1.4 3GPP 1.4.1 Radio Access Ranges Satellite Zone 4: Global Macro-cell Zone 3: Suburban Micro-cell Zone 2: Urban Zone 1: In-Building Pico-cell UMTS/TDD or HSDPA/HSUPA UMTS/FDD EDGE MSS
2 Services and Applications
2 Services and Applications 2.1 User Equipment
2.1 User Equipment 2.1.1 Description User Equipment (UE) Cu Mobile Equipment (ME) Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * # UMTS UICC USIM 2 GSM access SIM USIM 1 UMTS Node B GSM BTS Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * # GSM
2.1 User Equipment 2.1.2 Some Characteristics no, A-GPS, OTDOA Location 32kbps to 2048kbps Transmission rate class 1 to 4 (GSM and/or UMTS) Supported classmarks 1 to 4 (radio transmission power) Power class 2100, 1900MHz Frequency band FDD or TDD Radio technology 768kbps 384kbps 128kbps 64kbps 32kbps Down 2048kbps 768kbps 384kbps 128kbps 64kbps 32kbps UP Transmission rate class 0.126W 0.25W 0.5W 2W 4 3 2 1 Power class Tx and Rx on GSM and UMTS Plus simultaneous transmission TYPE 4 Rx on GSM and UMTS Plus simultaneous reception TYPE 3 Automatic switch Measurements on other network TYPE 2 Manual Switch No measurement on other network TYPE 1 Supported classmark
2.2 Types of Services 2.2.1 Applications Always-on applications User Equipment = always-on device User Equipment = information device User Equipment = store Media applications Purchasing: Merchant M-Commerce applications Infotainment: Service Provider Communicating: Users/Machines Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * #
2.2 Types of Services 2.2.2 QoS Classes
AMR speech service
Video telephony (IETF multimedia architecture):
streaming interactive background conversational Traffic Class Data integrity sensitive - + Delay sensitive - + Video on demand
3 UMTS Architecture
To be able to describe the functional architecture of the UMTS network.
3.2 Core Network
3.3 Protocols on Iu
3 UMTS Architecture 3.1 UTRAN
3.1 UTRAN 3.1.1 The UTRAN in the UMTS Architecture UMTS PLMN Iu PSTN IP network UTRAN Core network UE Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * # Uu
3.1 UTRAN 3.1.2 Functions UTRAN functions Radio resource management and control Mobility procedures Transfer of data, ciphering / deciphering Broadcast / Multicast Overall system access control
3.1 UTRAN 3.1.3 Architecture Serving Core network RNS RNS Node B 1 Iu Iu Iub Iub Iub Node B 2 Node B 3 Uu UE Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * # Iur RNC 1 RNC 2
3 UMTS Architecture 3.2 Core Network
3.2 Core Network 3.2.1 Functions Core Network functions Management of user location information Control of network features and services Communication with RANs and other CNs Transfer mechanisms (switching and transmission) for signaling and user data
3.2 Core Network 3.2.2 3GPP R'99/R3 Architecture CS domain PSTN PS domain IP network UTRAN Iu-CS Iu-PS Gn Gi D Gc C Gr MAP ISUP SS7 network GTP IP network GGSN SGSN Gs HLR MSC/VLR GMSC
3.2 Core Network 3.2.3 3GPP R4 Architecture BICC PS domain Iu-PS IP network SGSN GGSN UTRAN HLR Iu-CS PSTN MSC/VLR MSC/VLR User data Signaling MSC server & VLR CS-MGW GMSC server CS-MGW IP, ATM BSS Edge A, Gb,
4.1 CDMA Principles 4.1.4 CDMA Frequency Range FDD mode Wide CDMA paired bands (2 x 60MHz) TDD mode TD/CDMA (Time Division) unpaired bands (35MHz) 1900 1980 2010 2025 1920 TDD TDD FDD UL FDD DL MSS UL MSS DL 2170 2200 2110
4.1 CDMA Principles 4.1.5 UMTS 900/850MHz
Site count reduction
Better in-building penetration gain
GSM site reuse
More coverage Better indoor penetration
Our R&D Driver of UMTS 900Hz Specifications at 3GPP
UMTS/HSDPA + 900/850MHz = Winning Combination
4.1 CDMA Principles 4.1.6 HSDPA: What For?
HSDPA Standardized by 3GPP R5
HSDPA is designed to:
Increase the Downlink data throughput over the air interface (theoretical peak user bit rate = 14.4Mbps).
Provide instantaneous high data rates in the PS domain (e.g., Internet browsing, video on demand).
HSDPA could be deployed in both FDD and TDD modes.
4.1 CDMA Principles 4.1.7 HSDPA: Better Use of Resources HSDPA 3G with a High Speed DL Shared Channel Classical 3G with Dedicated Channel A shared channel is much more efficient than a dedicated channel to carry bursty packet traffic .
4.1 CDMA Principles 4.1.8 HSUPA: What For?
HSUPA Standardized by 3GPP R6
HSUPA standardized by 3GPP R6 is designed to increase the Uplink data throughput over the air interface (theoretical peak user bit rate = 5.7Mbps).
