Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB?• The “Myth of Rationality” – Emotions were seen as irrational – Managers worked to make emotion- free environments• View of Emotionality – Emotions were believed to be disruptive – Emotions interfered with productivity – Only negative emotions were observed• Now it has been accepted that emotions can’t be separated from the workplace
The Basic Emotions• While not universally accepted, there appear to be six basic emotions: 1. Anger 2. Fear 3. Sadness 4. Happiness 5. Disgust 6. Surprise• All other emotions are subsumed under these six• May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion: – Happiness – surprise – fear – sadness – anger - disgust
Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect• Emotions cannot be neutral.• Emotions (“markers”) are grouped into general mood states.• Mood states affect perception and therefore perceived reality.
What Is the Function of Emotion?• Do Emotions Make Us Irrational? – Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging to social status – Emotions are critical to rational decision-making – Emotions help us understand the world around us• What Functions Do Emotions Serve? – Darwin argued they help in survival problem- solving – Evolutionary psychology: people must experience emotions as there is a purpose behind them – Not all researchers agree with this assessment
Sources of Emotion and Mood• Personality – There is a trait component – affect intensity• Day and Time of the Week – There is a common pattern for all of us • Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period • Happier toward the end of the week• Weather – Illusory correlation – no effect• Stress – Even low levels of constant stress can worsen moods• Social Activities – Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods
More Sources of Emotion and Mood• Sleep – Poor sleep quality increases negative affect• Exercise – Does somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed people• Age – Older folks experience fewer negative emotions• Gender – Women tend to be more emotionally expressive, feel emotions more intensely, have longer-lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do men
Emotional Labor- An employee’s expression oforganizationally desired emotions duringinterpersonal transactions at work- peoplestriving to ensure display of appropriateemotions.•Emotional Dissonance: Employees have toproject one emotion while simultaneously feelinganother. Can be very damaging, cause stress andlead to burnout•Types of Emotions: – Felt: the individual’s actual emotions – Displayed: required or appropriate emotions • Surface Acting: displaying appropriately but not feeling those emotions internally • Deep Acting: changing internal feelings to match display rules - very stressful
• BURNOUT- is a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. Occurs when a person feels overwhelmed and unable to meet constant demands. As the stress continues, one begins to lose interest or motivation that can lead one to take on a certain role.• Reduces productivity and saps energy, leaves a person feeling increasingly helpless, hopeless, cynical, and resentful. Eventually, the person may feel like they have nothing more to give.• More common than depression, almost exclusively associated with work-related stressors• Symptoms include – Emotional and physical exhaustion – Disturbed sleep – Absence of any positive feelings about work – futility – A cynical perspective associated with work
The Development of Burnout (from Cordes & Dougherty, 1993)STRESSORS ORIGINATINGIN THE INDIVIDUAL FEELINGS OF LACK OF• high expectations of achievement PERSONAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS• high expectations of the organisation• high involvement in job DEPERSONALISATION Callousness towards and withdrawal EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION from colleagues and clients BURNOUT SYMPTOMSSTRESSORS ORIGINATING • frustrationIN THE ORGANISATION • physical exhaustion• role overload • negative feelings about job• role conflict • feelings of helplessness and futility• necessity for frequent interpersonal • cynicism about work interactions with clients • withdrawal from social interaction
Affective Events Theory (AET)• An event in the work environment triggers positive or negative emotional reactions – Personality and mood determine response intensity – Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables
Implications of AET1. An emotional episode is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences triggered by a single event2. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction3. Emotional fluctuations over time create variations in job performance4. Emotion-driven behaviors are typically brief and variable5. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance• Emotions provide valuable insights about behavior• Emotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work: they accumulate
Emotional Intelligence (EI)• A person’s ability to: – Be self-aware • Recognizing own emotions when experienced – Detect emotions in others – Manage emotional cues and information• EI plays an important role in job performance• EI is controversial and not wholly accepted – Case for EI: • Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is biologically-based. – Case against EI: • Too vague a concept; can’t be measured; its validity is suspect. • NEW WAYS OF ASSESSING EI HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED AND BEING USED SUCCESSFULLY
Components of Emotional Intelligence Definition Hallmark The ability to recognize and understand your Self-confidenceSelf moods, emotions and drives as well as their Realistic Self developmentAwareness effects on others Self-deprecating sense of humor The ability to control or redirect disruptive Trustworthiness & integritySelf- impulses and moods. The propensity to suspend Comfort with ambiguityRegulation judgment to think before acting Openness to change A passion to work for reasons that go beyond Strong drive to achieveMotivation money or status Optimism, even in the face of The propensity to suspend judgement –to think failure before acting Organizational commitment The ability to understand the emotional makeup Expertise in building andEmpathy of other people retaining talent Skill in treating people according to their Cross-cultural sensitivity emotional reactions Service to clients and customers Proficiency in managing relationships and Effectiveness in leading changeSocial Skills building networks Persuasiveness An ability to find common group & build rapport Expertise in building & leading teams
How then can one improve Emotional intelligence?• Pay attention to self and other’s body language• Listen more; speak less- develops empathy• Get curious, not furious- Watch what you say especially when frustrated or annoyed. Reframe negative emotions into curiosity - " ... this makes absolutely no sense to me" can be replaced with, "Do you see something in this that I must be missing”• Elicit pride in others – Reason for working together• Remember that emotions are contagious - A dominant persons emotions (negative or positive) always influences others. Leaders should be careful to show only those emotions, which they want to see in others
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods• Selection – EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs.• Decision Making – Positive emotions can lead to better decisions.• Creativity – Positive mood increases flexibility, openness, and creativity.• Motivation – Positive mood affects expectations of success; feedback amplifies this effect.• Leadership – Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods• Negotiation – Emotions, skillfully displayed, can affect negotiations• Customer Services – Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships – Emotional Contagion: “catching” emotions from others• Job Attitudes – Can carry over to home, but dissipate overnight• Deviant Workplace Behaviors – Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization)• Manager’s Influence – Leaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise employees increase positive moods in the workplace.
