Organisation development


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Organisation development

  2. 2. Meaning OD is a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise. It is designed to solve the problems that adversely affect the operational efficiency at all levels. 2
  3. 3. Characteristics of OD OD is a systematic approach to planned change. It is a structured cycle of diagnosing organizational problems and opportunities and then applying expertise to them. OD is grounded in solid research & theory. It involves the application of our knowledge of the behavioral science to the challenges that the organization face. OD recognizes the reciprocal relationship between individuals and organization. It acknowledges that for organizations to change, individuals must change. OD is goal oriented. It is a process that speaks to improve both individuals and organizational well being and effectiveness. 3 OD is designed to solve problems.
  4. 4. Objectives of OD: To improve organizational performance as measured by profitabi.ity, market share, innovations etc., Make organization better adaptive to its environment. Make the members willing face organizational problems and contribute creative solution to the organizational problems. Improve internal behavior patterns such as interpersonal relations, intergroup relations, level of trust and support. Understand one’s won and others, openness and meaning communication and involvement in planning for organizational development. 4
  5. 5. Assumptions: Most of the individuals have drives towards personal growth and development. Higher productivity can be achieved when the individual goals are integrated with organizational goals. Cooperation is always more effective than conflict. The suppression of feelings adversely affects problem solving, personal growth and satisfaction with one’s work. The growth of individual members is facilitated by relationships that are open, supportive and trusting. The difference between commitment and agreement must be fully understood. OD programmes, if they are to succeed, must be reinforced by 5 the organizational total human resource system.
  6. 6. OD models: Kurt Lewin’s Change model: Unfreezing  Change  Refreezing Greiner’s model: Change occurs in terms of certain sequential stages. Leavitt’s model: Interactive nature of the various subsystems in the change process. 6
  7. 7. Leavitt’s model 7
  8. 8. OD interventions Individual focused Organization focused 8
  9. 9. Individual focused Sensitivity training Skill training Job redesigning Role negotiation Career planning 9
  10. 10. Organization focused Survey feedback MBO QWL Team building Process consultation Grid training 10
  11. 11. Factors influencing choice of and OD intervention: Applicability Feasibility Acceptability 11
  12. 12. Communication Meaning Transference of messages or exchange of ideas, facts, opinion or feelings by 2 or more persons. It is an art of making one’s ideas and opinion known to others. 12
  13. 13. Nature of Communication: Communication involves 2 parties The 2 parties must have the ability to convey as well as to listen Communication includes sending and also receiving the response to the message. The message can be conveyed verbally, in written, by means of signs, gestures or symbols. Communication is a continuous process. 13
  14. 14. Need for Communication Adequate and timely Communication helps managers discharge their functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. Ensures willing, cooperation A good communication system communicating quality information contributes positively to the quality of decisions. Coordination of activities across the departments in the organization. Moulds attitude and builds up employee morale. 14
  15. 15. Process of Communication Communicator  Encoding  Message  medium  Decoding  Receiver  Feed back. 15
  16. 16. Channels of Communication: 16
  17. 17. Barriers to communication Filtering Barriers Language Barriers Physical Barriers Status Barriers Emotional Barriers 17
  18. 18. How to make communication effective Language Regulating the flow Feedback Listening carefully 18