It is the marketing
practice of creating a
name, symbol or
design that identifies
and differentiates a
product or service
from other products or
“A means of distinguishing one
firm's products or services from
another's and of creating and
maintaining an image that
encourages confidence in the
quality and performance of that
firm's products or services."
• The word "brand" is derived from the Old
• Norse brandr meaning "to burn." It refers
to the practice of producers burning their
mark (or brand) onto their products
• The oldest generic Brand, which is in
continuous use in India since the Vedic
period, is known as 'Chyawanprash’
attributed to a revered Rishi named
Chyawan. This brand was developed
at Dhosi Hill in North India, on an extinct
• Meaning of brand --“ It is my own”
• “ Within every brand is a product, but
not every product is a brand.”
• For some 4000 years
branding irons have been
used as a means of
identification and a sign of
• Ancient Romans, Greeks
and Egyptians branded not
only their livestock, but
criminals and slaves as well.
• The practice of branding came to the new
world with the Spaniards, who brought the
first cattle to the New Spain.
• When Hernan Cortes experimented with
cattle breeding during the late 16th century
in the valley of Mexicalzimgo, south of
modern Toluca, Mexico, he branded his
cattle. His brand,3 Latin crosses, may
have been the first brand used in western
• As cattle raising grew, in 1537 the crown
ordered the establishment of a stock
men’s organization called Mesta
throughout New Spain. Each Cattle owner
had to have a different brand, and each
brand had to be registered in what
undoubtedly was the first brand book in
the western hemisphere, kept at Mexico
• Creates consumer preference for the
product/service behind the brand.
• Provides increased revenues and market
• Increases the company’s market value.
• Helps company survive temporary crises.
• Prevents new competitors from entering
• Increases profitability by allowing the
company to charge a higher price for their
products or services.
• Creates a unique and differentiated
• Increases existing distributor’s loyalty.
• Offers the company more
negotiation power with its suppliers.
• Decreases employee turnover.
• Helps the company attract new distribution
for its products.
• Companies make
• Can be copied
• Can become
• Consumers make
• Can be timeless
Brand can convey six levels of
Re-branding is expensive, and it takes
a while for it to take effect on the
market. There are several benefits to
• It makes the company or the product seem
fresh and relevant in the current market
• It helps the company keep up with current
trends and market changes
• When the company needs a change in
direction, like when the company is shifting
focus in the products they produce or are
changing management, re-branding can
help promote the company’s new identity
• Re-branding also addresses acquisitions
and mergers. For example: when Square
soft and Enix merged into Square-Enix.
The re-branding of their name and logo
helped people identify that the two were
now one unified company and that their
products would now be shared projects
between the two developers.
• The change can also help your company’s
image in the market and amongst
consumers. You may have the right
products for sale but people may not be
aware of it because of your company
name or logo design and re-branding is
the key to addressing these needs.
A good positioning
brand from all
“The selling concept that motivates purchase, or
the image that marketers desire a brand to have in
the minds of consumers.”
The value of a brand in its holistic sense to its owners as
a corporate asset. Brands have value.
• A brand’s status in
• A brand’s position
Packaging and Brand Image
A good package design helps build a brand.
1. The “look” of a package must be instilled in the customer’s
2. A package can differentiate one brand from another.
3. Familiarity with a package creates trust with customers.
4. New packages create perception of new products (product
Roles of Packaging
A good package serves three primary
1. Protect the product
2. Market the product
3. Provide convenience to
distributors and consumers
1. Coca-Cola $70.4
2. Microsoft $65.1
3. IBM $51.8
4. GE $42.3
5. Intel $31.1
6. Nokia $29.9
7. Disney $28.0
8. McDonald’s $24.7
9. Marlboro $22.2
10. Mercedes $21.4