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Blood Donaion 7ps

  1. 1. BLOOD DONATION Introduction About Blood Donation: What is Blood Donation? Definition: “Blood donation refers to the process of collecting, testing, preparing and storing blood and blood components. Donors are most commonly unpaid volunteers, but they may also be paid by commercial enterprises. Blood registry refers to the collection and sharing of data about donated blood and ineligible donors.” Have you ever dreamed about being superhero? To have all those amazing abilities: to fly, see through walls, hear everything and a lot of more, just to be able to help someone. Wouldn‟t it be great to see someone smiling just because you saved his life? Well, there is one way we could all be superheroes, way we could all save some ones life just in a few minutes and all of that without using any superpowers we mentioned till now. All you need is power of Compassion, Charity and power of Love. Purpose:  The purpose of the blood collection and distribution system is to help ensure an adequate supply of blood for accident victims, people needing surgery, and people suffering from certain diseases, as well as for medical research.  Sometimes, donors give blood specifically to benefit a particular person. People preparing for elective surgery may donate their own blood to be held and then returned to them during surgery. This is known as autologous blood donation. Directed donor blood has been donated by someone known to the intended recipient, such as a family member or friend. 1
  2. 2. BLOOD DONATION  Each year, more than four million Americans receive blood transfusions involving more than 26 million units of blood (one unit equals 450 milliliters, or about one pint), or an average of about 32,000 units per day. All of that blood must be collected, tested, prepared, stored, and delivered to the appropriate sites. Roughly eight million people in the United States donate blood each year; about half of the total amount needed is provided by the 36 regional blood centers of the American Red Cross.  Whole blood and the various blood components have many uses. Red blood cells, which carry oxygen, are used to treat anemia. Platelets, which play a role in controlling bleeding, are commonly used in the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. Fresh frozen plasma is also used to control bleeding in people deficient in certain clotting factors. Cryoprecipitate AHF, made from fresh frozen plasma, contains a few specific clotting factors.  A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions or made into medications by a process called fractionation.  The amount of blood drawn and the methods vary. The collection can be done manually or with automated equipment that only takes specific portions of the blood. Most of the components of blood used for transfusions have a short shelf life, and maintaining a constant supply is a persistent problem. 2
  3. 3. BLOOD DONATION Types of The Blood Donation:  Blood donations are divided into groups based on who will receive the collected blood. 1) “Homologous” Donation 2) “Directed‟ Donation 3) “Replacement Donor” Donation 4) “Autologous” Donation 1) “Homologous” Donation: A Homologous donation is when a donor gives blood for storage at a blood bank for transfusion to an unknown recipient. It is also called “Allogeneic” Donation. 2) “Directed‟ Donation: A Directed donation is when a person, often a family member, donates blood for transfusion to a specific individual. Directed donations are relatively rare when an established supply exists. 3) “Replacement Donor” Donation: A Replacement donor donation is a hybrid of the two and is common in developing countries such as Ghana. In this case, a friend or family member of the recipient donates blood to replace the stored blood used in a transfusion, ensuring a consistent supply. 3
  4. 4. BLOOD DONATION 4)”Autologous” Donation: When a person has blood stored that will be transfused back to the donor at a later date, usually after surgery, that is called an Autologous donation. Blood that is used to make medications can be made from Allogeneic donations or from donations exclusively used for manufacturing. But Blood Donation is also related with Blood Bank. What is Blood Bank? “A blood bank is a place designed especially for the storage of blood and blood products.” Large coolers hold these products at a constant temperature and they are available at a moments notice. A blood bank stores whole blood, packed red cells, plasma and other blood products. These products are used for trauma patients, surgeries, blood transfusions that treat disease and a host of other applications. Types of Blood Banks: There are four different models of blood banking service which have been tried successfully. These are:  Centralized  Regionalized  Coordinated hospital services  A coordinated mixed system. 4
  5. 5. BLOOD DONATION In India there are three types of blood banking service:  Government blood banks  Private non-profit making blood banks run by trust/society or non-government organization.  Commercial blood banks. Government blood banks run on tax payers money from the public exchequer and therefore, they do not have to depend on total cost recovery from the patients. Non-profit making blood banks have to be funded from different sources including cost recovery from the patients. Commercial blood banks trade in human misery. Often their blood banking practices are unethical. Commercial blood banks have a high price for blood to meet the salary bills and the profit of the owners. Ideally, there should be a National Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) based on the existing model of National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. History Of Blood Donation: 43 B.C. to 1400 There are many early documented references to the use of blood, for what can be at best described as „medicinal‟ purposes. One of the first of these relating to a „transfusion‟ is contained in the seventh book of the Metamorphoses, by Ovid, who wrote in 43BC. It is believed that the ancient kings of Egypt apparently bathed in blood, believing such baths to “… resuscitate the sick and rejuvenate the old and incapacitated”, as well as believing it to be a cure for elephantiasis! 5
  6. 6. BLOOD DONATION This older history is based on the traditional idea of blood as being the „living-force‟ of the body. Man must have recognized that loss of blood was frequently associated with weakness and death. This was manifested by Greeks and Romans committing suicide by „opening a vein‟ (involving cutting their wrists). Early attempts at replacing lost blood involved the drinking of blood by the patient. By choice, this was from a young, healthy, fit person or animal. In classical times the Romans and Greeks, as well as bathing in blood, have reportedly drank it. Their spectators also rushed into the arena to drink the blood of dying gladiators. These people did this because they felt that such blood was especially beneficial since the athletes were strong and brave. The legend of the vampire originates from this concept. This somewhat mystical fascination with the properties of blood is to some degree still with us today. 1400 to 1500 One of the most frequently quoted candidates for this noteworthy honor is Pope Innocent VIII, Giovanni Cibo, who was reputedly „transfused‟ some time between 1490 and 1492.On one occasion, after all means to revive the Pope had failed. 1600 to 1630 One of the most important discoveries permitting the transfusion of blood was then made, that of the formulation of the theory of the circulation of blood, discovered by William Harvey in 1628. William Harvey was a doctor who identified that that blood flowed through blood vessels in one direction. 6
