Bojan Cestnik, Alenka Kern, Refining public sector services by applying innovative technologies
Refining public sector services byapplying innovative technologiesBojan Cestnik 1, 2Alenka Kern 31 Temida d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia2 Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia3 The Housing Fund of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Talk outline Motivation and introduction Case studies◦ CeDEM 2011 papers topic ontology◦ Temporal focus shift of topics◦ Outlier documents detection – search for innovative leap ofideas Conclusions and further work
Motivation I Hypothesis: tools like text exploration, document clustering, and literature mining◦ have a potential to support the process of innovative problemsolving in e-government domain◦ by bridging information from different disciplines Source: E-Government Reference Library (EGRL)◦ 4.674 peer-reviewed articles published in the last decade
Motivation II Creativity is a universal virtue Two kinds of creativity (G.A.Wiggins, 2012)◦ Spontaneous creativity (ideas appear spontaneous inconsciousness) e.g. Mozart: „When I am, as it were, completely myself, entirelyalone, and of good cheer – say traveling in a carriage, or walking aftera good meal, or during the night when I cannot sleep; it is on suchoccasions that my ideas flow best and most abundantly.“ (Holmes,2009, p. 315)◦ Creative reasoning The composer working to build a new version of a TV theme, onschedule and with constraints on „acceptable style“ The computer software is the tool, the user is the creator Computational Creativity as an emerging field
Motivation III Increasing number of documents within all areas of humanexpertize Difficult to follow the progress even in a single specific area Innovative behavior is related to the comprehension of a particularfield
Literature mining Technologies:◦ Associative retrieval based on simple keywords◦ Inductive pattern search◦ Novelty: cross-context search incorporating scientific theoriesand models Knowledge discovery process involves:◦ Mining dynamic data streams◦ Incrementally updating existing models and theories Observation: vast majority of the mappings between scientificmodels and theories has been carried out exclusively by the humanscientists
Case studies First study: CeDEM 2011 topic ontology Source: E-Government library (Scholl, 2012) Second study: explore temporal focus shift, compare focus shifts oftitles and abstracts Third study: outlier documents detection – rare and worthwhilefor additional exploration since they might contribute to creativeleap of ideas
Motivation IV Help experts in cross-domain discovery of new previously unknownrelations by supporting bisociative discovery Bisociation:◦ Term coined by Arthur Koestler,The act of creation, 1964◦ Bisociation is "any mental occurrence simultaneously associatedwith two habitually incomparable contexts“ - Koestler consideredit the essential mechanism of the creative process◦ The goal of FP7 EU Project BISON (Bisociation Networks forCreative Information Discovery): explore the concept ofbisociative discovery using graph-based data mining When we all think alike, no one thinks very much (A. Einstein)
Document clustering Outliers: good candidates to search for relations between concepts
An example of bisociationDr. Lawrence J. Fogel
Conclusions Presented case studies explore technological possibilities forsupporting creative processes in public sector Ontologies can be used for studying temporal focus shift within agiven domain Experts can use document clustering and similarity measures tosupport cross-domain discovery of new previously unknownrelations (bisociative discovery)
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