Burden of nc ds, policies and programme for
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  • 1. Burden of NCDs in India Policies and Programme for Prevention and Control Guided by- Dr Y. D. Badgaiyan Prof. & Head Deptt. of Community Medicine, CIMS, Bilaspur (C.G.)
  • 2. Introduction • Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are most common causes of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. • And its has been replaced communicable diseases.
  • 3. • About 80% of the burden occurs in low and middle-income countries and • 25% of NCDs occur, in individuals younger than 60 years.
  • 4. • The global economic impact of NCDs is enormous. • By 2015, just two diseases (cardiovascular diseases and diabetes) are expected to reduce global GDP by 5%.
  • 5. • Approximately half of the total economic burden is reported to account for by CVD including stroke, ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. • Which together cause more deaths than HIV/AIDs, malaria and tuberculosis combined.
  • 6. • In recognition of the increasing burden and importance of chronic diseases, in 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a plan for NCD prevention and control. • It offers the health community a new global goal to reduce death rates from all chronic diseases by 2% every year, • over and above the existing trends during the next 10 years.
  • 7. Burden of non-communicable diseases in India • As of 2004, NCDs contributed half of the total mortality and were the major causes of death. • Among the NCDs, cardiovascular diseases are number one cause of mortality (52%).
  • 8. • NCDs account for more than two-fifth (43%) of the DALYs, and • among this group, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers together account for 40% of the NCD-related DALYs in India.
  • 9. • Regional studies have reported that even in rural India the leading cause of death (32%) is NCDs followed by injuries and external cause of deaths (12%).
  • 10. • Projection estimates from the WHO have shown that by the year 2030, CVDs will emerge as the main cause of death (36%) in India. • Since the majority of deaths are premature, there is a substantial loss of lives during the productive years as compared to other countries.
  • 11. The salient features of the Causes of Death in India. (Survey (2001-03) conducted by the Registrar General of India) • The overall non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of death in the country. • They constitute 42% of all deaths.
  • 12. • Urban areas have a lower number of deaths from communicable, maternal, peri-natal and nutritional conditions. • But a higher proportion from non-communicable diseases (56%).
  • 13. Overall, leading causes of deaths in India 1. cardiovascular disease (19%), followed by 2. respiratory diseases ( 9%), 3. diarrheal diseases (8%), 4. perinatal conditions (6.3%), 5. respiratory infections such as acute pneumonia (6.2%), tuberculosis (6%), 6. malignant and other neoplasms (5.7%), 7. senility (5.1%), 8. unintentional injuries: other (4.9%), and 9. symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions (4.8%)
  • 14. Causes of death. (survey: 2001-03)
  • 15. Table 1: Estimated burden and trends of Non-communicable diseases in India
  • 16. National response to NCDs • Government of India had supported the States in prevention and control of NCDs through several vertical programs. • National Health Programs for Cancer and Blindness were started as early as 1975 and 1976, respectively, followed by program on Mental Health in 1982.
  • 17. • However, during the 11th Plan, there was considerable upsurge to prevention and control NCDs. • New programs were started on a low scale in limited number of districts. • Convergence with public sector health system was a feature of these programs.
  • 18. • Some of the programs were within the framework of National Rural Health Mission. • New programs are focused on CVDs, diabetes, stroke, tobacco control, deafness, trauma, burns, fluorosis and geriatric problems.
  • 19. Future plan to prevent and control NCDs • There is adequate evidence that NCDs are major contributors to high morbidity and mortality in the country. • Risk factors including tobacco and alcohol use, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet, obesity, stress and environmental factors.
  • 20. • The modifiable risk factors can be controlled to reduce incidence of NCDs and better outcomes for those having NCDs.
  • 21. • Most of the NCDs like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mental disorders and problems relating to aging are not only chronic in nature, • but also may have long pre-disease period where effective lifestyle changes can turn around health status of individuals.
  • 22. • Costs borne by the affected individuals and families may be catastrophic as treatment is long term and expensive. • The economic, physical and social implications of NCDs are significant, justifying investment both for prevention and management of NCDs and well-established risk factors.
  • 23. • There is urgent need for a comprehensive scheme that should focus on health promotion and prevention of NCDs and • their risk factors and comprehensive management of NCDs at various levels across the country.