  7. 7. BLOOD DONATION 1658 Microscopist Jan Swammerdam observes and describes red blood cells. 1665 The first recorded successful blood transfusion occurs in England: Physician Richard Lower keeps dog alive by transfusing blood from other dogs. 1667 Jean-Baptiste Denis in France and Richard Lower and Edmund King in England separately report successful transfusions from sheep to humans. 1818 British obstetrician James Blundell performs the first successful transfusion of human blood to a patient for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. 1901 Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian physician, discovers the first three [A, B, and O] human blood groups. 7
  8. 8. BLOOD DONATION 1907  Ludvig Hektoen suggests that the safety of transfusion might be improved by cross-matching blood between donors and patients to exclude incompatible mixtures.  Reuben Ottenberg performs the first blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching. 1936 The first blood bank in the United States opened in 1936 in Cook County Hospital in Chicago. Blood banks were mostly found in hospitals at first by American Red Cross society. 1939 – 1940 The Rh (Rhesus) blood group system is discovered by Karl Landsteiner, Alexander Wiener, Philip Levine and R.E. Stetson. John Elliott develops the first blood container, a vacuum bottle extensively used by the Red Cross. 1944 Dried plasma becomes a vital element in the treatment of wounded soldiers during World War II. 1948 The Red Cross begins the first nationwide blood program for civilians by opening its first collection center in Rochester, N.Y. 8
  9. 9. BLOOD DONATION 1971 Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) testing of donated blood begins. 1983  Additive solutions extend shelf life of red blood cells to 42 days.  The U.S. blood banking groups issue their first warning about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). 1985 Immediately after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licenses the first test to detect the antibody to HIV on March 3rd, Red Cross Blood Services regions begin testing all newly donated blood. 1992  Testing of donor blood for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies (anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2) is implemented.  First National Testing Laboratory, applying standardized tests to ensure safety of Red Cross blood products, opens in Dedham, Mass. 2002 Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. 9
  10. 10. BLOOD DONATIONCompetitive scenario in the particularIndustry List of blood blank in Gujarat Gujarat have 153 total listed Blood Bank in that 31 are under government control and 122 are in private hand following are some name of Blood Bank with their operative city. 1) Civil hospital, Ahmedabad. 2) V.S .hospital, Ahmedabad. 3) Prathama blood blank, Ahmedabad. 4) Indian red cross society, Anand. 5) Indian red cross society, Amerli. 6) Bhoomi voluntary blood blank, Palanpur. 7) Kumarpal Gandhi blood blank, Ankleshvar. 8) Bhavanagar blood blank, Bhavnagar. 9) Purna blood blank, Anjar. 10) Raktdan Kendra voluntary blood blank, Godhra. 11) Red cross blood blank, Rajkot. 12) Lok samarpan raktadan Kendra, Surat. 13) Shree Rang Pathology laboratory and blood blank Surendranagar. 14) Jamanbhai Blood blank, Vadodara. 15) Patel voluntary blood blank Vadodara. 10
  11. 11. BLOOD DONATION List of blood bank in India S .No Name of the No of Govt No of Private Total No of  State/Union Blood banks Blood Banks Licensed Blood  Territory Banks  1 Andaman and Nicobar 2 1 3 islands 2 Andhra Pradesh 70 194 264 3 Arunachal Pradesh 7 l 8 4 Assam 39 25 64 5 Bihar 38 29 67 6 Chandigarh 3 1 4 7 Chhattishgarh 19 24 43 8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli Nil 1 1 9 Daman and Diu 1 Nil 1 10 Delhi 22 43 65 11 Goa 2 2 4 12 Gujarat 31 122 153 13 Haryana 19 44 63 14 Himachal Pradesh 19 1 20 15 Jammu & Kashmir 25 2 27 16 Jharkhand 24 19 43 17 Karnataka 39 139 178 18 Kerala 34 129 163 19 Lakshadweep Nil Nil Nil 20 Madhya Pradesh 51 79 130 21 Maharashtra 81 212 293 22 Manipur 3 Nil 3 23 Meghalaya 6 2 8 24 Mizoram 8 2 10 25 Nagaland 4 Nil 4 26 Orissa 67 21 88 27 Puducherry 3 10 13 28 Punjab 49 48 97 29 Rajasthan 47 40 87 30 Sikkim 2 1 3 31 Tamil Nadu 96 175 271 32 Tripura 7 Nil 7 33 Uttara khand 21 4 25 34 Uttar Pradesh 94 118 212 35 West Bengal 74 39 113 Total 1007 1528 2535 11
  12. 12. BLOOD DONATION India have many Blood Bank in their different states. Total number of listed Blood Bank are 2535 in that 1007 are maintain by government and remaining 1528 by private organization. following are some Blood bank of different sates.  Bhatrat blood blank Chennai 600006,Tamilnadu, India  Caring people Mobradabad-244001,Uttarpradesh, India  India blood blank Taminadu, India  Indian blood donars Maharashtra, India  Jeevan blood blank royaprttah, Chennai  Red cross Red crescent societics New Delhi  Sankalap blood donation organization Bangalore List of blood bank in international 1) Salt river valley blood bank United Blood Services was founded in 1943 as the Salt River Valley Bloodbank in Phoenix, Arizona by Opal Davis and Kitty Baldwin. Today, the national headquarters is Blood Systems, located in Scottsdale, Arizona. Blood Systems is a founding member of the AABB. and was a driving force in the creation of the Americas Blood Centers. Both organizations play a major role in communicating advances in transfusion medicine nationwide. 12
  13. 13. BLOOD DONATION 2) American red cross The Red Cross symbol Fonder: Clara Barton Formation: May 21, 1881 Purpose/focus: Humanitarian aid Headquarter: Washington, D.C., U.S. President: Gail J. McGovern The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S. affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Prathama Blood Bank Prathama Blood Centre was conceptualized in late 90s to establish a modern benchmark for blood banking in India. Our dedicated team of professionals studied many blood banking models in industrialized nations. When we began our journey in the field of blood banking the blood banks in India were generally characterized with following features:  Small scale of operation, poor infrastructure, lack of hygiene and economically unstable.  Excessive dependence on replacement donors. Blood shortage.  Poor quality of testing, resulting in high percentage of transfusion transmitted diseases like HIV, Hep.B, HCV, Malaria etc. 13
  14. 14. BLOOD DONATION  Only 5% blood was used as blood components. Low awareness amongst the clinicians to use the blood components.  Attached to hospitals, and so a blood bank would not grow beyond hospitals requirement of blood.  Lack of management systems.  We planned adequate and rugged infrastructure to make Prathama collect, process and distribute 50,000 units of blood per annum. The blood centre designed to expand in a modular manner accommodate 150,000 units of blood per annum. Our objective of making Prathama (which is Sanskrit means First and the Foremost) was to create a modern blood bank, which operates with high efficiency, accuracy of the modern blood banks in the developed countries, but still runs at cost which developing countrys economy can absorb. The blood centre was conceptualized to cost us Rs. 7.5 Crore. This required indigenous design and development of technology and systems. We floated our idea to Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) to set up a modern blood bank for the city of Ahmedabad that runs as non profit Organisation. Key members of AMC immediately appreciated the objective and collaboration was established with AMC. A free plot of land was allotted to build Prathama Blood Centre. 14
