Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Guide:Mrs. Kale J. S.

October 21, 2013

Presented By:Hamand Amol Sambhaji.
Pardeshi Dhananjay Rajend...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

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Introduction
Types Of Data Sharing
Traditional Client-Server Downloading...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Humans tend to share things.
• As electronic data plays a vital role these days, they acquire the
“...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Manual Sharing Using Removable Media: Such as Memory Cards,
USB drives, External Hard disks etc.

...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• The client – server model is a centralized
model.
• A server is a computer that selectively shares
...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Protocols used:- 1)FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
2)HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).
• The transfe...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a decentralized network.

• In peer-to-peer sharing, all individual...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• When the software finds a computer that
has the file you want on its hard drive ,
the download begi...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Bit-Torrent is a peer to peer (P2P) protocol used for sharing files
over the network.
• A P2P clien...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Unlike some other peer-to-peer downloading methods, BitTorrent
is a protocol that offloads some of ...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• The BitTorrent protocol was designed by Bram Cohen in April
2001, now maintained by BitTorrent, Inc...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• .torrent - A pointer file that directs your computer to the file you
want to download.
• Peer – Act...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Tracker - A server that keeps track of leechers and seeds in the
network. The tracker is centralize...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

•You open a Web page and click on a link for the file you want.

•BitTorrent client software communic...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Swarm
 Set of peers all downloading the same file.
 Organized as a random mesh.



Each node kn...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.







October 21, 2013

File Ubantu.iso .torrent
hosted at a (well-known)
webserver.
The .torrent ...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

www.bittorrent.com

1

Peer

October 21, 2013







File Ubantu.iso .torrent
hosted at a (well-kn...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

www.bittorrent.com





Peer

2


Tracker

October 21, 2013

File Ubantu.iso .torrent
hosted at a ...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

www.bittorrent.com




Peer



3

Tracker

File Ubantu.iso .torrent
hosted at a (well-known)
webse...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

• Manages users participating in a torrent (known as peers).

• Stores statistics about the torrent.
...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

October 21, 2013

21
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Peers: A peer is another computer on the internet that you connect to
and transfer data. Generall...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

Tracker

Web Server

C
A
Peer
Peer

[Leech]
Downloade
r
October 21, 2013

“US”

B

[Seed]

Peer
[Leec...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Random First Piece
 Special case, at the beginning.



Rarest First
 General rule.



Endgame ...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Initially, a peer has nothing to trade.



Important to get a complete piece ASAP.
 So as to ass...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Look at all pieces at all peers, and request piece that‟s owned
by fewest peers.


Increases dive...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



Near the end, missing pieces are requested from every peer
containing them.



This ensures that ...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}

Seeder:

A

{}
{1,2,3}
{1,2,3,5}
{}
{1,2,3}
{1,2,3,4}
{1,2,3,4,5}

Downloader...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.



News of increased adoption of this revolutionary protocol
continues to emerge, and this seems to b...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bittorrent.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BitT...
Pardeshi Dhananjay.

October 21, 2013

37
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Bittorrent Seminar by dhananjay pardeshi

