Ian Fraser                  Highways                     Agency            Co-operative Vehicle - Highway                 ...
What is AHS?An Automated Highway System is a vehicle and road based system that can drivea vehicle automatically. This is ...
Why Automated Highways?SafetyNinety percent of all vehicle accidents result from driver-related factors –inattentiveness, ...
AHS was at that time called Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS).Falling under the general category of ITS, the stat...
History of AHS :            AHS from 1992-94:            In 1991, Congress passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation   ...
Efficiency:The National highway system carries eighty-nine percent of passengergroundmiles traveled and thirty-two percent...
UK Position on CVHS           The UK is currently considering the role that            Cooperative Vehicle-Highway System...
Shaping Direction           Developing the business case and direction for            longer term CVHS research, leading ...
Shaping & Integrating CVHS                                 COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT                                    & MAR...
Route - Guidance             Driver Information                     A Target Capability?                                  ...
User Attitudes to Automated                 Highway Systems               IEE International Conference on              Adv...
User Attitudes to Automated                          Highway Systems:           Approach           Three stages of AHS d...
User Attitudes to Automated                           Highway Systems:                                    Approach       ...
User Attitudes to Automated                           Highway Systems:                                    Overview        ...
User Attitudes to Automated                 Highway Systems            Safety and Warning SystemsPicture 4
Safety and Warning Systems:                            DescriptionProvide information/warnings visually or  by voice to: ...
Safety and Warning Systems:                                Examples           RDS           Tachographs           Traff...
Safety and Warning Systems:                           Main Findings (1)           50% of drivers already use some form of...
Safety and Warning Systems:                           Main Findings (2)           70% of drivers say they would find the ...
User Attitudes to Automated                 Highway Systems             Driver Assistance SystemsPicture 4
Driver Assistance Systems:                           DescriptionAssist driver’s steering, braking and  acceleration to: p...
Driver Assistance Systems:                                 Examples           Cruise Control           Advanced Cruise C...
Driver Assistance Systems:                                   Main Findings (1)               40% of drivers already use s...
Driver Assistance Systems:                             Main Findings (2)Perceived benefits include:           increased d...
Driver Assistance Systems:                                   Main Findings (3)               headway control was also pop...
User Attitudes to Automated                 Highway Systems             Fully Automated HighwayPicture 4
Fully Automated Highway:                                   DescriptionSystems in which:           vehicles are fully auto...
Fully Automated Highway:                                  Examples           Smart Cruise            System 7            ...
Fully Automated Highway:                                Main Findings (1)           60% of drivers said they would use AH...
Fully Automated Highway:            Likely responses  Main Findings (2)                               Would make          ...
Fully Automated Highway:                            Main Findings (3)           there were concerns about:               ...
User Attitudes to Automated Highway                                           Systems :                            Summary...
Seminar and Strategy                     Workshop:5-6 February 2001, ICE, London               50 delegates attended    ...
User Attitudes to Automated Highway                                           Systems :                                   ...
Conclusion :Without the advantage of increased efficiency through platooning, the onlyadvantage of using automation in mix...
