What really is the best way to measure OGD? Should measurement be contextualised? ODI uses OGD expert volunteers to collect and enter data, ODB uses secondary and peer-reviewed expert survey data to measure ODI is an initiative of the open knowledge foundation (OKF) OGD designed and supported by amoung others world wide web.
The correlation between the two scores shows that a country such as Kenya is an outlier. Kenya is kind of an outlier on this scheme because it scores high on OD-Barometer (better than Belgium and at par with Switzerland), and yet scores relatively low on OD Index. Meaning despite being ‘open data ready’ the actual implementation and publishing of data lags behind according to the OD Index. This publishing of data is highly dependant on the goevrnment.
Government’s multiple roles are however discouraged by some advocates of OGD who argue that it can have a negative effect on release of data because governments are known to be ‘‘bureaucratic’’ and ‘‘inwardly oriented’’ (Gigler et al., 2011 p.19). They have and continue to be the custodians of public sector information, therefore gate-keeping what becomes public and what does not – the case being no different for Kenya. Some advocates argue that government should just publish the data and leave it for other stakeholders such as the private sector to re-use and create value from it to avoid the negative influences of politics, power struggles and “ … undesirable limits …” (Robinson et al 2009, p.163; De, 2005). Other groups of OGD advocates insist that government must go beyond publishing data and initiate engagement between the data and the targeted users especially the wider public for whom it has a public service obligation (Leadbeater 2011; Jetzek et al, 2012; Ubaldi, 2013). This involves widespread awareness and mobilization of data use, re-use and potential benefits.
Cultural and institutional changes also lead to more receptiveness of OGD by government agencies and ist employees who are traditionally accustomed to holding on to government information Political goodwill dtermines how government perceives OGD and even whether it is included in the budget or not
Cedem ppt (2)
The Politics of Open Government Data
Emmy Chirchir & Prof. Norbert Kersting
Presented by Yimei Zhu
21 May - 23 May 2014
The challenge of measuring OGD – Open data index and open data
OGD in developing countries
The role of politics in government
OGD without OG?
Collaboration and participation
Public-private partnerships a solution?
Open Data Index (ODI)
•Measures 10 datasets e.g.
financial and civic, transport,
legislative datasets and so on
•Datasets measured against 12
criteria (free, machine readable,
online, digital, updated and so
•Shows how many datasets have
been made open and how open
Open Data Barometer (ODB)
•Broader measure of OGD
•Measures OGD on 3 levels:
readiness, implementation and
•Considers contextual factors such
as presence of Freedom of
information (FOI) or supporting
laws, demand for data, government
support to citizens and so on.
•Analysis the global trend,rank the
• Both methods are complementary
but discussions are still open on
the best methodology for measuring
• Using the Kenyan example, both
scores indicate that there is a gap
between a country‘s readiness and
its attained impact.
Kenya has the `basic ingredients' to get OGD off the ground
•Data – Data exists although some may be in non-digital formats
(Braunschhweig et al., 2012)
•Technology/platform – Kenya Open Data Platform exists
•Demand for data (Jesuit Hakimani,2013)
•Supply of data– government has made a committment to OGD as well
as Open government partinership (OGP)
So why is there not widespread uptake and use of OGD in Kenya?
Some reasons could be : socio-economic (digital and literacy gaps,
access challenges, distrust of government information, lack of
Yet another possible reason could be the politics of open data, on the
supply side of open data
OGD in Kenya
Role of government in OGD setting dynamic, crucial
•Supplier of data – collects, curates and publishes
•Formulation of laws and policies (policy-making is a political process)
•Financing OGD initiatives affecting implementation and prioritization of
•Facilitating participation and user uptake of OGD
•Users of OGD
Execution of these tasks depends on a number of factors:
•Relationship between government and other OGD actors inluding the
•Available resources and capacity – open data readiness
•System of government – level of openess
Roles of Government
Open Government Data without Open Government?
An open government does not guarantee OGD success but it creates a more
conducive, supportive environenment for OGD and its users to operate
We propose that open government practices should be encouraged for
Neither the government nor the civil society nor the the private sector on their
own have the ability to fully take advantage of OGD
Civil society organisations (CSOs) and technology entreprenuers may have the
capacity (technology, knwo-how and motivation) to harness data for re-use.
CSOs and private sector add value to open data (Davies et al., 2013)
More diverse uses of OGD means we are close to realizing OGD goals as
opportunities for participation.
Are partnerships and collaborations the solution?
The challenge remains …
The main challenge still remains in OGD initiatives realizing the
The search for appropriate methodology for measuring OGD is still on
especially for measuring OGD use across diverse contexts and users
and measuring impacts of OGD
Emmy Chirchir*, Norbert Kersting**
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany
*Graduate School of Politics (GraSP);
** Institute of Political Science ((IfPol); norbert.kersting@uni-
About the writers:
Braunschweig K., Eberius J., Thiele M., & Lehner W. (2012) The State of Open Data. Limits of current open data
platforms. Retrieved on November 30, 2013 from
http://www2012.wwwconference.org/proceedings/nocompanion/wwwwebsci2012_braunschweig.pdf Davies T.
(2013). Open Data Barometer. 2013 Global Report. Retrieved November 13, 2013
Davies T, Perini F., & Alonso J (2013). Researching the emerging impacts of open dat. ODDC Conceptual Framework.
Working paper. July ODDC Working Paper #1. Retrieved on July 22, 2013, from
Rahemtulla H., Giger B., Cluster S., Kiess J. & Brigham C. (2011). Open Data Kenya. Case Study of the underlying
drivers, principal objectives and evoplution of one of the first open data initiatives in Africa. Long Version. Retrieved
May, 05, 2012 from http://de.scribd.com/doc/75642393/Open-Data-Kenya-Long-Version.
Open Knowledge Foundation - http://census.okfn.org.
Open Data Research - http://www.opendataresearch.org/barometer
Wojcik S. (2012). Open government and open data. In Kersting N. (ed.), Electronic Democracy (pp. 125-152). Opladen:
Barbara Budrich Publishers.
World Bank (2013). Open Data Readiness Assessment tool. Retrieved on December 1, 2013, from