>No determination of distance between positions on the scale </li></ul>
7. 7. Examples <ul><li>Restaurant rating </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives Rank </li></ul><ul><li>Quality .… </li></ul><ul><li>Cost .… </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility …. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability …. </li></ul>
8. 8. INTERVAL SCALE <ul><li>All the property of ordinal scale but the </li></ul><ul><li>interval between the successive positions are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>No true zero exist. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Temperature and year </li></ul>
9. 9. RATIO SCALE <ul><li>Attributes of interval scale and exist zero </li></ul><ul><li>point. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Age, income,height and weight. </li></ul>
10. 10. Ordering of level of measurement
11. 11. Scaling <ul><li>Scaling is the branch of measurement that involves the construction of an instrument that associates qualitative constructs with quantitative metric units. </li></ul><ul><li>A scale is an instrument which measures subjective variables. </li></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>Means of measuring attitude </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of statements about a particular issue, and </li></ul><ul><li>each statement has a numerical value indicating how </li></ul><ul><li>favorable or unfavorable it is judged to be . </li></ul>Thurstone scaling
13. 13. E.G. Attitudes that people might have towards persons with AIDS.
14. 14. Some statements are… <ul><li>People get AIDS by engaging in immoral behavior </li></ul><ul><li>You can get AIDS from toilet seats </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is the wrath of God </li></ul><ul><li>Anybody with AIDS is either gay or a junkie </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is an epidemic that affects us all </li></ul><ul><li>People with AIDS are bad </li></ul><ul><li>People with AIDS are real people </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is a cure, not a disease </li></ul><ul><li>You can get AIDS from heterosexual sex </li></ul><ul><li>People with AIDS are like my parents. </li></ul><ul><li>You can get AIDS from public toilets </li></ul><ul><li>Women don’t get AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS costs the public too much </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS is something the other guy gets </li></ul><ul><li>Living with AIDS is impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Children cannot catch AIDS </li></ul>
15. 15. Rating the scale items…
16. 16. PLOT THE GRAPH
17. 17. <ul><li>Calculate the median and interquartile range(Q3-Q1) for each statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure out table for it. </li></ul>
18. 18. Make table Statement Number Median Q1 Q3 Interquartile Range 10 10 6 10.5 4.5 7 10 7.5 11 3.5 46 10 8 11 3 5 10 8.5 11 2.5
19. 19. Guttman scaling <ul><li>In this items ranges from least extreme to most extreme position.It is implicit that those who agree with a more extreme position also agree with the less extreme positions preceding it. </li></ul><ul><li>We develop a set of items or statements so that a respondent who agrees with any specific question in the list will also agree with all previous questions. </li></ul>
20. 20. E.g. Measures U.S. citizen attitudes towards immigration. There are list of statements : <ul><li>I would permit a child of mine to marry an immigrant. </li></ul><ul><li>I believe that this country should allow more immigrants in. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable if a new immigrant moved next door to me. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable with new immigrants moving into my community. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be fine with me if new immigrants moved onto my block. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable if my child dated a new immigrant. </li></ul>
21. 21. Develop the cumulative scale
22. 22. Hypothetical immigration scale <ul><li>I believe that this country should allow more immigrants in. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable with new immigrants moving into my community. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be fine with me if new immigrants moved onto my block. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable if a new immigrant moved next door to me. </li></ul><ul><li>I would be comfortable if my child dated a new immigrant. </li></ul><ul><li>I would permit a child of mine to marry an immigrant. </li></ul>
23. 23. Likert scale <ul><li>A rating scale designed to measure attitude or reaction by quantifying subjective information. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants indicate where along a continuum their attitude or reaction resides. </li></ul>
24. 24. To create set of potential scale items
25. 25. Rating the items 1= strongly unfavorable to the concept 2= somewhat unfavorable to the concept 3= undecided 4= somewhat favorable to the concept 5= strongly favorable to the concept
26. 26. Administrating the scale On a 1-5 response scale : 1= strongly disagree 2= disagree 3= undecided 4= agree 5= strongly agree
27. 27. <ul><li>QUERY </li></ul>
28. 28. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>