  15. 15. BLOOD DONATION Ahmedabad; a Blood Centre is blood bank situated at Ahmedabad, jointly established in 2000, by Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Advanced Transfusion Medicine Research Foundation as non-profit voluntary organization. About 50,000 voluntary blood donors donate blood annually at Prathama which is Indias first fully automated blood center. Infrastructure of Prathama is also congratulated by Japan. Tag line of Prahama is “surakshit Rakt Kisi Bhi Vakt”. The blood centre designed to expand in a modular manner to accommodate 150,000 units of blood per annum. Prathama Blood Center is non profit organization registered as Section–25 company and Charitable Trust. 100% Voluntary blood collection. About 125,000 blood & blood components are distributed annually without replacement. It has launched its Thalassemia Eradication Program in January2009. For the first time in the country, Prathama Blood Centre also has declared a universal hepatitis B vaccination Program on Sunday. As part of this program 7,000 regular blood donors of Prathama will be vaccinated against hepatitis B from June 14 onwards. Ahmadabad Municipal Corporation [AMU] provide 1500 s.m. land to prathama for initial operation, Prathama is more liberal to AMU. Prathama is south Asia’s one of good ISO Certified Blood Bank, Who provide different Blood component (3-4) separately. Prathama build the image with with three base Art, Management and Technology. 15
  16. 16. BLOOD DONATION The three fundamental philosophies guiding Prathama Blood Centre: Encourage only non- remunerated voluntary blood donors (NRVBD) and accept no replacement donation ever. 100% component preparation and their distribution. Keep the scale of operations reasonably high to bring down the processing cost of blood components. Prathama Today  A non profit organization registered as Section - 25 company and Charitable Trust.  100% Voluntary blood collection. Collecting about 40,000 units per annum.  About 80,000 blood & its components are distributed annually without replacement.  Highest quality of blood components comparable to any developed country at Indian cost of Rs. 300 - 750/- per unit.  Indias leading, modern blood centre on 30,000sq.ft. of constructed area having largest voluntary blood collection, processing and storage facilities.  India‟s first fully automated blood centre with robotics, barcode systems and fully integrated ERP software.  India‟s leading blood centre professionally managed by best of Doctors, Management graduates, IT professional & Finance professionals.  Introduced India‟s first fully integrated blood mobile vans with in built blood collection facilities. 16
  17. 17. BLOOD DONATION Service, Location and Operation of Prathama Following is business information of company such as business address, contact Nos., contact persons, products & services and nature of business etc. Name of Business : Prathama Blood Centre Business Address : Behind jivraj Mehta Hos., DR C V Raman road Landmark : Jivraj Mehta Hospital, Vasana. City : Ahmedabad Pin code : 380 007 State : Gujarat Country : India Phone No : + 91- 079 – 26600101 Fax No : + 91- 079 – 26611850 Type of Business : Blood Centre Business Category : Health 17
  18. 18. BLOOD DONATION Prathama Blood Centre is leading Blood Bank in Ahmedabad provides services such as Blood Banks, 24 Hours Blood Banks, Blood Donation Centres, Blood Collection Centres, Blood Plasma and more. Some service and their description are as under. NO. PRODUCT/SERVICE Red Cells (Concentrate of 1. human RBC in additive solution) Platelets 2. (Random Donors) Fresh Frozen 3. Plasma Cryo Precipitate 4. (Cryoprecipitate anti haemophillc Factor) Cryo Poor Plasma 5. (Normal Human Plasma) Paediatric Unit 6. (RBC, FFP, CPP) Saline Washed Red 7. Cells Neonatal Exchange 8. Transfusion Product 9. Door to Door vane 18
  19. 19. BLOOD DONATION Marketing Mix Elements Basic Information About 7 P’S Of Marketing 19
  20. 20. BLOOD DONATION Today, as competitive pressures increase, marketing is more and more key to being successful in business. It plays a key role in many business success stories. Most small business carry out a great deal of marketing. But don‟t always recognize it as such and don‟t always plan it to its fullest. You probably already know your customers well; you know that you should be continually improving and extending your products. All these are a part of marketing mix. Marketing is so much more than just sells and advertising. Marketing allows your business to identify, anticipate and satisfy customer requirements profitably. Get it right and marketing will allow you to get the right product or service to your customers at the right price, in the right place, at the right time. Successful marketing depends on addressing a number of key issues, including how your product reaches the customer, how it is priced and how you tell your customers what is available. The chartered institute of marketing [CIM] has produced a guide to the seven things you should consider for successful marketing. These are known as 7P‟s of marketing. 20
  21. 21. BLOOD DONATION Product or Service Product: Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. Examples: Soap, T.V. Cloths, Car, etc. But here we talk about Blood Donation. It‟s come under the Service. Service: Any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and dose not result in the ownership of anything. Examples: Airlines, Banking, Education institutes, Retail, Transportation, Communication, consultancy, etc. Characteristic of Blood Donation: 1) Intangibility 2) Inseparability 3) Variability 4) Perishability 1) Intangibility: means we can‟t touch and see the service. Blood is product so it is tangible, but Blood Donation is social service so we can not see Blood Donation. When person is donating the blood we only see or touch the instrument use in that process but not Blood Donation. 2) Inseparability: it means the service is produce when it consume, there is not variation between production and use. It produce when it consume. When we donate the Blood service is produce, and use at same time. 21
  22. 22. BLOOD DONATION 3) Variability: there are verities in Blood Donation in terms of who provide, when, where and how. When person donate blood in prathama‟s Blood Donation camp it give different satisfaction compare with Blood Donation in road side van, or donate blood in civil blood center. 4) Perishability: service can not be stored for later sale or use. In case of Blood Donation when we decide to donate Blood at particular center at define time, if the opportunity is gone the service is expire. 22
  23. 23. BLOOD DONATION Levels of Product and Service Levels of P/S shows the ability of product to satisfy human wandand demand. On It the Customer value and profitable long runrelationship are depend. So, Product planners need to think aboutProduct and Service on Five levels. Each level adds more customervalue. 23
