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Data visualization

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  • Hand-drawn graph from the 1880’s, showing Paris train schedule.Attributed to the French engineer Ibry.Source: E.J. Marey, La Methode de Graphique (Paris, 1885)
  • William Playfair (1759-1823)3 series over time:-Wheat prices-Labor wages-Monarch
  • From 1960 census:# of families per county with very low income (<$3,000)# of families per county with very high income (>$10,000)
  • Charles Joseph Minard, French Engineer, 1781-1870“It may well be the best statistical graphic ever.” – TufteTan line = Napoleon’s march to Moscow in the winter of 1812. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Black = Napoleon’s retreat to Poland. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Width of lines represents size of army. (100,000 men - 10,000 men)Bottom line is linked to lower graph, showing dates and temperatures (very cold winter)Auxiliary troop movements are shown.Crossing Berzina River was a disaster.Variables: -Size of army -Location -Direction of movement -Temperature -Dates
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From TheLos Angeles Times, 1979Lie factor = 2.8(also horizontal spacing of X-axis is wrong)
  • Time, 19791-dimensional data is shown as 3-dimensional objectsIncrease of 454% is shown as volume increase of 27,000%Lie factor=48.8, a record!
  • Source: Washington Post, 1979Graphic suffers from bias of 2-dimensional figures representing 1-dimensional data points.But also represents Nominal dollars – not Real (or inflation-adjusted) dollars
  • Source: Sunday Times (London), 1979
  • New York Times, 1978
  • Data-ink = ink that directly shows the data and will result in loss of data if erasedAll else = decorations, metadata and redundant data.Proportion of a graphic’s ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data-information.1.0 – proportion of graphic that can be erased without loss of data-information
  • Duck-shaped building in Flanders, NY3 types of chart junk:1) Unintentional optical art2) Grid3) Self-promoting graphical duck
  • Moire’ EffectGraphic appears to vibrate or shimmer
  • Transcript

    • 1. Data Visualization
      The Ideas of Edward Tufte
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4. Graphical Excellence
    • 5.
    • 6.
    • 7.
    • 8.
    • 9. Graphical Integrity
    • 10. $0
      $(11,014)
      $(11,014)
    • 11. Lie
    • 12. Lie Factor
      𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑆h𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝐼𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑝h𝑖𝑐𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝐼𝑛 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎
       
    • 13. Lie
      Graphical Increase = 783%
      Lie Factor=14.8
      Data Increase = 53%
    • 14. Truth
    • 15. Graphical Change = 527%
      Lie Factor=2.8
      Data Change = 188%
    • 16. Graphical Change = 27,000%
      Lie Factor=48.8
      Data Change = 554%
    • 17.
    • 18.
    • 19.
    • 20. Context
    • 21. Before stricter
      enforcement
      After stricter
      enforcement
    • 22.
    • 23.
    • 24. NY
      MA
      CT
      RI
    • 25. Principles of Graphical Integrity
      Data Representations proportional to Data
      Real dollars, instead of deflated dollars
      #Dimensions in graph = #Dimensions in data
      Provide context
    • 26. Data-Ink
    • 27. Data-Ink Ratio
      = 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎 𝐼𝑛𝑘𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑘
       
    • 28.
    • 29.
    • 30.
    • 31.
    • 32.
    • 33.
    • 34.
    • 35.
    • 36.
    • 37.
    • 38.
    • 39.
    • 40.
    • 41.
    • 42.
    • 43.
    • 44. Principles
      Above all else, show the data
      Maximize the data-ink ratio, within reason
      Erase non-data-ink
      Erase redundant data-ink
      Revise and edit
    • 45. Chart JunkVibrations, Grids, and Ducks
    • 46. Vibrations
    • 47.
    • 48.
    • 49.
    • 50.
    • 51.
    • 52.
    • 53. Worst. Graph. Ever.
    • 54. Multifunctioning Graphical Elements
    • 55.
    • 56.
    • 57.
    • 58. Takeaways
      Maintain Graphical Integrity
      Minimize Data-Ink Ratio, within reason
      Avoid Chartjunk
      Use Multifunctioning Graphical Elements, if possible
      Keep Labels with data
    • 59. Dr. Edward Tufte
    • 60. David Giard
      MCTS, MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA
      blog: DavidGiard.com
      tv: TechnologyAndFriends.com
      e-mail: DavidGiard@DavidGiard.com
    • 61. David’s Speaking Schedule

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