What is history

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  • 1. What is History? David Gomez
  • 2. Journey of Man
    • Journey of Man
    • Evolution is a genetic history
      • Goal was to construct a family tree: Luca
        • Using isolated tribal blood predominately in Africa as samples.
      • Follows DNA
          • Following the Genetic Markers of Men:
            • Y markers do not change, Son bushman markers are unique
            • First branch to split in the family tree
            • Bushman are the only families that have “clicks”
            • Began using bone, ivory and shell, not stone tools
            • Began formal burials with items placed with them.
            • As trackers they began to think as the prey, and analyze the foot prints
  • 3.
          • De Kelders cave
            • Human Remains over 80,000 years old
            • Almost identical facial structure to modern man
          • The next Human Remains are in Australia
            • Little to no evidence of there journey
            • Last time Australia was connected to mainland was 100 mya
            • There are no other primates on the Australian continent.
            • Mungo people, lived in Australia around 30-45k years ago. One of the first settlements had around 200 people.
          • Next stop India to find the link for the migration from Africa to Australia.
            • Collect blood samples from Madurai India extracting DNA.
            • They have found the evidence for the coastal migration to Australia.
          • From the Middle East it took mankind close to 10k years to get to Europe. Known as Cro-Magnon
            • Cave paintings describe the migration during the ice age.
            • Isolated in Europe because of growing ice age, they developed light hair and eyes
  • 4.
          • Through the Central Asia/ Kazakhstan
            • Because of the drought and fires and subsequent repopulation of grass lands led early humans to follow the herds.
          • Then migration through Russia began to the Americas. Where the Chukchi Indians still live to this day.
            • People still live their, 200 kilometers inside the Arctic Circle.
            • They survive completely off of herding Reindeer, who survive off the lichen under the snow.
            • Following the Reindeer they continued on throughout the Americas. Only 10-20 people made it.
            • With 800 years they populated both continents.
    • The Conclusion
      • The perception of Race and Race superiority is a divisive and wrong
        • We all come from the same place and have just adapted to our different surroundings.
  • 5. Catastrophe!
    • 1500 years ago, mid-sixth century the world’s climate and temperature dropped.
      • The sun grew dark and rain was red, clouds of dust enveloped the earth.
      • Drought, famine, plague
        • Tree Rings
          • We know what the weather has been like for the last 7000 years.
          • Trees around the world experienced the same decline of tree growth.
          • Lasted for about a decade. Reduced sunlight and very cold.
        • Mid-Sixth Century: The dark ages in Europe.
          • Roman Empire was in a resurgence after being sacked about a hundred years prior
            • “ The sun became dark for about 18 months. There was only light for 4 hours a day.” John of Ephesus
        • A dense veil of dust in the atmosphere, blocking the sun. With only three causes.
          • Volcano
            • Sulfuric acid is present in the ice cores in Greenland and in Antarctica
            • The eruption would have to happen along the equator where equatorial winds will spread the dust.
            • Krakatau
            • Shows the caldera left from a large volcanic eruption.
  • 6.
          • Asteroid or Comet
            • To cause a catastrophe that would render climate change for over a decade it would call for an object over 4ki across to strike the earth
            • No written evidence or physical damage on the earth @ mid 6th century.
      • The outcome of the 535AD theoretical eruption.
        • Plague of Justinian (Bubonic Plague) weakened the Roman Empire
          • Documented by Evagrius Scholasticus
            • Bacillus Bacteria that is carried in the gut of a common rat flea.
            • 10,000 bodies a day had to be buried
        • Climatic event was effecting the Avar people, horsemen in Mongolia
          • They move westward and extract large amounts of gold from the Roman Empire
  • 7.
        • Teotihuacan City, Mexico- At its peak, early 6th century, 125k people lived there.
          • Midcentury infant mortality rises
          • Lake samples from the Yucatan Peninsula show a receding of water and a drought.
          • A civilian uprising set the cities temples on fire.
        • Did the Event Give Rise to the Islamic Religion?
          • The Marib dam in Yemen, fails. The Merib people move to Medina and Mecca
            • Mohammed’s family are major importers of food during the drought and plague that had reached Arabia at this time.
            • There are mass amounts of apocalyptic literature
        • What would a future event cause?
          • Yellowstone Caldera, Long Valley Caldera, Campi Flegrei Caldera
            • Agriculture would fail
            • Satellite and radio communications would be interrupted
            • It would take close to 150 years to recover from an event like this
  • 8. The Columbian Exchange
    • On Columbus 3rd Voyage he sailed north up the coast of South America and found the Mouth of the Oronoco River.
      • When he discovered this he deduced that he had not found an island but a new continent.
    • Horses brought over by Cortez
      • They had not been present on the American continents for 10k years
        • These horses transformed the life styles of the people
          • In North America the Horse made it possible to hunt the Buffalo, in greater numbers and “brought the Indians time.”
        • They Spanish also brought with them large cattle ranching traditions.
          • In North America we began to see large cattle drives to the mid-west.
          • The US implemented a policy of exterminating the Buffalo, eliminating the food source of the plains Indians.
  • 9.
            • They were replaced by cattle and later wheat from Europe.
      • Also brought over many livestock
      • Pigs, Cattle, Sheep, Donkeys, Goats, and Chickens
      • Coca, Pineapple, Tabacco, Tomato, and Peanut were brought over from Europe
    • Europeans Flooded this new land mostly Italians and Spaniards
      • Population Booms in Europe due to the importation of the South American Potato
        • After the subsequent blights in Europe we see a mass immigration to the Americas.
          • The Irish poured into Boston and built Boston into an Irish city.
            • Reshaped politics and defined the Democratic Party.
    • The Exchange brought Over slaves to harvest the Sugar cane brought over to the Caribbean
      • Sugar Cane workers and harvesters on the Plantations had the highest mortality rates
        • Men had to cut and pile 6-10 tons, each, of cane a day to keep the mill working 24 hours a day
        • Slaves that attempted to escape, had the front of there foot cut off.
        • Slavery moved throughout all of the Americas.
  • 10.
    • Slave traders brought over Casaba, Maize, Sweet Peppers, Pumpkins and Chile peppers, from America.
      • Corn is a cultivated plant from central Mexico and perhaps the most important crop to be exposed to the world.
        • It can be stored for long periods of time, and was a staple that fed slaves coming over to the new world.
      • They now feed a large portion of Africa.