  24. 24. BLOOD DONATION 1) Core Benefit It is fundamental Level. The actual reason for buying Product or Service. It refers to why people prefer the particular product or service. Example when person prefer airline the ultimate goal is Transformations from one place to another. 2) Basic Product Basic product is most common way to satisfy the ultimate need. The marketer has to turn core benefit in to basic product. When we pursue bus for transportation the basic product is the vehicle that have the capacity to accommodate human being and leave them to mention place. 3) Expected Product A set of attributes and condition buyers normally expected when they purchase the Product. It refers to the most usual condition available in market for particular product or service. When we prefer any airlines the expected product is a comfortable seat with back side, safety during traveling good serve by air hostess and good behavior of staff. 4) Augmented Product That exceed customer expectation. The Augmentation relate to user‟s total consumption system. As per the „lavitt‟ new competition is not between what companies produce in their factories but between what they add to their factory output in form of packaging, service, advertising, delivery arrangement. Each 24
  25. 25. BLOOD DONATION augmentation add cost. It can create a fear to “striped down” by competitor. After some time augmented product become expected one. 5) Potential Product Which encompasses all the possible expectation, augmentation and transformation. The Product or offering might undergo in this category in future. Here is where companies search new ways to satisfy consumer and distinguish their offer. 25
  26. 26. BLOOD DONATION Level Description Core Benefit Perform social responsibility; give life to family member, relative and some one. Basic Any material made thing that can contain the Blood for product specific time, not harm the Blood and component of it. It also includes the needle and pipe to transfer Blood from human to containing material. Expected Any material made thing that can contain the Blood for Product specific time, not harm the Blood and component of it. It also includes the needle and pipe to transfer Blood from human to containing material. Augmented  Blood Donation machine which available in Product foreign country. It analyzes donor‟s Blood. Blood Donation Machine is also capable of dropping an IV Bag [intravenous bag] instead of a normal Blood Bag. It automatically take 300 to 350 ml blood from human body.  Diploma courses for Blood Bank Management.  Blood insurance policy. Potential Blood pills that give Required amount of product hemoglobin, platelets, 26
  27. 27. BLOOD DONATION Service Classification We can categorize the Service in Two ways 1) Nature of Service. 2) Service Goods Continuum. 1) Nature of Service: here the Service are classify as per the purpose of it, provider, user, related industry etc. Business Service Communication Service Construction / Engineering Service Distribution Service Educational Service Service Environmental Service Financial Service Health related or Social Service Tourism and Travels Transportation Here, 10 types of Service are given BLOOD DONATION is cover under the Health related and Social service, because it related to human health and it also term as social responsibility when we give our Blood for unknown person. 27
  28. 28. BLOOD DONATION 2) Service Goods Continuum: The goods and services continuum enables marketers to see the relative goods/services composition of total products. A product‟s position on the continuum, in turn, enables marketers to spot opportunities. At the pure goods end of the continuum, goods that have no related services are positioned. At the pure services end are services that are not associated with physical products. Products that are a combination of goods and services fall between the two ends. As per the Service Goods Continuum service classify in five ways. 1) Pure tangible good 2) Good / accompanying services [Major goods with minor service] 3) Hybrid [same part of goods and service] 4) Service / accompanying goods [Minor goods with major service] 5) Pure service Here, BLOOD DONATION comes under Hybrid category because blood donation include same portion of service as well as goods. Like Blood, Blood bags have equal importance as donor, storage, labeling etc. 28
  29. 29. BLOOD DONATION Service Characteristic Service Features It refers to the varying features. The company can create high level model by adding more features. Features are competitive tool for differentiating the company‟s product from competitor‟s product. Provide more value and satisfaction. In case of Blood Donation features stand for Blood Cross Match and Result Storage Facility, Donor Database-Blood Group wise and Area wise, Complete Key Consumables Inventory Management, Searched Facility for Destroyed and Expired Blood, Improve Blood Bank processes by providing efficient and continuous software support, Features also refers to the function of Blood Bank like inspire new donor for Blood Donation, facility like Door to Door vane, personal treatment, professional doctors team.  Recruitment and retention of voluntary and replacement blood donors.  Collection, processing, storage and transportation of blood and its components.  Laboratory procedures.  Participation in the clinical use of blood and blood components. Teaching and training of personnel.  Research and development. 29
  30. 30. BLOOD DONATION Service Quality The characteristic of a product or service that bear on it’s ability to satisfy stated or implied customer needs. Quality has direct impact on product or service performance thus; it is closely linked to customer value and satisfaction. In case of Blood Donation Quality for the Blood available or quality of Blood bank primacies is also important.  Quality Control  Quality Assurance  Quality Improvement  Quality of blood available: proper inventory for different Blood group with minimum failiour of blood expiry. Responsibilities of the blood product requirements (anticoagulants and preservatives, shelf life etc.) Specific requirements related to independent quality control and quality assurance for overall quality of blood products and the processes related to dispersion of those products.  Equipment: Validation of new equipment. Calibration and preventative maintenance including standard equipment like refrigerators, complex equipment and computer systems. Continual monitoring of blood bank refrigerators extremely important in both blood centers and transfusion services. Require degree of hygiene of place, material and machine. 30
  31. 31. BLOOD DONATION Packaging The activity of designing and producing the container or wrapper for product. Traditionally, the primary function of package was to hold and protect the product. Incase of Blood Donation packaging is not necessary to innovative eye catching. But it must be support and protect Blood plasma and other element. In past the blood store in glass bottle but it have some limitation like fear for broken, short life of plasma because of it is not free from environmental air, etc. The Americans began to use plasticized PVC bags in the Korean war, circa 1950, since 1990 other polymers have been considered. Blow-extruded single blood bag type A Rolled double blood bag Rolled triple blood bag Quadruple Blood Bag 31
  32. 32. BLOOD DONATION Labeling Labels rang from simple tags attached to product to complex graphics that are part of package. It shows the basic information about product, use, safety instruction, brand, manufacture, ingredients, expiry date, etc. In case of Blood Donation labeling refers to the information printed on blood bag, Each blood component carries a label that gives the name of the component, the unit number, the ABO/Rh (black and white), the expiration date, the Blood Center which collected and processed the component. In addition special processing labels may be affixed to the unit (see below). All information on the label should be accurate and legible. Labels on units other than autologous will also state that the blood is from a volunteer donor. Red Blood Cells pooled platelets 32