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automated highways system

  1. 1. Ian Fraser Highways Agency Co-operative Vehicle - Highway Systems ResearchPicture 4
  2. 2. What is AHS?An Automated Highway System is a vehicle and road based system that can drivea vehicle automatically. This is done using sensors that serve as the vehicle’s eyes,determining lane position and the speed and location of other vehicles. Actuators on the throttle, brake, and steering wheel give the vehicle the commandsthat a driver normally would.AHS vehicles often also have equipment to communicate with other AHSvehicles.The concept of an Automated Highway has been around for a long time.General Motors displayed a working model of an automated highway at the 1939World’s Fair in New York City [8]. Automated trains have been in use since the 1960’s.But it has not been until recently that the technology has become available to buildAutomated highways and vehicles Picture 4
  3. 3. Why Automated Highways?SafetyNinety percent of all vehicle accidents result from driver-related factors –inattentiveness, inability to respond quickly enough, or bad driving decisions [1]. Over 40,000 people die annually in motor vehicle accidents and propertydamage is estimated at over $150 billion .Electronic systems that never take over some or all of thedriver’s responsibilities are the most promising method of reducing theseaccidents.Analyses of causes show that highway accidents could be reduced between 31and 85percent with the use of electronic collision avoidance technologies and fatalcrashescould be reduced by at least 50 percent . Picture 4
  4. 4. AHS was at that time called Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS).Falling under the general category of ITS, the stated goals of the system were:5.Enhancement of surface transportation efficiency2. Achievement of national transportation safety goals3. Protection and enhancement of the natural environment and communities affected bysurface transportation4. Accommodation of the needs of all users of surface transportation systems5. Improvement of the Nation’s ability to respond to emergencies and natural disastersBecause these goals were so broad, the US Department of Transportation(USDOT) formed the Joint Program Office (JPO) which brought together the FederalHighway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, and National Highway TrafficSafety Administration and several other DOT administrations. From 1992-1994, onlyresearch and analysis on IVHS was done. Engineers mainly worked on human factorsresearch and traffic safety analysis. Picture 4
  5. 5. History of AHS : AHS from 1992-94: In 1991, Congress passed the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) which introduced funding for many Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The Secretary shall develop an automated highway and vehicle prototype from which future fully automated intelligent vehicle highway systems can be developed. Such development shall include research in human factors to ensure the success of the man-machine relationship . The goal of this program is to have the first fully automated roadway or an automated test track in operation by 1997. This system shall accommodate installation of equipment in new and existing motor vehicles.Picture 4
  6. 6. Efficiency:The National highway system carries eighty-nine percent of passengergroundmiles traveled and thirty-two percent of the ton-miles of commercialfreight travel .The number of vehicles on the roads has doubled in the last ten years whilehighway capacity has for the most part, remained the same.Consequently, the average speed on urban highways and crowded corridorsduring rush hour is 36 miles per hour.This loss of time and productivity costs the US $50 billion annually .One solution that engineers are exploring now is an Automated HighwaySystem (AHS).By reducing or eliminating driver error and placing cars more closely togethersafely on the highways, highway throughput could be doubled or tripled.Picture 4
  7. 7. UK Position on CVHS  The UK is currently considering the role that Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Systems can play on its roads.  The Department of Transport, Local Government & Regions (DTLR), and the Highways Agency, alongside other UK Agency organisations have set up a discussion forum to develop policy and direction in this area.Picture 4
  8. 8. Shaping Direction  Developing the business case and direction for longer term CVHS research, leading to system development, demonstration and implementation – Guided by Highways Agency 2030 Vision – Building upon the inheritance of earlier research – Road Traffic Advisor – User Acceptance Studies – Foresight Vehicle Programme + EU Initiatives – Developing CVHS in partnership with stakeholder organisationsPicture 4
  9. 9. Shaping & Integrating CVHS COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT & MARKET DEMAND Partnerships Interurban LEGAL AUTOMOTIVE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ECONOMIC Urban COMMUNICATION National USER NEEDS & APPLICATIONS & REGULATION & SERVICES INNOVATION SAFETY POLICY IMPLIMENTATION INTEGRATION European INFRASTRUCTUREMultimodal DEVELOPMENT ITS LIABILITY ENVIRONMENT Worldwide POLITICAL AGENDA Picture 4
  10. 10. Route - Guidance Driver Information A Target Capability? Road User Charging Floating Car Data Intelligent Speed Adaptation Electronic Number Plate Recognition Longitudinal Vehicle Control Lateral Vehicle Control Collision Avoidance Driver Monitoring Integrated Solutions Fully Automated HighwayPicture 4
