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Motivation

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Transcript

  • 1. Motivation INTC 5110 Fall 2010
  • 2. Paradigms and Motivation
    • Behaviorist view
      • Rewards, reinforcements and punishments
    • Cognitive Processing
      • Internal cognition due to extrinsic rewards and consequences
      • Can also be intrinsic – cognition based on internal drives
  • 3. Paradigms and Motivation
    • Objectivist view
      • Find the motivation and provide it to the learner
    • Constructivist view
      • Each person has their own motivations based on meaning they associate
    • Social Learning
      • Contextual and cultural influences on what is valued and strength of motivation
  • 4. Sources of Motivation
    • Curiosity
    • Variance of instruction
    • Imagination/Fantasy
    • Problems
    • Choice
    • Relevance
  • 5. Goal Setting
    • Set by Individual and/or Instructor?
    • Explicit Better than General
    • Increase in Difficulty
    • Proximal (close & quick) over Distal (distant)
    • Performance vs. Learning
    • Motive Matching - aligned with learner motives
  • 6. Self-Efficacy (Bandura)
    • Learner Beliefs about themselves
    • Difficulty of Task
      • Performance accomplishments (past success)
      • Vicarious experience (successful model)
      • Verbal persuasion (convinced of capability)
      • Physiological states (gut feeling)
    • Outcome of Task
      • Personal value of achieving goal/task
  • 7. Consequences
    • Natural consequences (learning more=doing more)
    • Positive consequences (rewards)
    • Intrinsic motivation vs. extrinsic
    • Attribution Theory
      • We have a need to attribute cause to successes and failures
      • Search for understanding of success/failure
        • Internal vs. External
        • Stable vs. Unstable
        • Controllable vs. Uncontrollable
  • 8. Keller ARCS Model
    • Here is one of the original publications of the model
    • A resource is at http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/ARCS.htm
    • Another resource: http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-1/motivation.htm
  • 9. Keller ARCS Model
    • A ttention
      • Arousing and sustaining curiosity and interest
    • R elevance
      • Link to learners' needs, interests, and motives
    • C onfidence
      • Positive expectation for successful achievement
    • S atisfaction
      • Provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement for effort
  • 10. ARCS Strategies
    • Use unexpected and novel approaches
    • Use engaging problems
    • Vary presentation styles
    • Relate to personal goals
    • Build on previous positive experiences
    • Build expectation via goals/objectives
    • Allow for immediate use of learning
  • 11. ARCS Design Process
    • Analyze audience and create a profile
    • Define motivational objectives
    • Design motivational strategy
    • Try and revise
  • 12. Conclusion
    • Many takes on motivation
    • Very difficult to quantify and measure
      • Changing variables
      • Internal process
    • Important as a first step in almost all learning

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