  33. 33. BLOOD DONATION Product Support Service Product support service stands for the additional supportive thing and service. That enhance the use of product or service and create more customer value and satisfaction. It can be minor or major part of product. Incase of Blood Donation product support service are.  Blood Bank  Pharmacy  Orthotics and Prosthetics  Nursing Services  Physiotherapy  Academics & Research  Storage  laboratory  transfusion  Separation of BLOOD component  Re-call center for Blood donor 33
  34. 34. BLOOD DONATION Service Hierarchy Each product is related to certain other product. The product hierarchy stretches from basic need to particular items that satisfy those needs. We can identify six levels of the product hierarchy. Item or SKU Product type Product line Product class Product family Need family 34
  35. 35. BLOOD DONATION Service Hierarchy of Blood Donation Level Blood Donation Need social responsibility, responsibility family towards family in case of emergence. Way to fulfill social responsibility Product family ( financial donation, voluntary work, donation of human body component ) Product Health supportive activity class Product Blood donation line Product Homologous, Directed, Replacement type Donor, Autologous. Item or “Prathama” Homologous Blood Donation SKU in road blood collection van. 35
  36. 36. BLOOD DONATION Service Line Decisions Prathama Blood Blood Disribution collection Proceessing Whole Cross Match O+/- Blood Sample B+/- RBC Packaging A+/- FFP AB+/- CPP 36
  37. 37. BLOOD DONATION Pricing The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that customers exchange for the benefit of having or using product or service. Price is also one of the most flexible marketing mix elements. However, smart managers treat pricing as a key strategic tool for creating and capturing customer value. Adapting the price Company usually do not set a single price, but rather develop a pricing structure that reflects variation in geographical demands and costs, market segment requirement, purchase timings, order level, delivery frequency, service contracts, guarantees and other factor. Here company will examine several price. Adaption strategies: 1) Geographical pricing 2) Price discounts and allowances 3) Promotional pricing 4) Differentiated pricing 1. Geographical Pricing strategy In geographical pricing, the company decides how to price its products and sell to different customers in different locations and countries. Prathama Blood Centre is not using this pricing strategy because it is located only in Ahmadabad. 2. Price-Discount and Allowances Most companies will adjust their price and give discount and allowances for early payment, volume purchase and off-season buying. Company must do this carefully or find their profit much lower than planned. 37
  38. 38. BLOOD DONATION Prathama Blood Centre is using this strategy as they sell different components of blood to different patients i.e. Hemophilia Patients, Thalassemia Patients, etc. at different prices. 3. Promotional pricing strategy Companies can use several pricing techniques to stimulate early purchase. Prathama Blood Center is not using this strategy to sell blood, because the demand is more than supply of the blood, so there is no need of promotion. 4. Differentiated pricing Companies often adjust their basic price to accommodate differences in customer, product and so on. Differentiated pricing can be classified into four categories. Image pricing Channel pricing Product-form pricing Customer segment pricing As such, differentiated pricing model is followed by Prathama as follows.  Thalassemia patients, hepatitis-B patients may get discount  Regular donors and their family/relative get discount  Regular camp organizer  Government Hospital  During natural calamities earthquake etc. 38
  39. 39. BLOOD DONATION Price of Prathama  Prathama Blood Bank realized that against international price of blood component which is anywhere from 100 to 350 $ per blood component, Indians were getting low quality substitute at about RS 450 to 1000 (11-25 $) which is almost 1/10th.  This reality of economy guides Prathama for tight planning of the blood center, massive indigenization of even highly advanced systems and equipments and development of our town automation system including barcodes, software and other programs.  With prathama‟s fundamental work on Blood bank infrastructure creation, it managed to complete the blood center for less than RS. 750 lacks.  The blood center produces blood components which are at par with those of available in the developed nations, but only at a small fraction of the cost i.e. 5-15 $ per unit or RS. 250-600. At these low service charges Prathama blood center is still able to about 15% on awareness campaign. 39
  40. 40. BLOOD DONATION Price list of Prathama Donor Gener AMC. Hemo Thales Blood Component Priority Donor al Hos. phillia emia Holder RBC 850 590 425 425 700 FreeRDP-[Random DonorPlatelets] From 450ml. 500 350 500 500 500 Free Blood ROP From 450 315 450 450 450 Free Blood FFP [Fresh frozen 650 450 350 650 650 Free plasma]- large FFP – Medium 600 420 350 600 600 Free Cryoprecipitate 400 280 225 400 400 FreeCPP [cyro poor plasma] 450 315 280 450 450 FreePediatric unit RBC [Up 400 280 300 300 400 Free to 150 ml.]Pediatric unit FFT [UP 400 280 350 350 400 Free to 100 ml.]Cross Match Charges 150 150 100 100 150 150 [For RBC] Every Extra CrossMatch will be charged 75 75 75 75 75 75 per C.M.Production Cancellation 200 200 200 200 200 200 Charges Packaging Charges- 30 30 30 30 30Coolant Pack [per unit] 30 Effective from 20th June. 2012 As per donor insurance police, Cross Match Charges are applicable. 40
  41. 41. BLOOD DONATION PLACE or DISTRIBUION  Place is one of the main important factor of marketing.  Prathama Blood Centre situated at Dr. C.V.Raman Marg, B/H Jivaraj Mehta Hospital Vasna, Ahemedabad -380 007, Gujarat, India. Phone: +91-79-26600101.  The land 1500 s-m. was given by AMC (Ahmedabad Municiple Corporation).  A world class blood centre by the society for the society is Prathama Blood Centre Ahmedabad, prathama‟s infrastructure is also appreciate by JAPAN.  Prathama Blood Centre is charitable trust and a registered „Not Profit‟ organization.  In this building model blood bank can be considered as a high technology pharmaceutical manufacturing facility.  There are also vanes are service available in Prathama Blood Centre.  There are 4 vanes available. Which is goes to different area of Ahmedabad and collect blood by Donors.  Prathama has not any branch it has many storage centre in Ahmedabad city. 41
  42. 42. BLOOD DONATION The blood center was conceptualized to cost us Rs 7 corer his require indigenous design and development of technology and system. We floated our idea to Ahmedabad municipal corporation (AMC) to set up a modern blood bank for the city of Ahmedabad that runs as nonprofit organization. Key members of AMC immediately appreciated the objective and collaboration was established with AMC. How can a Donor Donate Blood ?  At Prathama blood center, Jivraj Park, Ahmedabad.  In the blood vans like the Red van, Blue van, Yellow van etc.  On At the Blood Donation Camps/sites How does a blood reach to the patient? Hospital Patient Direct to Prathama/storage patient Disribution location Delivery and pick up Patient Boy 42