  1. 1. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Guide:Mrs. Kale J. S. October 21, 2013 Presented By:Hamand Amol Sambhaji. Pardeshi Dhananjay Rajendra.
  2. 2. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Types Of Data Sharing Traditional Client-Server Downloading Peer-Peer Downloading What is BitTorrent? Why BitTorrent? Origin! BitTorrent Terminology How BitTorrent works? Swarm, Tracker, Peers, Leeches, Seeds Architecture of BitTorrent Piece Selection Conclusion References October 21, 2013 2
  3. 3. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Humans tend to share things. • As electronic data plays a vital role these days, they acquire the “sharing” attribute. • Sharing electronic data(emails, eBooks, multimedia files) is the need of the hour. • Usually the data is of large size and takes too much time and bandwidth to be downloaded. • Data sharing must be fast enough as we are now moving to 3G and 4G technologies, users expect data sharing at high speeds. October 21, 2013 3
  4. 4. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Manual Sharing Using Removable Media: Such as Memory Cards, USB drives, External Hard disks etc.  Centralized Servers of Computer Networks: Network of computers interconnected for sharing resources and information via a central server (One server – many clients).  Distributed Peer-to-Peer networking: Is a Computer network where each system in the network acts as client or server allowing shared access of resources without the need of central server. October 21, 2013 4
  5. 5. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • The client – server model is a centralized model. • A server is a computer that selectively shares its data on Web. • A client is a computer that contacts the server in order to request for the data. Client • The Web browser software on your computer (the client) tells the server to transfer a copy of the file to your computer. • Single server provides service to several clients simultaneously. October 21, 2013 Server Handling multiple requests. 5
  6. 6. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Protocols used:- 1)FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 2)HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). • The transfer speed is affected by a number of variables, including the type of protocol, the amount of traffic on the server and the number of other computers that are downloading the file. • If the file is both large and popular, the demands on the server are great, and the download will be slow. • Client-server model fails if 1. Single server fails. 2. Cant afford to deploy enough servers. October 21, 2013 6
  7. 7. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is a decentralized network. • In peer-to-peer sharing, all individual nodes(„Peers‟) act as both supplier and consumer of data or resources. • In peer-to-peer sharing, a software program is used instead a Web Browser to locate computers that have the file user want. • You run peer-to-peer file-sharing software (for example, a Napster program or Gnutella) on your computer and send out a request for the file you want to download. • To locate the file, the software queries other computers that are connected to the Internet and running the file-sharing software. October 21, 2013 7
  8. 8. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • When the software finds a computer that has the file you want on its hard drive , the download begins. • Others using the file-sharing software can obtain files they want from your computer's hard drive. • The file-transfer load is distributed between the computers exchanging files, but file searches and transfers from your computer to others can cause bottlenecks. October 21, 2013 8
  9. 9. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Bit-Torrent is a peer to peer (P2P) protocol used for sharing files over the network. • A P2P client is used on every participating nodes. • No central resource allocation. • A single data is accessed effectively by hundreds of peers. • The data is chopped into pieces and further into sub pieces. • Every peer acts as both, client and server. • One of Bit Torrent's most powerful idea is the choking mechanism. October 21, 2013 9
  10. 10. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Unlike some other peer-to-peer downloading methods, BitTorrent is a protocol that offloads some of the file tracking work to a central server called a Tracker. • Another difference is that it uses a principal called tit-for-tat. • This means that in order to receive files, you have to give them. This solves the problem of leeching -- one of developer Bram Cohen's primary goal. October 21, 2013 10
  11. 11. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • The BitTorrent protocol was designed by Bram Cohen in April 2001, now maintained by BitTorrent, Inc. • BitTorrent was written in Python prior to version 06 and was a free software, now rebranded as µTorrent, no longer open source. • In November of 2004, BitTorrent was responsible for 35% of all Internet traffic. • As of 2009, BitTorrent reportedly had about the same number of active users online as viewers of YouTube and Facebook combined. October 21, 2013 11
  12. 12. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • .torrent - A pointer file that directs your computer to the file you want to download. • Peer – Active node in the network that does not have the complete file (upload & download). • Leeches - People who download files but do not upload files on their own computer with others. • Seed - A computer with a complete copy of a BitTorrent file (At least one seed computer is necessary for a BitTorrent download to operate). • Swarm - A group of computers simultaneously sending (uploading) or receiving (downloading) the same file. October 21, 2013 12