Work Stress• Stress – A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important• Types of Stress – Challenge Stressors • Stress associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency – Hindrance Stressors • Stress that keeps you from reaching your goals, such as red tape • Cause greater harm than challenge stressors
Demands-Resources Model of Stress• Demands – Responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and uncertainties in the workplace• Resources – Things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands• Adequate resources help reduce the stressful nature of demands
Moderators of StressThese factors affect the way one experiences stress, howthe person reacts to and deals with stress• Personal Characteristics: –Self-efficacy: person’s belief in his or her ability to act in a certain way (to adapt to change) –Hardiness: psychological characteristics like commitment, challenge and control that help a person withstand the effects of stress –Negative Affectivity: a tendency to focus strongly on the negative aspects of work and life• Lifestyle: Type A and Type B behaviours• Social Support: emotional support received through interaction with other people• Appraisal of Stress: a person’s perception of a stressor• Life Events: significant changes at work or outside that people undergo
A Model of Stress
Consequences of Stress• Stressors are additive: high levels of stress can lead to the following symptoms – Physiological • Blood pressure, headaches, stroke – Psychological • Dissatisfaction, tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and procrastination • Greatest when roles are unclear in the presence of conflicting demands – Behavioral • Changes in job behaviors, increased smoking or drinking, different eating habits, rapid speech, fidgeting, sleep disorders
Not All Stress Is Bad• Some level of stress can increase productivity• Too little or too much stress will reduce performance• This model is not empirically supported
Coping with stress• Emotion-focussed: reaction to the situation by attempting to remove or lower its emotional effects without actually trying to do anything about the situation itself• Problem-focussed: action on the situation by attempting to tackle the stressors behind the problem and thereby attempting to change the situation
Managing Stress• Individual Approaches – Implementing time management – Increasing physical exercise – Relaxation training – Expanding social support network• Organizational Approaches – Improved personnel selection and job placement – Training – Use of realistic goal setting – Redesigning of jobs – Increased employee involvement – Improved organizational communication – Offering employee sabbaticals – Establishment of corporate wellness programs
• Employee Assistance Program (EAP)-provide employees with assistance for various personal problems (e.g., substance abuse, career planning, family, financial and legal problems etc.) Techniques used in EAP include individual level initiatives offered to employees such as counselling & consulting services, mostly through a consultant• Wellness Programs- focus on an employee’s total physical and mental conditions.• Areas covered include workshops to quit smoking, control alcohol use, develop a regular exercise programme, nutrition etc.• A study of eight Canadian organisations found that every dollar spent on their wellness programmes generated a return of $ 1.64; and for high-risk employees like smokers, the return was nearly $ 4 (Brown, 2001)
Summary and Managerial Implications• Emotions and moods impact all areas of OB• Managers must not ignore the emotions of their co-workers and employees• Behavior predictions will be less accurate if emotions are not taken into account• Stress can be good or bad for employees• Despite possible improvements in job performance caused by stress, such improvements come at the cost of increased job dissatisfaction
You can buy people’s time; you can buy their physical presence at a given place; you can even buy a measurednumber of muscular motions per hour. But you cannot buyenthusiasm…you cannot buy loyalty…you cannot buy the devotion of their hearts. This you must earn!!EI is being seen as an excellent medium to enhancethe environment, culture, leadership and teamdynamic within an organization.
THANK YOU!!For your time and attention. And CONGRATULATIONS!