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  • 1. The Future in Data Storage Presented By: Mark Farwell Holographic Optical Data Storage
  • 2. Introduction
    • Holographic Optical Storage (HODS) or Holographic Data Storage System (HDDS)
      • Most viable new data storage technology
      • Uses images rather then bits to store data
      • Images imposed in material
    • Disk the same size as a DVD will hold some 50 full feature movies
  • 3. Why Do We Need This?
    • “ For Internet applications alone, industry estimates are that storage needs are doubling every 100 days”
      • Nelson Diaz, Lucent Technology
    • “ Optoelectronics Industry and Technology Development Association projects that the year 2010, a storage system serving an average LAN will need … 100 TB and a WAN server will require 10TB to 1 petabyte …of storage” (Red Herring)
  • 4. Is That All?
    • Current magnetic and optical storage devices nearing limits
      • Magnetic densities near limit
      • Light wavelength nearing spot size
        • Diffraction becoming an issue
    • Needed step for smaller storage devices
      • Might be able to compact down to a a mere in 2
  • 5. Practical Solution or Cool Toy?
    • May be the answer to new storage demands of today
    • Super high storage densities
    • Super fast access possible
      • Estimate of at least 10’s of MB/sec and as high as 100’s of MB/sec
    • Small size
  • 6. Background: 2-D Holography
    • Developed on older holographic techniques
      • Same idea as authentication for credit cards
    • Object is imposed into a film
      • Beam is split
      • One beam shines on object
      • (object beam)
      • Reflection interacts with
      • reference beam to “burn”
      • image into film
  • 7. What Does That Mean?
    • Think of the beams as electromagnetic waves (photons)
    • When Object beam and Reference beam overlap, the become constructive or destructive
      • Like ripples in a pond
      • Constructive wave have higher energy
      • Destructive waves have lower energy
    Teen Gren
  • 8. Background: Holographic Optical Data Storage (HODS)
    • Only recently been seriously looked at thanks to new advances in photography
      • High density, High speed CCD’s
      • High density, High speed spatial light modulators (SLM)
        • High quality LCD
      • Both operate at 1024x1024 res. and up to 2000Hz
    • Most of research simply uses off the shelf equipment
  • 9. More Background
    • Figure shows a basic HODS
    • SLM projects a page of information into medium
    • CCD picks up specified page of information
  • 10. Recording
    • Data stream is sent to the SLM as 0’s and 1’s
      • Forms a “checkerboard” pattern
        • 1’s transmit light, 0’s block light
    • Beam is split
      • Light passing through SLM is the signal (object) beam
      • Reflected beam is the reference beam
    • Beams interfere in the medium to produce hologram much like before
  • 11. Recording by Figure
  • 12. Reading
    • Beam no longer split
    • Reference beam is diffracted off the recorded grating (hologram)
      • Reconstructs matrix
    • Projected using optic onto CCD
      • Converts into data stream
  • 13. Recording by Figure
  • 14. What Does This Allow
    • In the case of 2-D, much higher storage density then conventional disks
      • 50 movies per DVD size disk (5.25 in.)
    • In the case of 3-D, HUGE capacities using the entire volume rather then the surface
    • Parallel data storage!!!
      • 10’s to 100’s of MB/Sec
      • Can read and write at the same time
  • 15. Current Constraints: Material
    • Material is by far the biggest problem, if not the only one!!!
    • Must meet many criteria
    • Excellent Optical Quality
      • Good homogeneity and optical quality surface
    • High Recording Fidelity
      • Must read data beam amplitude well
  • 16. Current Constraints: Material
    • High Dynamic Range
      • Great ability to respond to optical exposure with the refractive index modulation (more holograms)
    • Low Scattered light
      • Readout beam scattering
    • High Sensitivity
      • Fast hologram recording/reading
    • Non Volatile Storage
      • Material should retain data for a time consistent with the data storage application
      • Dark decay and loss per-read
  • 17. Constraints: Size and Format
    • Right now the apparatus for reading and writing is rather large
      • Easily compacted once development completed
    • Format may be an issue
      • Scientists working on both 3-D and disc 2-D
      • Debate over whether to make the system WORM (Write-Once Read-Many), Re-writable or both
  • 18. What Can Be Done
    • Polymers
      • Work great for WORM applications
      • Starting to discover polymers for read-write
    • Crystalline structures
      • Better solutions for read-write capabilities
    • Two-Color Grated Recording
      • Uses two wavelengths of light
        • Both used to write, one used to read non-destructively
    • Once research is done, size and format are addressed
  • 19. Anything Else Being/Can Be Done?
