Using effective teaching techniques

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A good showcase by Dr Dheeraj Mehrotra for all teachers to learn how to LEARN and then TEACH. Remember what we learnt once upon a time is no longer of DEMAND for the students. We need to know NEW to DELIVER in the classrooms of today.

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Using effective teaching techniques

  1. 1. Using Effective Teaching Techniques Or, some more tools for your teaching toolbox
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define EFFECTIVE teaching </li></ul><ul><li>List, explain, and give examples of effective teaching skills </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate effective teaching skills in actual teaching </li></ul>
  3. 3. Everything has led up to this. <ul><li>Program planning leads to a curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum planning leads to teaching calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching calendar leads to lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson planning leads to methods </li></ul><ul><li>We use teaching skills to implement the methods </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is effective teaching? <ul><li>From perspective of PRODUCT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much the students learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results may not be known for years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results flavored by student ability. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is effective teaching? <ul><li>From perspective of PROCESS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of good procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly observable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results immediately visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results may be flavored by available resources </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Effective Teaching Defined <ul><li>“ Patterns of classroom interactions that consistently produce desirable student outcomes in the form of higher test scores, increased problem solving skills, improved attitude toward subject, etc….” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borich. (1988). Effective Teaching Methods </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Measuring Effective Teaching <ul><li>Standardized test scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measured later and affected by all teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accomplishment of SOLs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measured later and affected by all teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher-made tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unreliable, biased </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Surrogate for Direct Measurement <ul><li>Research tells us that Time on Task has closest relationship to achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Time on task = time students are working on appropriate, intended learning activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Estimating Teaching Effectiveness <ul><li>Degree to which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task relates to curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are paying attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are following directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are working on assigned task </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Effective Teachers Exhibit: <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate-High Success Rate </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effective teachers Use: <ul><li>Student Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Probing </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul>
  12. 12. Four Major Effective Teacher Skills <ul><li>Stimulus Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples and Non-Examples </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stimulus Variation <ul><li>Kinesic Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Senses </li></ul>
  14. 14. Kinesic Variation <ul><li>Teacher Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Volume Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Get into Space </li></ul><ul><li>Move Behind </li></ul>
  15. 15. Focusing <ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is Important, Write This Down, This Will be on the Test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point, bang on desk, point, gesture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal-Gestural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point and “look at this!” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Shifting Interaction <ul><li>Teacher to Student </li></ul><ul><li>Student to Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Student to Student </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher to Student to Teacher to Student </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pausing <ul><li>Alert Students to Change </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize Key Point </li></ul><ul><li>Break Monotony </li></ul><ul><li>Regain Control </li></ul>
  18. 18. Shifting Senses <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Smelling </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Tasting </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Stimulus Variation <ul><li>Kinesic Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Senses </li></ul>
  20. 20. Repetition -- Why <ul><li>Increase Level of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Prolong Retention </li></ul>Repetitions/Time Degree of Learning/ Retention Ability to Recall
  21. 21. Repetition -- How <ul><li>Restating another way </li></ul><ul><li>Providing examples/non-examples to illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Massed Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Re-use skills in subsequent learning </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, Practice, Practice </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>praise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge of results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggests solutions, improvements </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Examples & Non-Examples <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Student Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>“Made up” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Can We Talk? <ul><li>What is Effective Teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Time on Task </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Time on Task used as a Surrogate for Effectiveness? </li></ul>
  25. 25. More Review <ul><li>What Are Four Major Teaching Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we use Repetition? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Reinforcement so Important? </li></ul><ul><li>What are Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>What are Non-Examples? </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is an Example of: <ul><li>Kinesic Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Senses </li></ul>
  27. 27. So What? <ul><li>Program planning leads to a curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum planning leads to teaching calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching calendar leads to lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson planning leads to methods </li></ul><ul><li>We use teaching skills to implement the methods </li></ul>

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