Section 2 operant conditioning

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Section 2 operant conditioning

  1. 1. Operant Conditioning The Ugly Cousin to Classical Conditioning
  2. 2. I Love the OC <ul><li>Operant Conditioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of associative learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this type of learning, a person learns to associate their own actions with consequences. </li></ul>
  3. 3. dog
  4. 4. The Pioneering Mind behind OC <ul><li>B.F. Skinner, an author, decided to enter grad school in psych. </li></ul><ul><li>He was intrigued with how animal’s and people’s behavior is shaped by what they get or lose from doing it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Going to the Birds… and Rats <ul><li>Skinner devised a simple yet effective method to see if he could in fact teach animals to respond to stimuli the way he wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>He came up with Operant Chambers, or Skinner Boxes to test Rats and Pigeons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pigeon vid
  7. 7. How OC Increases Behavior <ul><li>Page 326: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a desirable effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove an aversive stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How OC Decreases Behavior <ul><li>Page 329: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer an aversive stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw a desirable stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Operant Conditioning Finale The Finishing Touches on Operant Conditioning But I want more than 2 or 3 days worth!
  10. 10. Clarification on OC Terms <ul><li>Positive Prefix </li></ul><ul><li>Adding something in response to a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Adding something: good = reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>bad = punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Prefix </li></ul><ul><li>Taking away something in response to a behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking something: good = punishment </li></ul><ul><li>bad = reinforcement </li></ul>
  11. 11. Calvin gives Hobbes a hug for wiping his feet off before coming inside. Positive Reinforcement
  12. 12. Police give you a speeding ticket. Positive Punishment
  13. 13. My wife cuts off my supply of pumpkin delights because of my behavior. Negative Punishment No more for you till you behave yourself.
  14. 14. You fasten your seatbelt and the beep goes away. Negative Reinforcement
  15. 15. Reinforcement Schedules <ul><li>Psychologists have found that constant positive reinforcement, or continuous reinforcement, is not the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is much better to create a reinforcement schedule since life rarely continuously reinforces us. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What about Punishments? <ul><li>Use punishments carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant, especially physical punishments, can suppress instead of decrease behaviors and cause fearfulness in children. </li></ul>

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