  • 24. NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CANCER, DIABETES, CVD AND STROKES (NPCDCS)
  • 25. • Considering the fact that NCDs are surpassing the burden of communicable diseases in India and existing health system is mainly focused on communicable diseases, • need for National Programme for control of Diabetes, CVD and Stroke was envisaged.
  • 26. • Later on this programme was integrated with National Cancer Control Programme and • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVDs and Stroke was came in to existence.
  • 27. • During 11th Five Year Plan 100 districts in 25 states have been covered under the NPCDCS. • The programme focused on health promotion, capacity building and early diagnosis and management of the diseases with integration with the primary health care system.
  • 28. Objectives of NPCDCS 1. Prevention and control of common NCDs through behavior and life style changes. 2. Provide early diagnosis and management of common NCDs. 3. Build capacity at various levels of health care for prevention, control and treatment of NCDs. 4. Train human resources for in Primary Health Care to cope with burden of NCDs. 5. Establish and develop capacity for palliative and rehabilitative care.
  • 29. ACTIVITIES AT VARIOUS LEVELS PHC and Sub-Center Level • Health promotion by life style change through health education like banner, poster, personal communication and camps. • Opportunistic screening of population above 30 years by BP and Blood Glucose measurements. • Referral services for the suspected cases of CVD and Cancer.
  • 30. • At CHC Level • NCDs clinic at CHC shall do the diagnosis by required investigation, management and stabilization of common CVDs. • One of the nurse appointed under programme shall undertake home visit for bedridden cases, supervise the work of health workers and monthly clinic for NCDs random at villages.
  • 31. • At District Hospital • NCDs clinic at district hospital screen persons above the age 30 years for DM, CVDs and HTN. • Detailed investigation of high risk persons. • Regular management and annual assessment for person suffering from the Cancer, DM, HTN and CVDs.
  • 32. Urban Health Check-up scheme ( for diabetes and high blood pressure) • To screen urban slum population for DM and HTN. • To create database for prevalence of diabetes and HTN in urban slum. • To sensitize urban slum population about healthy life-style. The blood sugar and BP will be checked for all > 30 years and all pregnant women.
  • 33. Cancer component under NPCDCS • With objective of early diagnosis and treatment the national cancer control programme was launched in 1975-76. • During 2010, the programme was integrated with NPCDCS. • Objectives of the programme are - 1. Primary prevention of cancer by health education. 2. Secondary prevention by early diagnosis and treatment. 3. Tertiary prevention by stregthening of existing institutions of comprehensive therapy including palliative care.
  • 34. Policies and approach • There have been some legal measures taken by Government of India aiming at non- communicable diseases e.g. the Tobacco Control Act 2003 • which aimed at prohibition on advertisement and regulation on production, supplies and distribution of tobacco products.
  • 35. • However, implementation of these acts is a challenge. • It is expected that revision in National Health Policy is due and should duly emphasize policies and strategies to prevent and control NCDs including population-based interventions that require multi- sectoral approach.
  • 36. Key Strategies: 1. Health promotion for healthy lifestyles that preclude NCDs and their risk factors. 2. Specific prevention strategies which reduce exposure to risk factors. 3. Early diagnosis through periodic/opportunistic screening of population and better diagnostic facilities.
  • 37. 4. Infrastructure development and facilities required for management of NCDs. 5. Establish emergency medical services with rapid referral systems to reduce disability and mortality due to NCDs.
  • 38. 6. Treatment and care of persons with NCDs including rehabilitation and palliative care. 7. Health legislation and population-based interventions through multi-sectoral approach for prevention of NCDs. 8. Building evidence for action through surveillance, monitoring and research.
  • 39. Status of national health programs on NCDs in India
  • 40. Conclusion • There is evidence to show that NCDs are leading causes of death, disability and morbidity and • their burden is likely to increase if urgent interventions are not initiated on a mass scale throughout the country.
  • 41. • Currently implemented programs that address NCDs have not been able to reduce their burden due to limited scale of implementation. • An integrated and comprehensive approach is suggested.
  • 42. • Emphasis should be given on health promotion, population-based interventions, prevention of exposure to risk factors, specific measures at individual and family level, early diagnosis through screening and better diagnostic facilities, improved capacity for management and universal access to health services.
  • 43. THANK YOU