  43. 43. BLOOD DONATION  To get blood we must have doctor‟s prescription and properly labeled blood sample in plain tube and EDTA tube.  Get sample to Prathama Blood Centre at cross match laboratory.  Depending upon blood component we need it take 45 minutes to 2 hours Delivery.  We have to pay service charge as per the rate of Prathama Blood Centre. Sample pick up and Delivery  Prathama offers to the facility of sample pick up and delivery of components from distant hospitals.  The patient need not come all the way to blood centre.  A nominal charge is levied towards this service to accommodate the cost.  Prathama Blood Centre provides blood to most of hospitals in Ahmedabad and other district also.  More than 80% people get blood from Prathama Blood Centre in Ahmedabad. Number of Channel Level Prathama Blood Bank mostly supply blood and it‟s component which are perishable in nature, so the distribution channel is very short and posses only one or Two levels. Prathama Provide Pick up and Delivery boy to keep the channel narrow. And because of perishability of Blood it is not possible to sent Blood far away then 50 to 60 km. Type of Retail Outlet Prathama provide Blood and Component only through their premises or from Blood Storage held by Prathama in Different Area of Ahmedabad City. 43
  44. 44. BLOOD DONATION The Promotion mix A companys total promotion mix-also called its marketing communications mix-consists of the specific blend of advertising, public relations, personal selling, sales promotion, and direct marketing tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships. Definitions of the five major promotion tools follow: 1. ADVERTISING: Any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. 2. SALES PROMOTION: Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service. 3. PERSONAL SELLING: Personal presentation by the firms sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships. 4. PUBLIC RELATIONS: Building good relations with the companys various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories, and events. 5. DIRECT MARKETING: Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships-the use of direct mail, the telephone, direct-response television, e-mail, the internet, and other tools to communicate directly with specific consumers. 44
  45. 45. BLOOD DONATION Advertising Objective: Prathama·s mission of giving advertisement is to spread awareness people about Blood Donation. Message: Through advertisements Prathama blood centre gives a very important societal message. The message that Prathama gives is that ´YOUR ONE TIME DONATION CAN SAVE OUR LIVES. Use of Different Advertising media 1) Radio: Prathama at the time of their Blood Donation camp on 14th june and on 1st October announces in RADIO MIRCHI to aware people about the events. 2) Hoardings: Different Hoardings are prepared by Prathama on various Blood Donation Camps. The hoardings which are prepared are shown at the places to drag the attention of various people where Blood Donation Camps are held. 3) Leaflets (brochures): Different Leaflets are prepared in which basic requirements of the person to donate blood are shown. It also shows the importance of blood donation. These leaflets are given to the people who visits in-house and to those who donate blood. 45
  46. 46. BLOOD DONATION Example of Advertising By Prathama Every Year Prathama Celebrates National Voluntary Blood Donation Day. This year the function organized at Auditorium on 1st October 2011 where Silver Jubilee Blood Donors (who donated 25 times or more at Prathama) were felicitated. Prathama also provide a certificate for their regular donor and appreciate their support to Prathama. Prathama believes that if the donor cannot come to the bank the bank must go to the donor…either through the donor consultants who have performance targets or through the mobile vans which also carries targets for the call centre dept. Prathama also believes in giving the people a great experience during blood donation and wants them to feel like Kings! To implement the same, it runs 3 magnificent designer vehicles which are called as blood mobile vans. Sales Promotion There are several ways of through which Sales Promotion can be done. Prathama Blood Centre uses the following ways. 1) Campaign 2) Regular van 3) Schemes and gifts 4) Appreciation letter 46
  47. 47. BLOOD DONATION 1) CAMPAIGN: There are many camps/drives organize by Prathama in various places. There are many places for e.g.: Mahalaxmi Complex, Gheekata Char Rasta, Ahmadabad, where awareness is necessary among people before camp took place. So for awareness among those people Prathama volunteers personally go there and distribute leaflets and spread awareness among them. They will also make big banners, posters with different slogans on them for different camps. They are also provide food, snakes and energy drink in their. 2) RECULAR VAN: Blood Mobile vans help the blood donors to donate blood at their door step in a comfortable ambience. People can sponsor various equipments, refreshment, gifts to attract more blood donors to these vans so that Prathama can save more lives. Prathama blood mobile vans are major attraction in the town and people love to visit blood mobile vans. People can sponsor Rs 5 lakhs - Rs 30 lakhs as corporate sponsorship for blood mobile van. Prathama has 3 different vans, Different vans have different schedules, van moves from area to area. 47
  48. 48. BLOOD DONATION 3) SCHEMES AND GIFT: At the time of blood donation all the donor are given different gifts like Bags, T-shirts, and Mug etc. The entire gift conveys message that “I have Donate Blood” These gifts motivate the donors but not to attract donor to donate blood. 4) APPRECIATION LETTER: In Prathama whenever any donor donate blood for twice or thrice then the call center staff will send appreciation letter to that donor. At the recent time where demand of blood is more appreciation letter is helpful to collect blood. Public Relation There are different ways in which Prathama Blood Centre maintains the Public Relation. These are as follows. Call Center Colleges Thalassemia Drives Blood Report Helping Poor People 48
  49. 49. BLOOD DONATION 1) CALL CENTER: The call center in Prathama is since last 4 years and the Prathama was the first to establish call center in blood bank. There are 8 employees in call center. They do 125 calls individually per day.  Objectives of call center: Reminder of call Give information about van schedule to donor Grievances Birthday call Thanks call 2) COLLEGES: Prathama maintains good public relation by inviting collages for visiting campus and sharing blood related information. 3) THALASSEMIA DRIVES: Prathama supports Thalessemia, Hemophilia and economically non-affording patients by providing components free or at subsidized charges. They ensure that the city has enough of safe blood. They shall contribute to make the citizens well aware and responsible to be regular blood donors and constantly meet citys blood requirement. 4) BLOOD REPORT: Whenever donors donate blood, donors will get blood report from Prathama Blood Centre. Blood report includes blood group, hemoglobin percentage, red cell percentage, white cell percentage, Coax, Platelets, and Plasma etc. 5) HELPING POOR PEOPLE: Prathama Blood Centre helps the poor people. It helps economically non-affording patients by providing components free or at subsidized charges. 49
  50. 50. BLOOD DONATION People  People are the most important element of any service marketing and influence the buyer‟s perception: namely firm personnel, the customer and other customer in any service environment.  Remember people buy from people that they like so the attitude, skills and appearance of all staff need to be first class thus it is an important element of service marketing mix.  People are also important for delivering and maintain transactional marketing and people play an important part in the customer relationship.  People deliver services in all sorts of settings .People play an important role to maintain long term customer relationship.  All the blood donors can be included in service experience. 50
