2.1 rise and expansion of rome protected

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  • The Empire in Prosperity p26From 27 B.C. to A.D. 14 Julius Caesar’s adopted son Octavian ruled as Rome’s first emperor. Octavian was given the name Augustus, which means the revered or exalted one. As emperor, Augustus put an end to the chaos and power struggles that had occurred within the Roman Empire after Julius Caesar's assassination. During his reign, Augustus also expanded the empire by conquering the territory that ran along the Rhine and Danube rivers.
  • Expanding the Empire p27Roman conquest of new territory continued under the emperors after Augustus. By A.D. 117, the Roman Empire had reached its greatest size. It extended from Britain in the north to Africa in the south and from Spain in the west to Syria in the east. The lands and people captured by the empire were organized in to provinces, or territories, of Rome. Rome maintained peace in its provinces by allowing individuals to continue living and working as usual. However, Roman officials did institute Roman laws in these territories. In addition they appointed governors to rule the provinces and make sure that Roman law was enforced there.
  • Profiting from Provinces pg27Rome benefited from its empire in many ways. Since enemies cold reach Rome only by crossing the provinces, these territories protected Rome by acting as a buffer zone. They also produced food and other goods for the city of Rome. Form example, Egypt and North Africa supplied Rome with most of its wheat. Trade with the provinces brought wealth to Roman citizens. The people in the provinces also paid taxes, which supported the government and the army of about 300,000 men distributed along the empire’s frontiers. For a long time, the empire was well fed, strong, and wealthy.Because Rome was strong, the empire was peaceful and stable, which benefited everyone in it. The government built roads that connected the provinces of Rome. It also funded the construction of aqueducts, Aqueducts were used to pipe drinking water from wells and springs to the people.
  • Roman and Jewish leaders viewed Jesus as a threat to their own power and authority
  • 2.1 rise and expansion of rome protected

    1. 1. Chapter 2.1 The Rise and Expansion of Rome
    2. 2. Why is this important to the history of Rome?
    3. 3. MAIN IDEAS • Government: Early Rome grew from a small village to a thriving republic on the Italian peninsula. • Culture: The Romans eventually built a large empire that spread their culture to many lands. • Belief Systems: During the Roman Empire, a powerful new religion known as Christianity emerged.
    4. 4. I. The Origins of Rome A. The Geography of Rome 1. Latins, Greeks, Etruscans lived on Italian peninsula 700–500 B.C.
    5. 5. Which of the following did not live on the Italian peninsula between 700-500 B.C.? A. Latins B. Etruscans C. Mongols D. Greeks
    6. 6. I. The Origins of Rome 2. Latins built Rome among a group of hills along Tiber River CH 9#2
    7. 7. Rome was built along what river? A. Euphrates B. Tigris C. Nile D. Tiber
    8. 8. I. The Origins of Rome (con’t) 3. Settlement of Rome benefited from favorable environment: a. Apennines Mountains protected region from harsh weather, invaders
    9. 9. Apennines Mountains
    10. 10. b. cool, rainy winters provided rich farmland I. The Origins of Rome (con’t)
    11. 11. c. Tiber River enabled long-distance trade I. The Origins of Rome (con’t)
    12. 12. What enabled long distance trade? A. Tiber River B. Roman Roads C. Apennines Mountains D. Marathons
    13. 13. I. The Origins of Rome (con’t) B. A Kingdom Emerges 1. Rome became a kingdom during eighth century B.C.; ruled by kings 2. Many kings were Etruscans, a powerful group from northern Italy
    14. 14. 3. Tarquin the Proud ruled harshly; Romans overthrew him in 510 B.C.
    15. 15. 4. Romans ended kingship, based government on the will of the people
    16. 16. Why did Romans end kingships? A. They wanted to replace kings with dictators B. They wanted a government based on the will of the people C. They wanted to replace kings with presidents D. They never got rid of the king
    17. 17. II. From Republic to Empire A. The Roman Republic 1. Romans established form of government known as republic
    18. 18. a. republic—power rests with citizens who elect leaders by vote
    19. 19. In a republic, where does the power rest? A. With a president B. With a dictator C. With a king D. With citizens
    20. 20. 2. Republic gave average citizens a voice, free-born males could vote II. From Republic to Empire (con’t)
    21. 21. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) 3. Romans developed system of laws to protect citizen’s basic rights a. two consuls served at head of government; one-year term limit
    22. 22. Roman Senate b. lawmaking body called Senate acted as check on consuls’ power II. From Republic to Empire (con’t)
    23. 23. What was not true of the Roman Senate? A. They made laws B. They were the head of government C. They checked the consuls’ power D. They were all male citizens
    24. 24. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) 4. Powerful, well-organized army conquered all of present-day Italy
    25. 25. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) 5. Rome defeated Carthage, North Africa in Punic Wars (264–146 B.C.)
    26. 26. • a. victory gave Romans control over majority of Mediterranean Sea II. From Republic to Empire (con’t)
    27. 27. What did a victory in the Punic Wars mean for the Roman Empire? A. They saved the Italian peninsula from barbarians B. They were able to control the straights of Gibraltar C. Their Empire spread all they way to Egypt D. They gained control over the majority of the Mediterranean Sea
    28. 28. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) B. Decline of the Republic 1. Expanding republic grew unstable; class-based civil war broke out
    29. 29. 2. Julius Caesar claimed sole power in 45 B.C.; murdered by opponents 3. Caesar's adopted son took power; claimed title Augustus—divine one II. From Republic to Empire (con’t)
    30. 30. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) C. Rome Becomes an Empire 1. Augustus turned Rome into empire—different groups ruled by one leader
    31. 31. What did Augustus turn Rome into? A. Kingdom B. Empire C. Democracy D. Republic
    32. 32. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) 2. Augustus was careful and brilliant emperor—ruler of an empire a. decades of peace, prosperity called Pax Romana or “Roman peace”
    33. 33. II. From Republic to Empire (con’t) 3. Augustus died A.D.14; his policies enabled Rome to grow powerful a. 60–100 million people under Roman rule by second century b. included Germans, Africans, Greeks, Jews, Egyptians
    34. 34. CH9 #1
    35. 35. III. The Rise of Christianity A. Jesus And His Teachings 1. A new religion known as Christianity emerged under the Roman Empire
    36. 36. III. The Rise of Christianity (con’t) 2. Christianity—religion based on the teachings of Jesus a. believe Jesus to be son of God; believe in one God b. love friends, enemies; there is an afterlife in heaven
    37. 37. 3. Teachings threatened Roman, Jewish leaders power and authority; they kill Jesus 4. Christians believe Jesus rose to heaven III. The Rise of Christianity (con’t)
    38. 38. Lesson Summary • The Romans established an early form of a republic, in which average citizens had a strong voice in government. • Rome eventually became a large empire that spread its influence to many lands. • Christianity emerged during the Roman era and became one of the world’s influential religions.
    39. 39. Why It Matters Now . . . • Christianity remains one of the most popular and significant religions today with some two billion followers worldwide.
    40. 40. According to what we learned, why is it important to know about the origins of Christianity today? A. It a significant religion with over two billion followers worldwide B. It is one of the biggest reasons for tensions in the Middle East C. It is the Majority religion in the Middle East and the rest of Asia D. It is a disappearing religion

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