Ce dem14 jlp.key

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Ce dem14 jlp.key

  1. 1. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Just Like Paper: A classification system for eVoting Machines! Damien MacNamara and Ken Oakley! Department of Information Technology, Limerick Institute of Technology, mail@dualvote.com.! ! Paul Gibson! Le département Logiciels-Réseaux (LOR) Telecom SudParis,! paul.gibson@telecom-sudparis.eu.!
  2. 2. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Voting is not a joke, it is a privilege and a responsibility. ! It is not to be taken lightly, it is not entertainment, it should require some thought. Electronic Voting?
  3. 3. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Audit (Paper)Trails are Necessary ! Just Like Paper is the path of least resistance ! We can learn from our mistakes/other peoples’ successes Premises For Our Work
  4. 4. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson DUAL VOTE: Key Components of the Dual Vote UI Usability Analysis Identified a Validity Problem
  5. 5. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson An incorrect interface is a major security threat. ! A correct interface allows only valid votes to be submitted for storage and no other information. C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ! 1 ! 3 2 Typical Valid Vote Valid? Valid? Valid? Valid? C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ! 1 ! 3 2 2 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ! 1 7 3 2 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ! 1 ! 3 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 4 Validity and Security
  6. 6. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson A non-constrained interface is a major risk to anonymity. ! A correct interface allows only valid votes to be submitted for storage and no other information. Valid? C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 ! 1 Paul 3 2 Validity and Anonymity Question: what is a signature?
  7. 7. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Different Elections Have Different Rules Concerning Blank Votes Valid? C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Validity and Blank Votes
  8. 8. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson DUAL VOTE Validity Analysis for Spoiled Votes Coherency Issue - Two situations that should be addressed by any election process are: ! • The voter intends to spoil their vote, yet their vote is wrongly allocated to a candidate. ! • The voter does not intend to spoil their vote, yet their vote is wrongly interpreted as being spoilt 1. ok ! 3. feedback may help? 4. feedback may help? 5. feedback may help? 6. feedback may help? ! 8. ok
  9. 9. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Our motivation for this work was twofold: 1.examine how to apply additional ‘validity’ functionality to our system without weakening our ‘just-like-paper’ requirement 2.develop a straightforward classification for commercial eVoting systems which could ultimately be reused by e-voting system developers and procurers. ! Contribution of JLP Classification: 1. analysis of the interface features of twenty-six commercial systems 2. organisation into a feature-based classification. 3. ranked in accordance with the number of interface features that it had in common with a pen and paper baseline Motivation (and Contribution) for CeDEM14 Improvement to DUAL VOTE interface with feedback feature
  10. 10. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Specification of Interface Features Error-Feedback . IF1:  No feedback interface features. The voter will receive no feedback if an error is detected on the ballot; . IF2:  Basic feedback interface features. The voter will be informed that an error has occurred without any information concerning the type of error; . IF3:  Detailed feedback interface features. The voter will be informed that an error has occurred and is provided with additional information concerning the type of error; Ballot-Confirmation . IF4:  No ballot confirmation interface features. The voter is never required to confirm their vote; . IF5:  Error-related confirmation interface features. The voter is required to confirm their vote only when an error is detected on the ballot; . IF6:  Compulsory confirmation interface features. The voter is always required to confirm their vote; Machine Activation . IF7:  No dedicated-activation interface is present or the poll-worker activates the voting machine; . IF8:  A dedicated-activation interface is present.
  11. 11. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Specification of Interface Features Duality Generation . IF9:  No duality generation interface features are present; . IF10:  Interface features support simultaneous vote generation; . IF11:  Interface features support duality generation with multiple voter actions; ! Interface Modality . IF12:  The vote creation interface is uni-modal; . IF13:  The vote creation interface is multi-modal; . IF14:  The interface features consist of a non-standard interface technology or apparatus.
  12. 12. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Our baseline is first in the list and is numbered JSN1. ! In total there are one-hundred and sixty-two ‘coherent’ classifications. The Interface Classification
  13. 13. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Specification of Design Decisions Decisions relating Voter Feedback Features: D_F_1: The voter receives feedback via an electronic visual display;
 D_F_2: The voter receives feedback via an optical scanner / optical scanner information panel; D_F_3: The voter receives feedback via a push-button interface;
 D_F_4: The voter receives feedback via a printed receipt. ! Decisions relating to Machine Activation Features: D_A_1: The voter machine activates using an activation token;
 D_A_2: The voting machine activates using the ballot paper;
 D_A_3: The voting machine activates using a poll worker interface or is permanently activated;
  14. 14. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Specification of Design Decisions Decisions relating to Duality Generation Features: D_P_1: The paper audit trail interface consists of a ballot box;
 D_P_2: The paper audit trail interface consists of a printer;
 D_P_3: The paper audit trail interface consists of a printer and ballot box;
 D_P_4: The paper audit trail consists of an optical scanner with attached ballot box; Decisions relating to Interface Modality Features : D_I_1: The vote creation interface consists of a touch-screen;
 D_I_2: The vote creation interface consists of a push-button
 D_I_3: The vote creation interface consists of a pen and paper; D_I_4: The vote creation interface consists of a touch-screen and push-button D_I_6: The vote creation interface consists of a push-button and pen and paper; D_I_7: The vote creation interface consists of a pen and paper and non-standard technology; D_I_8: The vote creation interface consists of a touch-screen and non-standard technology; D_I_9: The vote creation interface consists of a push-button and non-standard technology. D_I_10: The vote creation interface consists of a hybrid electronic pen and paper.
  15. 15. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Classification of 26 commercial systems Our next step in our efforts to expand the functionality of DualVote was to find some middle- ground between JSN2 and JSN162
  16. 16. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson The red-orange-green feedback protocol REQUIREMENTS • Not a full LCD • Not Active Feedback • Not just yes/no light • Not multiple lights Implementation A single traffic light
  17. 17. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Conclusions ! The JLP classification shows how twenty-six commercial systems incrementally differ from each other in terms of functionality and subsequently how each system differs from our baseline The JLP was instrumental in helping us to understand how we could build on the usable but less functional DualVote system. Further improvements on the JLP may give another perspective on usability as well as using the established Systems Usability Scale as such scales are not designed specifically for eVoting machines The abstract nature of our interface features, abstracts away from the lower hardware level.We believe that this abstraction ensures a more robust classification that is less easily affected by technology innovations in electronic voting user interface design. The classification is part of a new ontological modelling of the e-voting domain
  18. 18. CeDEM14 ! ! ! ! Just Like Paper ! ! May 2014 ! ! ! ! J Paul Gibson Questions? « Il est encore plus facile de juger de l'esprit d'un homme par ses questions que par ses réponses. » Pierre-Marc-Gaston, duc de Lévis (1764-1830), Maximes et réflexions sur différents sujets de morale et de politique (Paris, 1808): Maxim xvii

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