  51. 51. BLOOD DONATION Roles and importance of service personnel Management team Doctors technical team Social marketing team  Management Team: Management Team of Prathama include all the all the management team as well as all people work at prathama for valuable solution and improvement related suggestion so there as connective team work and great work satisfaction among them result in less bios.  Doctors: Doctors team of prathama have excel in their work and their work devoted to prathama for emerging image of whole organization.  Technical Team: Prathama has dedicated team of internationally trained technicians to help us round-the-clock for any transfusion medicine related issue. In cattiva van there are around 25 to 30 trained technicians. 51
  52. 52. BLOOD DONATION  Social Marketing Team: This is special department which plays an important role in increasing awareness of blood donation in people and decreasing the social factors such as unawareness, fear of weakness which hinder blood donation. This team specially deals with regular donors to recall them to donate the blood by sending email, messages, etc. All the staff is specially trained by doctors and able to provide the best service to donors. The pleasant behaviour along with their skill largely affects the donors in a way that donors even feel that they are giving their blood. 52
  53. 53. BLOOD DONATION Physical Evidence  As we know services are largely intangible while marketing thus customers rely on physical cues to help them evaluate the product before they buy it.  There for marketers developed what we called physical evidence to replace these physical cues in a service.  The role of the marketer is to design and implement such tangible evidence. Physical evidence is the material part of a service.  For example in our case we can illustrate the following examples are as under. 1. The building itself: This includes the design of the building signage around the building and parking at the building how the building landscaped and the environment that surrounds the building. 2. The Ambience: The interior of any service environment this includes the interior design of the facility how well it is equipped internal signage how well the internal environment is laid out and aspects such as temperature and air conditioning. 53
  54. 54. BLOOD DONATION Internal View Donor seat Storage Area Internal View Form fill up Area Testing Lab Out sided water pond 54
  55. 55. BLOOD DONATION 3. Blood mobile van:  Prathama has pioneered in India the concept of voluntary blood donation in Blood Mobile Van.  Blood Donors who love to donate blood at an appealing and Comfortable place close to them.  If their act of blood donation is also recognized, it peps them up and motivates them to be a regular blood donor.  They also love our attempt to entice the first time and regular blood donors.  Cattiva is a high end sculptured blood mobile van with 5-star lounge like facilities inside.  Cattiva has four comfortable donor couches, built in medical examination room, refreshment area, chemical toilet, pipe music in air-conditioned environment.  The best part is all systems of the vehicle operate on electricity.  You can plug this vehicle at the popular location in your city which receive many visitors, plug it to 30 amp power point and you will get absolutely silent and 5-star like blood donor room.  This van includes following facilities.  Air condition:  This van is air conditioned with electrically operated hermetically sealed 6 units of1 ton AC. 55
  56. 56. BLOOD DONATION  It is designed for long run without failure.  The AC is good enough to with stand atmospheric temperature up to 47 degree centigrade.  Donor bed:  There are four fixed donor beds in this van.  The space, which is available under these beds, is utilized for storage.  This under bed space is divided in to drawers with telescopic channels. Upon special request, we can also provide automatic donor beds (at additional cost).  The other drawers, under each bed also has the storing facility for the following: 1. Empty Blood bags 2. Empty pilot tubes 3. Disinfectant swabs 4. Bar code labels 5. Bandage 6. Cotton 7. Disinfectant mops 8. Scissors 9. Syringe and needles  Refreshment Area:  Refreshment Area with a refrigerator and Storage Space for Tea, Snacks, Drinking Water etc.  There are well-displayed rack of various Snacks and a glass door refrigerator for cold Drinks.  An electric tea/coffee maker can also be 56
  57. 57. BLOOD DONATION provided. You can also stock mineral water.  Water Wash Basin:  A 200-litre water tank is provided for this.  This will not be leaked to general atmosphere and there is a provision to extract this waste and disinfect the tank from inside.  22 degree facility-for storing Blood in trays:  A special 22-degree zone with blood storage trays is provided to stock 100 units of blood.  In this zone, the blood temperature is pulled down from 38 degree to 22 degree.  This reduced the chances of bacterial contamination and still keeps blood good for manufacturing platelets.  Music system:  The music system of the van has CD changer cum Radio with good speakers for pleasant music.  The van has two additional speakers on the left side.  This is to provide entertainment to blood donors waiting outside or those filling the form outside.  This all is to make Blood drive as a fun event to recreate blood donors..  Emergency medicine:  There is space provided for IV fluid-10 bottles, Oxygen Cylinder for emergency requirement. 57
  58. 58. BLOOD DONATION  Seating for 5 people:  A team of five makes up the Blood drive crew. They have a comfortable drive allthrough. Their seats are front faced.  Great Driver & Passenger Comfort:  The vehicle is comfortable as any automobile in the road can be.  Fully air-conditioned, power steering, air suspension for smooth ride, good quality FM radio and other music, large, very comfortable, hydraulically adjustable seats. Process Entry Form Filling Initial Screening Secondary Screening Blood Donation Refreshment Post Donation Care 58
  59. 59. BLOOD DONATION  The element of marketing mix looks at the systems used to deliver the service. All the services need to be underpinned by clearly defined and efficient processes.  This will avoid confusion and promote a consistent service.  Process is the actual procedures mechanisms and flow of activities by which the service is delivered.  Processes essentially have inputs throughputs and outputs.1. Entry:  People who want to donate blood come voluntarily and follow next step especially in case of prathama. Primary secondary 2. Form filling:  At this stage donors fill the form, presenting all the information regarding their name, contact number, residential address whether they are regular donors or not.  Form also provide wider information for management for future initiative and arrange camp site at related area.3. Initial Screening:  Donations are accepted only after rigorous screening of medical and risk behavior.  Thus donors with 50 kg or above and with 12.5 or more hemoglobin are accepted.  If conditions are fulfilled then next screening will be followed. 59