  11. 11. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems IEE International Conference on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Held on 17 September 2001Picture 4
  12. 12. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems:  Approach  Three stages of AHS development: - Safety and Warning Systems - Driver Assistance Systems - Fully Automated HighwayPicture 4
  13. 13. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems: Approach International Review Focus Groups Structured Survey Seminar and Strategy WorkshopPicture 4
  14. 14. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems: Overview  Broad acceptance of all three stages of AHS development  Important variations in attitude among different social groups  Degree of acceptance varied between the three stages of AHS developmentPicture 4
  15. 15. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems Safety and Warning SystemsPicture 4
  16. 16. Safety and Warning Systems: DescriptionProvide information/warnings visually or by voice to: inform drivers of adverse conditions assist route guidance/navigation warn of dangerous situations or collisions warn of obstacles which a driver cannot seePicture 4
  17. 17. Safety and Warning Systems: Examples  RDS  Tachographs  TrafficMasterPicture 4
  18. 18. Safety and Warning Systems: Main Findings (1)  50% of drivers already use some form of these systems which they consider to be: - useful - reliable - good value  presentation of the information by voice is preferred to visual meansPicture 4
  19. 19. Safety and Warning Systems: Main Findings (2)  70% of drivers say they would find the systems useful: - on unfamiliar journeys - at night - on motorways - in congested trafficPicture 4
  20. 20. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems Driver Assistance SystemsPicture 4
  21. 21. Driver Assistance Systems: DescriptionAssist driver’s steering, braking and acceleration to: prevent drivers from exceeding the speed limit keep the vehicle at a safe distance from the vehicle in front stop and park the vehicle safely if the driver is unfit to drivePicture 4
  22. 22. Driver Assistance Systems: Examples Cruise Control Advanced Cruise Control Headway Control Traction ControlPicture 4
  23. 23. Driver Assistance Systems: Main Findings (1) 40% of drivers already use some form of these systems which they consider to be: - useful - reliable - good value stop and park was the most popular Picture 4
  24. 24. Driver Assistance Systems: Main Findings (2)Perceived benefits include: increased driver confidence increased feeling of safety increased driver comfortPicture 4
  25. 25. Driver Assistance Systems: Main Findings (3) headway control was also popular but there was concern (especially from younger drivers) about: - surrendering control - over-reliance - system reliability speed control was the least popular many drivers prefer voluntary systems to compulsory systems Picture 4
  26. 26. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems Fully Automated HighwayPicture 4
  27. 27. Fully Automated Highway: DescriptionSystems in which: vehicles are fully automated such that the driver operates neither steering nor brake nor accelerator all vehicles travel at the same speedPicture 4
  28. 28. Fully Automated Highway: Examples Smart Cruise System 7 (Japan) Platooning (Korea)Picture 4
  29. 29. Fully Automated Highway: Main Findings (1) 60% of drivers said they would use AHS but the least willing were the younger drivers perceived benefits were: - no delays - ability to schedule journeys better - speed uniformity there was little interest in: - operation at higher speed - use of the vehicle as an officePicture 4
  30. 30. Fully Automated Highway: Likely responses Main Findings (2) Would make more motorway journeys 21% Would not use the motorway 4% Would use other transport which is not automated 4% Would continue with no effect 71%Picture 4
  31. 31. Fully Automated Highway: Main Findings (3) there were concerns about: - system reliability (especially from younger drivers and those familiar with technology) - surrendering control - cost to the vehicle owner and taxpayer likely to increase demand for motorway use, but likely to reduce demand for motorway use if used with tollsPicture 4
  32. 32. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems : Summary of Key Findings broad acceptance of all three stages of AHS development important variations in attitude among different social groups identified issues likely to affect levels of social acceptance which should be considered in the design and marketing of AHS Picture 4
  33. 33. Seminar and Strategy Workshop:5-6 February 2001, ICE, London 50 delegates attended papers presented by prominent experts in the field (from Europe, Japan and the US) established contacts established authority of HA on world-stage Picture 4
  34. 34. User Attitudes to Automated Highway Systems : Acknowledgements Highways Agency Transport and Travel Research Ltd ITS Leeds University TRL Limited Picture 4
  35. 35. Conclusion :Without the advantage of increased efficiency through platooning, the onlyadvantage of using automation in mixed traffic is improved safety.Although safety is an important improvement, it may not be enough to justifyinvestment.The cost/benefit ratio may be too low for government and consumers tomake an investment, especially since the value of added safety is difficult tomeasure.However, mixed traffic intelligent vehicles may be an important first step inthe use of AHS that will lead to the building of more and more dedicatedlanes.Vehicles should be able to run in either scenario, but perhaps would havesome functions limited while driving in mixed traffic.Picture 4
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