Advanced broadcast journalism techniques videography & sound design

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Journalism Education Association Adviser Institute presentation.

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Advanced broadcast journalism techniques videography & sound design

  1. 1. Advanced Broadcast - videography & sound Don Goble Ladue Horton Watkins High School St. Louis, MO dgoble@ladueschools.net @dgoble2001 #JEAai
  2. 2. Goals for the SessionGoals for the Session Build some common language Teach you new methods or validate what you are already doing I’m not a “techie” - know enough to talk the talk Presentation will be uploaded to my SlideShare account for review http://www.slideshare.net/dgoble
  3. 3. What is advanced broadcast?What is advanced broadcast? Prefer the word video over broadcast Mastery of basics & take on new techniques Confident troubleshooters True storytellers Mentors & leaders
  4. 4. Storytelling - Same subject QuickTime™ and a Motion JPEG A decompressor are needed to see this picture. BMX biking– basic video producer
  5. 5. Storytelling - different story Inspired Bicycles – Danny MacAskill April 2009
  6. 6. Ten FingerTen Finger actionaction reactionreaction widewide shotshotmediummedium shotshot closeclose shotshot eyeseyes nosenose soundsound lightinglighting backgroundbackground
  7. 7. CompositionComposition • Rule of Thirds • Eye Level • High Angle • Low Angle • Oblique/Canted Angle • Zoom In & Zoom Out • Pan Left & Pan Right • Hand Held Shots • The Bird’s Eye View
  8. 8. FramingFraming• Rule of Thirds • Eyes on Third • No Head room • Nose Room • Shoot to edit protocol - give extra time • Always shoot in sequences • Wide • Medium • Tight
  9. 9. Eye LevelEye Level • A fairly neutral shot • The camera is positioned as though it is a human actually observing a scene, so that actors' heads are on a level with the focus. • The camera will be placed approximately five to six feet from the ground.
  10. 10. High AngleHigh Angle • Not so extreme as a bird's eye view. The camera is elevated above the action using a crane to give a general overview. • High angles make the object photographed seem smaller, and less significant (or scary). • The object or character often gets swallowed up by their setting - they become part of a wider picture.
  11. 11. Low AngleLow Angle • These increase height (useful for short actors like Tom Cruise) and give a sense of speeded motion. • Low angles help give a sense of confusion to a viewer, of powerlessness within the action of a scene. • The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer. • The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen.
  12. 12. Oblique/Canted AngleOblique/Canted Angle • Sometimes the camera is tilted (i.e. is not placed horizontal to floor level), to suggest imbalance, transition and instability (any Michael Bay movie). • This technique is used to suggest POV=Point-of-View shots (i.e. when the camera becomes the 'eyes' of one particular character, seeing what they see - a hand held camera is often used for this).
  13. 13. Zoom In & Zoom OutZoom In & Zoom Out • Slowly include a WS slow zoom to CU and hold the shot. • And then slowly begin a shot at a CU and zoom to a WS and hold the shot. • Avoid if at all possible! Set your shot & take your hands off the camera.
  14. 14. Pan Left & Pan RightPan Left & Pan Right • Moving the camera to the left or right side is called a Pan. • Can help follow action or show the landscape of your shot. • Must be used sparingly and slowly. • Avoid if at all possible! Set your shot & take your hands off the camera.
  15. 15. Hand Held ShotsHand Held Shots • The hand-held camera was invented in the 1950s to allow the camera operator to move in and out of scenes with greater speed. • It gives a jerky, ragged effect, totally at odds with the organized smoothness of a dolly shot, and is favored by filmmakers looking for a gritty realism (i.e. Scorsese), which involves the viewer very closely with a scene. Much favored by the makers of NYPD Blue. • If possible, ALWAYS use a Tripod when filming. Shaky shots can be VERY distracting.
  16. 16. The Bird’s EyeViewThe Bird’s EyeView • This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. • Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognizable at first (umbrellas in a crowd, dancers' legs). This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. • People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things. • Hitchcock (and his admirers, like Brian de Palma) is fond of this style of shot.
  17. 17. LightLight • White Balance - use a sheet of white paper to help set • Natural Light • Florescent Lights • Light kits
  18. 18. Camera PlacementCamera Placement • 180 degree rule
  19. 19. Crossing the AxisCrossing the Axis • 180 degree rule
  20. 20. Crossing the AxisCrossing the Axis • 180 degree rule
  21. 21. Crossing the AxisCrossing the Axis • 180 degree rule
