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Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
Data visualization
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Data visualization

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  • Hand-drawn graph from the 1880’s, showing Paris train schedule.Attributed to the French engineer Ibry.Source: E.J. Marey, La Methode de Graphique (Paris, 1885)
  • William Playfair (1759-1823)3 series over time:-Wheat prices-Labor wages-Monarch
  • From 1960 census:# of families per county with very low income (<$3,000)# of families per county with very high income (>$10,000)
  • Charles Joseph Minard, French Engineer, 1781-1870“It may well be the best statistical graphic ever.” – TufteTan line = Napoleon’s march to Moscow in the winter of 1812. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Black = Napoleon’s retreat to Poland. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Width of lines represents size of army. (100,000 men - 10,000 men)Bottom line is linked to lower graph, showing dates and temperatures (very cold winter)Auxiliary troop movements are shown.Crossing Berzina River was a disaster.Variables: -Size of army -Location -Direction of movement -Temperature -Dates
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From TheLos Angeles Times, 1979Lie factor = 2.8(also horizontal spacing of X-axis is wrong)
  • Time, 19791-dimensional data is shown as 3-dimensional objectsIncrease of 454% is shown as volume increase of 27,000%Lie factor=48.8, a record!
  • Source: Washington Post, 1979Graphic suffers from bias of 2-dimensional figures representing 1-dimensional data points.But also represents Nominal dollars – not Real (or inflation-adjusted) dollars
  • Source: Sunday Times (London), 1979
  • New York Times, 1978
  • Data-ink = ink that directly shows the data and will result in loss of data if erasedAll else = decorations, metadata and redundant data.Proportion of a graphic’s ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data-information.1.0 – proportion of graphic that can be erased without loss of data-information
  • Duck-shaped building in Flanders, NY3 types of chart junk:1) Unintentional optical art2) Grid3) Self-promoting graphical duck
  • Moire’ EffectGraphic appears to vibrate or shimmer
  • Transcript

    • 1. Data Visualization<br />The Ideas of Edward Tufte<br />
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4. Graphical Excellence<br />
    • 5.
    • 6.
    • 7.
    • 8.
    • 9. Graphical Integrity<br />
    • 10. $0<br />$(11,014)<br />$(11,014)<br />
    • 11. Lie<br />
    • 12. Lie Factor<br />𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑆h𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝐼𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑝h𝑖𝑐𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝐼𝑛 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎<br /> <br />
    • 13. Lie<br />Graphical Increase = 783%<br />Lie Factor=14.8<br />Data Increase = 53%<br />
    • 14. Truth<br />
    • 15. Graphical Change = 527%<br />Lie Factor=2.8<br />Data Change = 188%<br />
    • 16. Graphical Change = 27,000%<br />Lie Factor=48.8<br />Data Change = 554%<br />
    • 17.
    • 18.
    • 19.
    • 20. Context<br />
    • 21. Before stricter<br />enforcement<br />After stricter<br />enforcement<br />
    • 22.
    • 23.
    • 24. NY<br />MA<br />CT<br />RI<br />
    • 25. Principles of Graphical Integrity<br />Data Representations proportional to Data<br />Real dollars, instead of deflated dollars<br />#Dimensions in graph = #Dimensions in data<br />Provide context<br />
    • 26. Data-Ink<br />
    • 27. Data-Ink Ratio<br />= 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎 𝐼𝑛𝑘𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑘<br /> <br />
    • 28.
    • 29.
    • 30.
    • 31.
    • 32.
    • 33.
    • 34.
    • 35.
    • 36.
    • 37.
    • 38.
    • 39.
    • 40.
    • 41.
    • 42.
    • 43.
    • 44. Principles<br />Above all else, show the data<br />Maximize the data-ink ratio, within reason<br />Erase non-data-ink<br />Erase redundant data-ink<br />Revise and edit<br />
    • 45. Chart JunkVibrations, Grids, and Ducks<br />
    • 46. Vibrations<br />
    • 47.
    • 48.
    • 49.
    • 50.
    • 51.
    • 52.
    • 53. Worst. Graph. Ever.<br />
    • 54. Multifunctioning Graphical Elements<br />
    • 55.
    • 56.
    • 57.
    • 58. Takeaways<br />Maintain Graphical Integrity<br />Minimize Data-Ink Ratio, within reason<br />Avoid Chartjunk<br />Use Multifunctioning Graphical Elements, if possible<br />Keep Labels with data<br />
    • 59. Dr. Edward Tufte<br />
    • 60. David Giard<br />MCTS, MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA<br />blog: DavidGiard.com<br />tv: TechnologyAndFriends.com<br />e-mail: DavidGiard@DavidGiard.com<br />
    • 61. David’s Speaking Schedule<br />

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