Meaning OD is a systematic, integrated and planned approach to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise. It is designed to solve the problems that adversely affect the operational efficiency at all levels. 2
Characteristics of OD OD is a systematic approach to planned change. It is a structured cycle of diagnosing organizational problems and opportunities and then applying expertise to them. OD is grounded in solid research & theory. It involves the application of our knowledge of the behavioral science to the challenges that the organization face. OD recognizes the reciprocal relationship between individuals and organization. It acknowledges that for organizations to change, individuals must change. OD is goal oriented. It is a process that speaks to improve both individuals and organizational well being and effectiveness. 3 OD is designed to solve problems.
Objectives of OD: To improve organizational performance as measured by profitabi.ity, market share, innovations etc., Make organization better adaptive to its environment. Make the members willing face organizational problems and contribute creative solution to the organizational problems. Improve internal behavior patterns such as interpersonal relations, intergroup relations, level of trust and support. Understand one’s won and others, openness and meaning communication and involvement in planning for organizational development. 4
Assumptions: Most of the individuals have drives towards personal growth and development. Higher productivity can be achieved when the individual goals are integrated with organizational goals. Cooperation is always more effective than conflict. The suppression of feelings adversely affects problem solving, personal growth and satisfaction with one’s work. The growth of individual members is facilitated by relationships that are open, supportive and trusting. The difference between commitment and agreement must be fully understood. OD programmes, if they are to succeed, must be reinforced by 5 the organizational total human resource system.
OD models: Kurt Lewin’s Change model: Unfreezing Change Refreezing Greiner’s model: Change occurs in terms of certain sequential stages. Leavitt’s model: Interactive nature of the various subsystems in the change process. 6
OD interventions Individual focused Organization focused 8
Individual focused Sensitivity training Skill training Job redesigning Role negotiation Career planning 9
Organization focused Survey feedback MBO QWL Team building Process consultation Grid training 10
Factors influencing choice of and OD intervention: Applicability Feasibility Acceptability 11
Communication Meaning Transference of messages or exchange of ideas, facts, opinion or feelings by 2 or more persons. It is an art of making one’s ideas and opinion known to others. 12
Nature of Communication: Communication involves 2 parties The 2 parties must have the ability to convey as well as to listen Communication includes sending and also receiving the response to the message. The message can be conveyed verbally, in written, by means of signs, gestures or symbols. Communication is a continuous process. 13
Need for Communication Adequate and timely Communication helps managers discharge their functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. Ensures willing, cooperation A good communication system communicating quality information contributes positively to the quality of decisions. Coordination of activities across the departments in the organization. Moulds attitude and builds up employee morale. 14
Process of Communication Communicator Encoding Message medium Decoding Receiver Feed back. 15