    • I feel larger communication and computer companies need to realize the viability of such a technology
      • IBM, Intel, Lucent
    • Some already are
    • Big advances are being made
    • Research should be done in Universities and research facilities such as Bell Labs (techniques), and chemical research facilities (materials)
  • 20. Who is Involved…
    • InPhase Technologies, venture of Lucent Technologies
      • Exclusive purpose is to develop high-performance holographic data storage media
      • Seem to be leaders in viable product, near useable solution
    • Government and other participants donate $32 million for research
      • Large majority of research focused at Standford and IBM’s Almaden Research Facility
        • Main focus on testing optical system components and holographic storage materials (DEMON)
  • 21.  
  • 22. And…
    • Carnegie-Mellon University
    • GTE Corp.
    • IBM’s Watson Research Center
    • University of Arizona
    • University of Dayton
      • All focus on material research and technique research
  • 23. …Lastly
    • Kodak
      • Focus almost entirely on material development
      • Foremost leader in the development of crystal an polymer alternatives
    • Aprilis, Inc
      • Part of Polaroid, Inc.
      • Focus on developing a commercialized HODS or Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS)
  • 24. Impacts
    • The everyday user might not notice the impact other then more space on his/her computer
    • Big benefactors are big business and internet
      • Parallel data storage and retrieval allows for very fast data excess for number crunching and experiments (much faster computation times)
      • Much faster data access for internet servers as well as much larger storage densities (MB/in 2 )
      • Cheaper cost per Megabyte once mainstream
    • Data storage for libraries, documents and so forth will be cheaper and take up less space and access will be much faster
  • 25. Implications
    • As mentioned before, much faster access
    • Unfortunately, not too many technological advances will arise due to the introduction of HODS’s
      • Everything is mostly off the shelf technology
    • Polymer, Crystal, and Film technology or knowledge might benefit
  • 26. Market
    • Current storage memory market exceeds $100 billion dollars worldwide
      • $47 billion is solely hard disk, $42 billion magnetic tape drives, $6 billion optical disk
    • This is growing at 40% a year (1998)
    • HODS has the possibility of taking over this entire market
      • Can assimilate all these data storage types
      • Little to no competitive alternatives on the horizon
  • 27. When Can I Get One
    • Estimates of the emergence for such a technology is anywhere from 2003 to as late as 2010 and beyond
      • “ To solve the materials problem requires invention and an invention can’t be scheduled” (Hans Croufal, IBM’s Almaden Research Center)
      • First uses will be in network administration servers and internet servers
  • 28. Long Term
    • Eventually HODS’s may take over magnetic and optical devices all together
      • DVD’s with 1.6 terabytes on them
      • 1-centimeter square (sugar cube) holding a terabyte plus of data
      • Smaller (1-2 inch disc) type media
      • Less need for compression techniques (depending on internet communications)
        • Less data loss
      • Even smaller computers (hard drive one of the largest components)
      • Less power to drive = longer lasting laptops
  • 29. Other Impacts
    • Not a product that will increase the quality of life per say
    • Faster data access (internet)
    • Smaller, Cheaper electronics
    • More storage per dollar (long term)
    • The main importance is that new storage mediums must be found
  • 30. Conclusion
    • Built on technology that’s around for 40+ years
    • HODS may be the future of data storage
      • HUGE capacity, Very fast, Smaller
      • Parallel processing
    • Current storage methods nearing there fundamental limits of storage density
    • Stationary parts for some techniques
    • Meets the demand for a capacity hungry society
    • Large market and little new competition
  • 31. Demo
    • InPhase Technology demo
    • http://www. inphase -technologies.com
  • 32. Further Research/Bibliography
    • www.redherring.com/index.asp?layout=story&channel=70000007&doc_id=1050016905
    • www.aprilisinc.com/
    • www.lucent.com/press/0101/010130.bla.html
    • www.enteleky.com/holography/mpaper.htm
    • www.manhattsci.com/
    • http://www.research. ibm .com/research/press/holographic.html
    • http://www. imation .com/about/news/ newsitem /0%2C1233%2C298%2C00.html
    • http://www. pitt . edu /~drew1/2089/ holo . htm
    • http://www. sciam .com/2000/0500issue/0500toigbox5.html
  • 33. Bibliography Continues
    • Dogan A. Timucin and John D. Downie, IEEE Potentials, Vol. 19, No. 4, Holographic Optical Storage, Oct/Nov 2000
    • H. Vormann and E. Kratzig, Solid State Communications: Holographic Storage , 843, (1990)
    • IBM Holographic Storage Team, Laser Focus World, Holographic Storage Promises High data Density , Nov. 1996, pp. 81-93
    • G. T. Sincerbox, ed., Selected Papers on Holographic Storage (SPIE Milestone Series 95) (1994)
    • J. F. Heasnue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science, Volume Holograhic Storage and Retrieval of Digital Data , (1994)
    • H. Guenther, G. Whittmann, R. M. Macfarlane, and R.R. Neurgaonkar, Intensity dependence and white-light gating od two-color photorefractive gratings in LiNbO 3 , Sept. 1, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 17 / OPTICS LETTER