3GPP Release 6 Throughput & Capacity HSUPA Uplink Dedicated Channels High Throughputs R99 = 384 kbps UL Cat. 5 UE: 2 Mbps UL Cat. 6 UE: 5.7 Mbps UL
4 UMTS Basic Principles 4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code
4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code 4.2.1 Definition SAME E-TACTIC Channelization Code Scrambling Code S: Signal level N: Noise level f Power N 0 Spread Signal S’ S chip 0 1 0011 0010 Channelization code example: Spreading factor = 4 UE1 0 1 1011 1010 UE2 1 Spreading - CATS EAT MICE n Chips n Chips 2 Scrambling S T A C - E E A T M I C f Power S bit N 0 SIR S
4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code 4.2.2 Multiple Access A B Noise! Channelization Bit chips scrambling Mixed chips modulation UE1 UE2 Node B
4.2 Radio Resources: Frequency, Time, Power/Code 4.2.3 FDD and TDD Modes Characteristics Up to 2Mbps Up to 2Mbps Bearer capability Convolutional, Turbo Convolutional, Turbo Channel coding scheme 16 to 1 (UL and DL)
Frequency bands Time division Frequency division Duplex scheme TDMA with CDMA in time slots Direct-Sequence CDMA Multiple access scheme TDD FDD
4 UMTS Basic Principles 4.3 Radio Resource Management
4.3 Radio Resource Management 4.3.1 Soft Handover (1/2) Core network Iu Iu Iub Iub RNC1 RNC2 Node B2 Node B3 drift serving Iur
4.3 Radio Resource Management 4.3.2 Soft Handover (2/2) Core network Iub Iub Iu Iub Iur Iu Iub Node B1 Node B2 Node B3 Node B4 RNC1 RNC2 1 2 3 4 S D 5 D S 6 S
4.3 Radio Resource Management 4.3.3 Power Control (1/2)
Power Control Issue
Near-far effect in uplink
Minimize the interference level
Node B Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * #
4.3 Radio Resource Management 4.3.4 Power Control (2/2) SIR > SIR target ? Open loop Closed loop Outer loop Inner lo op Tx power estimation SIR target adjustment Node B Node B SIR > SIR target ? TPC command RNC SIR target Hello world 1 2 3 6 9 5 8 7 4 0 * #
4.3 Radio Resource Management 4.3.5 Radio Resources
Concentric Coverage : The coverage is determined by the uplink interference level.
Soft capacity : The capacity is determined by the downlink interference level and the code orthogonality.
Load of the cell : trade-off capacity/coverage ( breathing cells).
End of Module UMTS Overv iew
Standards: Series 21 to 23
21-Series: Requirements Specifications
These specifications are often transient and contain requirements leading to other specifications. They may become obsolete when technical solutions have been fully specified. They could then, e.g., be replaced by reports describing the performance of the system. They could be deleted without replacement or be kept for historical reasons but turned into background material. When found necessary and appropriate, the transient or permanent nature of a requirement specification may be expressed in its scope.
2 2-Series: Service Aspects
Specifications in this series specify services, service features, building blocks or platforms for services (a service feature or service building block may provide certain generic functionality for the composition of a service, including the control by the user; a platform may comprise a single or more network elements, e.g. UIM, mobile terminal, auxiliary system to the core network etc.). Stage-1 aspecs that are felt appropriate belong to this series. Reports defining services which can be realized by generic building blocks etc. also belong to this series.
2 3-Series: Technical Realization
This series mainly contains stage-2 specifications (or specifications of a similar nature describing interworking over several interfaces, the behavior in unexceptional cases, etc.).
Standards: Series 24 to 26
24-Series: Signaling Protocols (UE - CN Network)
This series contains the detailed and bit-exact stage-3 specifications of protocols between Mobile Station/User Equipment and the Core Network.
2 5-Series: UTRA Aspect
25.100-series: UTRA radio performance aspects (radio performance of UTRAN).
25.200-series: UTRA radio aspects ((physical) layer 1 of UTRA).
25.300-series: UTRA radio interface architecture, layer 2 and layer 3 aspects (layer 2/3 of the UMTS radio).
25.400-series: UTRA network aspects (Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces within UTRAN).
Speech codecs and other codecs (video, etc.).
Standards: Series 27 to 31
Functions needed to support data applications.
29-Series: Signaling Protocols (NSS)
This series contains the detailed and bit-exact stage-3 specifications of protocols within the Core Network.
30-Series: Program Management
This series contains the 3GPP 3rd Generation Mobile System, project plans / project work program and standalone documents for major work items.
This series specifies the User Identity Module (UIM) and the interfaces between UIM and other entities.
Standards: Series 32 to 35
32-Series: Operation and Maintenance
This series defines the application of TMN for the 3GPP 3rd Generation Mobile System and other functions for operation, administration and maintenance of a 3rd Generation Mobile System network.
33-Series: Security Aspects
This series contains specifications of security functions.
This series contains test specifications.
This series contains the specifications of encryption algorithms for confidentiality and authentication, etc.
Answer the Questions
Discussion or Question
Self-assessment on the Objectives
Please be reminded to fill in the form Self-Assessment on the Objectives for this module
The form can be found in the first part of this course documentation