Nanotechnology is the ability to understand, control, and manipulate matter at the level of individual atoms and molecules as well as at the “supramolecular level” involving clusters of molecules, in order to create materials, devices, and systems with fundamentally new properties and functions because of their small structure . The definition implies using the same principles and tools to establish a unifying platform for science and engineering at the nanoscale, and employing the atomic and molecular interactions to develop efficient manufacturing method
It is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China.
The Lycurgus Cup that was manufactured in the 5th to 4th century B.C. It is ruby red in transmitted light and green in reflected light, due to the presence of gold colloids.
In 1857, Faraday reported the formation of deep red solutions of colloidal gold by reduction of an aqueous solution of chloroaurate (AuCl4) using phosphorus in CS 2 (a two-phase system) in a well known work.
Faraday investigated the optical properties of thin films prepared from dried colloidal solutions and observed reversible color changes of the films upon mechanical compression (from bluish-purple to green upon pressurizing).
but our ability to be nanoscientists is new , because we’ve created instruments and machines for controlled characterization and fabrication
these enable nanotechnology
The Electron Microscope Goodhew, Microscopy and Microanalysis
Scanning probe microscopes invented by Young and colleagues, NIST, 1972 Binnig and Rohrer, Nobel Prize, 1986 Binnig, Quate, Gerber, 1986 Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) Atomic force microscope (AFM)