Introduction• An island is a piece of ground that is surrounded by water. Water is all around an island. Islands are smaller than continents.• The largest island in the world is Greenland, unless Australia is believed to be an island.• The word island comes from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks in the U.S.
Facts about Islands• Earth is home to over 100,000 islands. The 150 largest alone have a landmass equal to the size of Europe.• One in every ten people on Earth is an islander. More than 600 million people live on islands.• Hallig Oland is a small island: about 30 people live close together. Galapagos Islands
Types of Islands• Continental islands• Oceanic islands• Desert islands• Artificial Islands• Atoll• Coral Islands One of 12 continental islands that make up the Family Group, Dunk Island is a popular family getaway off Mission Beach.
Continental Islands• To understand a continental island, you need to understand what the continental shelf is. Anyone whos been to the beach knows that the end of land isnt a sudden cliff---around the edges of continents there is a stretch of gradually declining land. This area is called the continental shelf.• A continental island is simply an island that rests on the continental shelf. Because of this, these islands are always quite close to a given continent. Also, the water level around a continental island is very shallow, typically less than 600 feet.• The Canadian island of Newfoundland is a continental island. The Canadian Island of Newfound Land is a continental island.
Oceanic Islands• Oceanic Islands are not part of continental shelf areas, they are not, and have never been, connected to a continental land mass• Oceanic islands originate in volcanic action typically associated with the movement of the lithospheric plates. Most typically these are volcanic islands.• Mariana Islands in the western Pacific Ocean is an example. The Mariana Islands (Oceanic Islands)
Desert Island• A desert island is an island with no people. Typically, a desert island is denoted as such because it exists in a state of being deserted, or abandoned.• The word ‘Desert’ does not refer to the hot climatic conditions of the desert.• You can see an example in the background picture. A part of Lakshadweep Islands which is deserted.
Artifical Islands• An Artificial island is an island that has been constructed by humans rather than formed by natural means. They are created by expanding existing islets, construction on existing reefs, or combining several natural islets into a bigger island.• Dubai is home to several artificial islands projects, including the three Palm Islands projects, The World and the Dubai Waterfront. Only the Palm Jumeirah is inhabited so far. The World Island in Dubai
Atoll• An atoll is a kind of island. It is made when a coral reef forms around an island that sinks over many years. In the end, the land is gone, and only the coral reef continues to grow until it becomes an atoll, an island shaped like a doughnut.• Charles Darwin, who is most famous for his theory of evolution, was the first person to find out how atolls form. He said that volcanoes in the ocean sometimes wear away or sink deeper. Coral growing on a volcano likes to be near the surface, and it keeps growing to stay there.• Most atolls are in the warm parts of the Pacific Ocean or the Indian Ocean. Satellite picture of the Atafu atoll in Tokelau in the Pacific Ocean.
Coral Islands• A coral island is the result of an atoll whose lagoon has dried up or been filled in with coral sand and detritus*.• This state is typically the last in the life cycle of an island, the first being volcanic and the second being an atoll. Most of the worlds coral islands are in the Pacific Ocean.• The American territories of Jarvis, Baker and Howland Islands are clear examples of coral islands. Also, some of the islands belonging to Kiribati are considered coral islands.*Waste or debris of any kind. Western shore of Jarvis Island with day beacon at the site of Millersville in October 2003.
Indian Islands• Andaman and Nicobar Islands.• Lashadweep Islands. The Wandur Beach, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands• The Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India. The name is often shortened to A & N Islands, or ANI.• It is in the Indian Ocean, in the southern part of the Bay of Bengal. It is made of two island groups - the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands - separating the Andaman Sea to the east, from the Indian Ocean.• These two groups are separated by the 10° N parallel, the Andamans lying to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south.• The capital of this territory is the Andamanese town of Port Blair.• The territorys population in the 2001 Census of India was 356,152.• Added together, the total land area of the territory is around 6,496 km² or 2,508 mi², it is larger than the Palestinian territories but smaller than Georgia territory of Abkhazia. Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Lakshadweep Islands• A large conglomerate of 36 exotic islands that represent a variety of biological species, the beautiful island of Lakshadweep casts a magical spell on the tourist with its bewitching beauty.• The capital of Lakshadweep, Kavaratti, is endowed with the bounty of nature.• Lakshadweep is easily accessible by air or water. Equipped with excellent infrastructural facilities, the coral reef island of Lakshadweep extends a warm welcome to all the visitors.• Lakshadweep provides the tourists with a plethora of water sports that enables them to explore their latent potentialities and sportsman spirit. Virgin Beaches of Lakshadweep
List of Major Islands of the World• Australia• New Zealand• Great Britain• Madagascar• Greenland