  13. 13. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Tracker - A server that keeps track of leechers and seeds in the network. The tracker is centralized. • Share Ratio – The ratio of amount of a file downloaded to that of uploaded. • Index sites -Also referred to as a torrent search engine. Contains .torrent files for download. October 21, 2013 13
  14. 14. Pardeshi Dhananjay. •You open a Web page and click on a link for the file you want. •BitTorrent client software communicates with a tracker to find other computers running BitTorrent that have the complete file (seed computers) and those with a portion of the file (peers that are usually in the process of downloading the file). •The tracker identifies the swarm, which are connected computers that have all or a portion of the file and are in the process of sending or receiving it. •The tracker helps the client software to trade pieces of the file we want with other computers in the swarm. Your computer receives multiple pieces of the file simultaneously. October 21, 2013 14
  15. 15. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Swarm  Set of peers all downloading the same file.  Organized as a random mesh.  Each node knows list of pieces downloaded by neighbors.  Node requests pieces it does not own from neighbors.  Exact method explained later. October 21, 2013 15
  16. 16. Pardeshi Dhananjay.    October 21, 2013 File Ubantu.iso .torrent hosted at a (well-known) webserver. The .torrent has address of tracker for file. The tracker, which runs on a webserver as well, keeps track of all peers downloading file. 16
  17. 17. Pardeshi Dhananjay. www.bittorrent.com 1 Peer October 21, 2013    File Ubantu.iso .torrent hosted at a (well-known) webserver. The .torrent has address of tracker for file. The tracker, which runs on a webserver as well, keeps track of all peers downloading file. 17
  18. 18. Pardeshi Dhananjay. www.bittorrent.com   Peer 2  Tracker October 21, 2013 File Ubantu.iso .torrent hosted at a (well-known) webserver. The .torrent has address of tracker for file. The tracker, which runs on a webserver as well, keeps track of all peers downloading file. 18
  19. 19. Pardeshi Dhananjay. www.bittorrent.com   Peer  3 Tracker File Ubantu.iso .torrent hosted at a (well-known) webserver The .torrent has address of tracker for file The tracker, which runs on a webserver as well, keeps track of all peers downloading file Swarm October 21, 2013 19
  20. 20. Pardeshi Dhananjay. • Manages users participating in a torrent (known as peers). • Stores statistics about the torrent. • Allows peers to find each others and start communication. • Keeps track of pieces of file and what peer have which piece. • Peers communicate with tracker using HTTP protocol. October 21, 2013 20
  21. 21. Pardeshi Dhananjay. October 21, 2013 21
  22. 22. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Peers: A peer is another computer on the internet that you connect to and transfer data. Generally a peer does not have the complete file.  Leeches: They are similar to peers in that they won‟t have the complete file. But the main difference between the two is a leech will not upload once the file is downloaded.  Seeds: A computer that has a complete copy of a certain torrent. It only uploads the file. October 21, 2013 22
  23. 23. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 23
  24. 24. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 24
  25. 25. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 25
  26. 26. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 26
  27. 27. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 27
  28. 28. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 28
  29. 29. Pardeshi Dhananjay. Tracker Web Server C A Peer Peer [Leech] Downloade r October 21, 2013 “US” B [Seed] Peer [Leech] 29
  30. 30. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Random First Piece  Special case, at the beginning.  Rarest First  General rule.  Endgame Mode  Special case. October 21, 2013 30
  31. 31. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Initially, a peer has nothing to trade.  Important to get a complete piece ASAP.  So as to assemble first complete piece quickly.  Then participate in uploads.  Select a random piece of the file and download it. October 21, 2013 31
  32. 32. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Look at all pieces at all peers, and request piece that‟s owned by fewest peers.  Increases diversity in the pieces downloaded.  avoids case where a node and each of its peers have exactly the same pieces; increases throughput.  Increases likelihood all pieces still available even if original seed leaves before any one node has downloaded entire file. October 21, 2013 32
  33. 33. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  Near the end, missing pieces are requested from every peer containing them.  This ensures that a download is not prevented from completion due to a single peer with a slow transfer rate.  Some bandwidth is wasted, but in practice, this is not too much. October 21, 2013 33
  34. 34. Pardeshi Dhananjay. {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10} Seeder: A {} {1,2,3} {1,2,3,5} {} {1,2,3} {1,2,3,4} {1,2,3,4,5} Downloader Downloader October 21, 2013 C B 34
  35. 35. Pardeshi Dhananjay.  News of increased adoption of this revolutionary protocol continues to emerge, and this seems to be a rich area for continued research in computer networking, with significant potential benefits to society.  If BitTorrent and similar protocols do find a legal place in the internet, it will certainly help to pave the way for distributing rich media on the internet, and provide the impetus for new innovations. October 21, 2013 35
  36. 36. Pardeshi Dhananjay. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bittorrent.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BitTorrent http://computer.howstuffworks.com/file-sharing.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network http://www.bittorrent.com/help/guides/beginners-guide October 21, 2013 36
  37. 37. Pardeshi Dhananjay. October 21, 2013 37
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