  60. 60. BLOOD DONATION4. Secondary screening:  In this stage blood pressure, weight and past history of donors are reviewed.  The sample of blood is taken and testing of HIV 1 & 2,Hepatitis,HCV or other diseases are checked and if blood report is normal then donor follow further step.  If all turn out well then the next stage will proceed. 5. Blood collection:  At this stage donors are allowed to donate their blood to blood bank for help the required people or patients.  At prathama automated blood collection monitors are used to collect around 350ml to 450ml. 6. Refreshment:  At this stage as a part of refreshment blood donor are given tea or coffee with biscuits, especially at prathama donors are given hide and seek biscuits. 7. Post Donation Care Eat and Drinks something before leaving Drink more liquids than usual in next 4 hours Avoid consuming alcohol until you have eating something Dont smoke for next 30 minutes Avoid climbing steps for next 30 minutes If there is bleeding from the phlebotomy site, raise the arm and apply pressure If fainting or dizziness occurs, either lie down or site with the head between the knees 60
  61. 61. BLOOD DONATION Market Research Plan  “Market Research Plan requires the most efficient plan for gathering information.”  “The Systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of Data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization.” MARKETING MEANS • Money Motive M • All Customer Must be Satisfied A • Risk Must be Minimized R • Keep an Eye on The Competitor K • Easy Arability of Product E • Thoughtful Decision Making T • Importance to Advertisement I • Need Incredible Change All the Time N • Generation of New Idea G 61
  62. 62. BLOOD DONATION Marketing Research Chart Implimenting the Defining the Developing the research Plan Interpreting and Problem and Research Plan for Collecting and Reporting Research objective collecting Data Analyzing the Data  It involves decision on: 1. Data Sources. 2. Research Approaches. 3. Research Instruments. 4. Sampling Plan. 5. Contact Methods. Data Sources: It consists of Primary Data and Secondary Data.  Secondary Data: These Data are already existed. This Data can gather by Existing published document or pamphlet or relative organization, Government sources, online information, Online commercial agencies. But first we have to indentify the purpose of collection of data, Method Followed for Collection, Time period and other limitation otherwise that can be misguide to researcher. 62
  63. 63. BLOOD DONATION For Example: Prathama has collected Blood Only from Hundred percentage Voluntary Blood Donors greater than 46000 p.a. Blood without replacement greater than 110000p.a. Safe Blood greater than 40% Repeat Blood Donors. In shortest span of time Prathama has largest number of Blood Donors in Ahmadabad – More than 150000!!! And it meets about 50% Blood Requirement of the city.  Primary Data: These Data are those which are freshly collected for specific purpose. This collected data provide important base for finale conclusion of research. For primary Data we have to determine following approach. 1 • Research Approach 2 • Research Instrument 3 • Sampling Plan 4 • Contact Metthod 1. Research Approach: Primary Data can be collected in any of five ways:  Observational Research  Ethnographic Research  Focus Group Research  Survey Research  Experimental Research 63
  64. 64. BLOOD DONATION In our case we can use simply Survey Research the factors which affect positively and negatively blood donation by descriptive research. We can easily learn people‟s knowledge, beliefs, preferences, etc. by survey we can stated some factors as under. 2. Research Instruments: Marketing Researchers have choice of three main Research Instruments in collecting primary data: Questionnaires:- A Questionnaire consists of a set of a question presented to respondents. Researcher need to carefully develop and taste before administrating on a large scale. Qualitative Measures:- Qualitative measurement is unstructured approach that permits a range of possible responses. Technological Devices:- Technological device are occasionally useful in marketing research . We use Questionnaires which consist of set of Question regarding blood donation presented to respondents. Because of its flexibility, it is by far the most common instrument used to collect primary data. They are basically two types of questions: Open ended question: These allow respondents to answer in their own words and often reveal more about how people think. For example we can ask the following questions: 1) Have you donated blood ever? Explain your own view about blood donation. 2) What is the importance of blood donation? 3) What is the social factors affecting blood donation? Close Ended Question: These Questions specify all possible answers and provide answers that are easier to interpret and tabulate. For Example we can ask the following questions: 64
  65. 65. BLOOD DONATION 1) Do you donate the blood? a) Yes b) No 2) What are the reasons of donating the blood? a) Social responsibility. b) Special benefits. c) a & b. d) None of above. 3. Sampling Plan: After deciding on research approaches and research instruments the marketing researcher must design a sampling plan which calls for three decisions. 1. Sampling Unit: It Refers to the Best source from given population by which we can gather the information. We will select Sample unit as Adult and healthy population of Ahmedabad, Gujarat 2. Sampling Size: As we know large population give reliable results, but it‟s not necessary or possible to sample the entire target population to achieve reliable results. We may be interested in surveying the people who are living in cities from the total number of people who don‟t donate blood due to fear. The sample size for our will be 500 respondents and 20 Blood camp Organizer. 3. Sampling Procedure: There are basically two types of sampling procedures: i. Probability Sampling: It allows the confidence limits to be calculated for sampling error & makes the sample more representatives. Simple Random sampling Stratified sampling Systematic sampling Cluster/Area sampling 65
  66. 66. BLOOD DONATION ii. Non Probability Sampling: When the cost or time to use probability sampling is too high, marketing researchers will take this method. Convenience sampling Judgmental sampling Quota sampling We will use convineonce shampleing for the serway 4. Contact Methods: Now, marketers must decide how to contact the subjects. There are following various methods: Mail Questionnaires Telephone Interview Personal or Focus Group Interview Online approach We may ask some questions personally regarding blood donation in the camps or through mails. In case of prathama blood bank, we find out as a special department of social marketing, they use “Automated Recall Messages” to recall their regular blood donors. We will use personal interview for this survey. 66
  67. 67. BLOOD DONATION Conclusion This Project is Related Blood Donation cum Prathama Blood Bank. It gave us idea about the function of Blood bank as well as the over all 4Marketing Mix Elements[Product, Place, Promotion, Price] and 3 Extended service Marketing Mix Element [People, Physical evidence, process] in full detail about the Blood Donation. As well as it gives idea about understanding of marketing mix elements, Review of secondary data, Development of research plan, Understanding of marketing concepts and basic research methods. This project gave u best experience about Marketing Mix for us and to the reader also. At last we thank all who gave direct or indirect contribution for preparing this project report. 67
  68. 68. BLOOD DONATION BIBLIOGRAPHY  Kotler, Armstrong, Agnihotri and Haque (2010), Principles of Marketing, 13th Edition, person Education  Ravi Shankar, (2006), Service Marketing, Excel Book WEBOGRAPHY       THE END 68