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Areas of Tension in Technology Enhanced Learning
 

Areas of Tension in Technology Enhanced Learning

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  • Online data collection : January – February 2011
  • Societal challenges on post it Core research on post it Area of tension on post-it Yellow for phd candidates, rose for phd advisor
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Areas of Tension in Technology Enhanced Learning Areas of Tension in Technology Enhanced Learning Presentation Transcript

  • Areas of Tension in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL): A New Framework for the Elicitation of Research Questions ? Denis GILLET (presenter), Hans SPADA, et al. ED‐MEDIA Graduate Research Training Stream Lisbon, Portugal, Thursday June 30, 16:00-17:00
  • Summary
    • • Denis Gillet, Associate Professor, Human Computer Interaction, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL)
    • • In a recent Delphi study carried out by the STELLAR Network of Excellence, 230 experts identified eleven core areas for future TEL research and Five Areas of Tension presenting opposing views on future developments in TEL
    • • In this session, we will discuss how new research questions highly related to societal challenges can be elicited in this dialectic framework. As example, one of the identified area of tension is about ‘Data tracking for personalized learning versus data privacy’
  • STELLAR Delphi study Purpose within the STELLAR network
    • • Contribute to the STELLAR Grand Challenges, provide input to other STELLAR activities, and disseminate the results beyond STELLAR:
      • envisioning the most important TEL research themes, regarding technological developments, educational aspects, and societal challenges
      • exploring goals and visions held by TEL experts
      • integrating these perspectives in a common framework for future European TEL research
      • http://tinyurl.com/delphistudy
  • Study Design The 5 STELLAR Delphi Rounds Round 1: Internal survey (STELLAR Partners) Round 4: Second global survey Round 2: First global survey Round 3: Two workshops (STELLAR Partners) Round 5: Elaboration and Dissemination of results February – September 2009 October 2009 – June 2010 July – October 2010 November 2010 – September 2011 October 2011 – May 2012
  • 1 st STELLAR Delphi Round Overview
    • STELLAR-internal survey
    • Identify future trends: important societal challenges, technological developments, and research topics
    • Open format items/qualitative data analysis (Glaser, 1992; Mayring, 2008)
    • Development of category systems  Future Trends
    • Generate future visions  Visionary Statements (2025)
    Topic Subtopic Ubiquitous & contextualized learning and technology Contextualisation, location-awareness and context-aware applications Mobile devices & ubiquitous computing Ubiquitous mobile connectivity
  • 2 nd STELLAR Delphi Round Panel of Experts
    • Recruiting of 511 international experts
    • 363 expert nominations by STELLAR partners
    • 148 members of program committees of TEL-related conferences
    • Final Panel of Experts (answered the questionnaire) – 45%
    • 230 international experts
  • 2 nd STELLAR Delphi Round Visionary Statements  Areas of Tension
    • Rating of 16 Visionary Statements on two dimensions
        • Examples:
        • “ By 2025, our learning history will be recorded resulting in a track record ”
        • “ By 2025, formal education of long running mass programmes will become irrelevant in favour of networked and digitally supported personal learning trajectories. ”
  • 2 nd STELLAR Delphi Round Visionary Statements  Areas of Tension
    • 16 Visionary Statements:
    • Patterns in the frequency distributions on both rating scales (realistic- and desirable-rating)
  • 3 rd Delphi Round - First Delphi Workshop Visionary Statements  Areas of Tension
    • Area of Tension (AoT): Two opposite positions on a future development within TEL
    • Example:
    Area of Tension Generated visionary statements Personalized learning: Adaptation to individual needs and competences through data tracking vs. Loss of data privacy: Misuse of personal data such as a person ’ s learning history “ Education will be adaptive to the learners' levels of cognitive and affective characteristics ” “ Companies will prescribe employees what to learn and enforce this electronically ” “ Policies about what to forget, traces to destroy... (for privacy and better learning) will be established ”
  • 3 rd STELLAR Delphi Round Visionary Statements  5 Areas of Tension
    • Ubiquitous learning opportunities vs. Focused and critical processing of information
    Individual learning paths vs. Standardized learning paths Data tracking for personalized learning vs. Data privacy Approved practices vs. Continuous innovation in the classroom Digital divide despite technology spread
  • 2 nd STELLAR Delphi Round Future Trends  Core Research Areas
    • Future Societal Challenges (18 items)
        • What key societal demands and challenges will Technology-Enhanced Learning have to respond to in the future?
    • Future Technological Developments (12 items)
        • What key technological developments will have an impact on Technology-Enhanced Learning in the future?
    • Future Research Themes (25 items)
        • Imagine a large international research program on Technology-Enhanced Learning to be carried out from 2015 till 2020: What should be central research themes in this program?
      •  importance / impact rating on 5 point-Likert scales
  • 2 nd Delphi Round Future Trends  Core Research Areas
    • Results – Top 5 Societal Challenges
    • Future societal demands and challenges
    • Lifelong learning
    • Provide teacher training in order to improve formal education
    • Adapt education to new generations of students
    • Reducing the “digital divide”