  22. 22. Shooting Tips !Shooting Tips ! • Use a tripod • Use Manual focus on the camera • Be mindful of your light • Shoot more footage than you need from as many angles as possible • Zoom your feet, not only the lens Always:
  23. 23. Shooting Tips !Shooting Tips ! • Remove hats and glasses (eyes are windows to the soul) • Avoid bright backgrounds (windows, whiteboards, etc.) • Get a variety of angles (not just eye level) • Avoid movement (pan & zoom while recording) • Shoot for sound Always:
  24. 24. More 7 cam angle examples Example videosExample videos
  25. 25. 6 shot video - PSA6 shot video - PSA Told One Lie, Trust Was Broken
  26. 26. Example news packageExample news package Former student Danny Spewak: Fishing story
  27. 27. Sound DesignSound Design and Recording for Broadcast Journalism courtesy of: Michael Hernandez Manhattan Beach, CA Mira Costa High School cinehead3@gmail.com @cinehead
  28. 28. •Microphones & Recording •Soundbites •NATS •VO •Sound Editing •Music Heads UpHeads Up
  29. 29. •On camera mic •Handheld mic •Shotgun mic •Lavalier •Over-modulation Basic Audio MistakesBasic Audio Mistakes
  30. 30. • Colorful • Clear • Concise Soundbites andSoundbites and InterviewsInterviews the three C’s
  31. 31. • “tell me about...” • subjective opinions • expert opinions • only this person could say it • don’t use facts • “...anything else you would like to add?” The three C’sThe three C’s what you want
  32. 32. • rephrase soundbite • “in a nutshell” • “rephrase in one sentence...” • “what are the two most important...” The three C’sThe three C’s how to get them
  33. 33. NATSNATS Natural Sound • show, don’t tell • say it, show it • what is it like to be there? • what does it feel like? • Doug Legore - all NAT sound storytelling
  34. 34. • punctuation • split sentences into phrases • good levels • ducking and keyframing • split edits Editing SoundEditing Sound
  35. 35. WAVY 2012 Gun Law video example – use of NAT sound for punctuation
  36. 36. • add emotion • didn’t record NATS • fix audio problems • “It’s what the pros do.” MusicMusic Why ?
  37. 37. • manipulative • subjective • hyperbole • violates copyright law MusicMusic Why Not?
  38. 38. • be a better sound editor • use music from NATS • creative commons license MusicMusic How to do it right
  39. 39. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Power Source Pickup Pattern Mic Use
  40. 40. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Power Source Dynamic: does not need batteries. Tends to be rugged. Condenser: uses battery to amplify signal. Higher quality signal.
  41. 41. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Pickup Pattern Omni-directional: sensitive to sounds from all directions. Picks up sound evenly from all directions (omni means "all" or "every")
  42. 42. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Pickup Pattern Uni-directional: sensitive to sounds from one direction. “Cardioid” “Super-cardioid” Picks up sound predominantly from one direction. “Super” very directional and eliminates most sound from the sides and rear
  43. 43. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Hand-held Lavalier Shotgun
  44. 44. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Hand-held: usually dynamic, cardioid
  45. 45. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Hand-held: usually dynamic, cardioid
  46. 46. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Hand-held: usually dynamic, cardioid
  47. 47. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Lavalier: condenser, usually omni-directional
  48. 48. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Lavalier: condenser, usually omni-directional
  49. 49. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Shotgun: condenser, super-cardioid
  50. 50. Microphones & RecordingMicrophones & Recording Classifications Mic Use Shotgun: dynamic, super- cardioid windsock
  51. 51. Uses of SoundUses of Sound Noise: Unwanted or unintentional sound elements Noise vs. Sound Examples: phone ringing, car alarms, planes flying overhead, hum from a bad cable, etc.
  52. 52. Uses of SoundUses of Sound Sound: sound elements intentionally recorded or included in soundtrack Noise vs. Sound Examples: VO, soundbites, NATS, etc.
  53. 53. Sound RecordingSound Recording Volume: Loudness. What you hear through speakers and headphones. Adjustable. Volume vs. Level Level: Signal strength. Permanent once recorded.
  54. 54. Sound RecordingSound Recording VU Meter Measures the level. Peak levels should not go above 0dB Shown in decibles (dB) or percentage of modulation (0-100%)
  55. 55. Sound RecordingSound Recording Overmodulation Level is too strong to be recorded accurately Results in distortion of the signal
  56. 56. QuickTime™ and a H.264 decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  57. 57. News Feature from HEC-TV & other Goble videos with professionals: While on the site, also visit theVideo Production Tips page!
  58. 58. Q & A Don Goble Ladue Horton Watkins High School St. Louis, MO dgoble@ladueschools.net @dgoble2001 #JEAai13

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