The muscular system is the largest system in the body.Muscles are located in practically every region of the body.The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with theskeletal system to control movement of the body.Muscles function is to produce force and cause motion.Muscles can cause either locomotion of the organism itself ormovement of internal organs.There are three distinct types of muscles:skeletal muscles, cardiac or heart muscles, and smooth muscles.Muscles provide strength,balance posture ,movement andheat for the body to keep warm.There are approximately 639 skeletal muscles .
T h e S k e le t a l S y s t e mThe human skeleton consists of both fused andindividual bones supported and supplemented byligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage.An average adult skeleton consists of 208 bones. There are five generalclassifications of bones, These areLong bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones,and Sesamoid bones.Function: The Skeletal System serves many importantfunctions; it provides the shape and form for our bodiesin addition to supporting, protecting, allowing bodilymovement, producing blood for the body, and storingminerals.
The nervous system is a network of specialized cells that communicate information about anorganisms surroundings and itself.The nervous system is divided broadly into two categories: the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. Neurons generate and conduct impulses between and withinthe two systems. The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory neurons and theneurons that connect them to the nerve cord, spinal cord and brain, whichmake up the central nervous system.In response to stimuli, sensory neurons generate and propagate signals tothe central nervous system which then processes and conducts signals backto the muscles and glands. The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. H u m a n s h a v e a b o u t 10 0b illio n n e u r o n s in t h e ir b r a ina lo n e !
The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the bodys long- distance messengers, or hormones. The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the nervous system. However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. The major human endocrine glands include hypothalamus and pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads or sex organs, pineal gland. Functions: The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes.
The Cardiovascular Systemis an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids andelectrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, nitrogen waste products, etc. toand from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize bodytemperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. This system may be seen strictly as a blooddistribution network, but some consider the circulatory system as composed ofthe cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system,which distributes lymph.On average, your body has about 5 liters of blood continually traveling throughit by way of the circulatory system. The heart, the lungs, and the blood vessels worktogether to form the circle part of the circulatory system. The pumping of the heart forces the bloodon its journey.Two types of fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. The blood, heart, and blood vessels form the cardiovascularsystem. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphvessels form the lymphatic system. Thecardiovascular system and the lymphatic system collectively make up thecirculatory system.The circulatory system is divided into three major parts: heart, blood and blood vessels.
A r e s p ir a t o r ys ys te m sfunction is to allow gas exchange.The anatomical features of the respiratory systeminclude airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules ofoxygen and carbon dioxide are passivelyexchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseousexternal environment and the blood. This exchange processoccurs in the alveolar region of the lungs.
The digestive systemis one of the most complex systems of the body. The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food intovitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs forenergy, growth, and repair.The main organs of the digestive system are mouth, esophagus, stomach, smalland large intestines, anus, appendix. Accessory organs to the alimentary canalinclude the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.Digestion involves mixing food with digestive juices, moving it through thedigestive tract, and breaking down large molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when you chew and swallow, and is completed inthe small intestine.In human body, food enters the mouth, being chewed by teeth, and broken downby the saliva from the salivary glands. Then it travels down the esophagus into thestomach, where acid begins physical break down of some food, and chemicalalteration of some. The "leftovers" go through the small intestine, through thelarge intestine, and are excreted during defecation.
The urinary systemis the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes twokidneys, two ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and the penis in males. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are leftbehind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs,skin, and intestines -all of which also excrete wastes- to keep the chemicals andwater in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid andfood a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat andbreathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urineeliminated.The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, andcertain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.
Th e h u m a n r e p r o d u c t iv es ys te mThe main male sex organs are the penis and the testes which producesemen and sperm, A females internal reproductive organs are the vagina, uterus,fallopian tubes, and ovaries.Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role inpregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and theability to have children. There are many such problems in men andwomen. Reproductive health problems can also be harmful to overallhealth and impair a persons ability to enjoy a sexual relationship.Your reproductive health is influenced by many factors. These includeyour age, lifestyle, habits, genetics, use of medicines and exposure tochemicals in the environment.
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The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes.Before you finish reading this sentence, approximately one hundredbillion (100,000,000,000) operations will have been completed inside youreyes.The eye is not properly a sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit.The smaller, less curved unit called the cornea, is linked to the larger unitcalled the sclera. The cornea and sclera are connected by a ring calledthe limbus. The iris and its black center, the pupil, are seen instead of thecornea due to the corneas transparency.The eye is made up of three coats, enclosing three transparentstructures. The outermost layer is composed of the cornea and sclera.The middle layer consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. Theinnermost is the retina, which gets its circulation from the vessels of thechoroid as well as the retinal vessels, which can be seen in anopthalmoscope.