    • Learning on demand
    Main effect  sign. differences between importance ratings on Future Societal items; F (12.6, 2623.6) = 30.15, p < .001, ƒ = .38
  • 2 nd Delphi Round Future Trends  Core Research Areas
    • Results – Top 5 Technological Developments
    • Future technological developments
    • Mobile (portable) computing technologies
    • Collaboration & communication tools
    • Technology spread
    • Innovative interfaces
    • Interoperability
    • Web 2.0
    Main effect  sign. differences between impact ratings on Future Technological items; F (9.36, 1994.3) = 49.68, p < .001, ƒ = .48
  • 2 nd Delphi Round Future Trends  Core Research Areas
    • Results – Top 10 Research Themes
    • Future research themes
    • Collaborative learning
    • Enabling developing countries to benefit from technology enhanced learning
    • Personalization/individualization of learning
    • Contextualized learning & context‐aware applications
    • Lifelong learning & workplace learning
    • Ubiquitous & mobile technology/learning
    • Emotional and motivational aspects of learning
    • Connection between formal and informal learning
    • Adaptive/Intelligent learning support systems
    • Analysis of cognitive processes on the group level
    Main effect  sign. differences between importance ratings on Future Research items; F (16.1, 3028.3) = 12.57, p < .001, ƒ = .26
  • 2 nd  3 rd STELLAR Delphi Round Future Trends  Core Research Areas Core Research Areas Future societal demands and challenges + Future technological developments + Future research themes
  • 3 rd Delphi Round - Second Delphi Workshop Future Trends  Core Research Areas Societal challenge for TEL - Learning on demand - Lifelong learning Technological development - Ambient intelligence/computing - Context-aware technologies and applications - Augmented and virtual reality Research theme - Contextualized learning & context-aware applications Trendsetting Research Questions: How can we theorize context in a form that is appropriate for enabling new forms of learning? How to enable continuity of the interaction and accessibility of information between different contexts, including virtual and physical ones? How to find and aggregate relevant people, resources and services from the “cloud” for a given context? … . Example: Contextualized Learning
  • 3 rd STELLAR Delphi Round Future Trends  11 Core Research Areas
    • Computer-supported collaborative learning
    • Reducing the digital divide
    • Personalization of learning
    • Contextualized learning
    • Workplace learning
    • Ubiquitous & mobile technology and learning
    • Emotional and motivational aspects of technology-enhanced learning
    • Informal learning
    • Improve practices of formal education
    • Connection between formal and informal learning
    • Interoperability
  • 4 th STELLAR Delphi Round Second Global Survey
    • Recruited panel of experts :
      • about 1500 invited TEL researcher and stakeholders
    • Final global panel :
      • 569 participants answered the questionnaire (38%)
      • Experts chose one main group they belong to:
  • 4 th STELLAR Delphi Round Questionnaire
    • Areas of Tension
      • Strength of tension today and in 10 years?
      • Identification with position A / B?
      • Impact of tension on research, society…?
      • Influence of research, society… on development of tension?
    • Core Research Areas
      • Ranking of Core Research Areas according to their importance for research in TEL in the next 10 years
      • Provide suggestions for concrete research projects
    • Main goal: Recommendations for a TEL research agenda
  • 4 th STELLAR Delphi Round Core Research Areas – Ranking Results
      • In order of rank sum (N=498):
        • (4.47) Connection between informal and formal learning
        • (4.89) Computer-supported collaborative learning
        • (5.07) Personalized learning
        • (5.07) Contextualized learning
        • (5.49) Ubiquitous and mobile technology and learning
        • (5.52) Improve practices in formal education
        • (6.19) Emotional and motivational aspects of TEL
        • (6.56) Informal learning
        • (6.99) Reducing the digital divide
        • (7.01) Workplace learning
        • (8.05) Interoperability
  • Part 2: The Voice of PhD Candidates http://tinyurl.com/CRA-AoT
    • Are you a PhD candidate, advisor, other ?
    • Do you already have clear research questions ?
    • Should research questions deal with societal challenges (SC) ? Y/N
      • If yes, which SC your current research is dealing with ?
    • Is your current research associated with one of the Core Research Areas (CRA) ? Y/N
      • If yes, which one(s) ?
      • If no, which CRA is missing ?
    • Is your current research associated with one of the Areas of Tension (AoT) ? Y/N
      • If yes, which one(s) ?
      • If no, which CRA is missing ?
    • Are you going to refine your research questions in the light of these findings (AoT, CRA)? Y/N • If yes, how ?
  • Part 2: The Voice of PhD Candidates http://tinyurl.com/CRA-AoT
    • New Areas of tension proposed by the participants of the last Joint Winter School on TEL
      • Handwriting versus Typewriting (what are core skills and knowledge to acquire?)
      • Action (immediate) versus Vision (mid and long term objectives, … serious games)
      • Reproducibility (stable foundation) versus Plasticity (agile personalization)
      • Skillfulness versus Closeness (as example, the teachers may not be the right people to deal with digital literacy, despite the fact that they are close to the kids)
      • Adoption versus Innovation (careful adoption of useful innovation in education)
      • Competences versus Performances (what are the real objectives of education?)
    • Your Vision
      • Write a 6-line visionary scenario for education (desirable)
      • Write one sentence stating if it is realist or not ? If not, what is the barrier?