Data visualization
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Data visualization

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  • Hand-drawn graph from the 1880’s, showing Paris train schedule.Attributed to the French engineer Ibry.Source: E.J. Marey, La Methode de Graphique (Paris, 1885)
  • William Playfair (1759-1823)3 series over time:-Wheat prices-Labor wages-Monarch
  • From 1960 census:# of families per county with very low income ($10,000)
  • Charles Joseph Minard, French Engineer, 1781-1870“It may well be the best statistical graphic ever.” – TufteTan line = Napoleon’s march to Moscow in the winter of 1812. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Black = Napoleon’s retreat to Poland. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Width of lines represents size of army. (100,000 men - 10,000 men)Bottom line is linked to lower graph, showing dates and temperatures (very cold winter)Auxiliary troop movements are shown.Crossing Berzina River was a disaster.Variables: -Size of army -Location -Direction of movement -Temperature -Dates
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From TheLos Angeles Times, 1979Lie factor = 2.8(also horizontal spacing of X-axis is wrong)
  • Time, 19791-dimensional data is shown as 3-dimensional objectsIncrease of 454% is shown as volume increase of 27,000%Lie factor=48.8, a record!
  • Source: Washington Post, 1979Graphic suffers from bias of 2-dimensional figures representing 1-dimensional data points.But also represents Nominal dollars – not Real (or inflation-adjusted) dollars
  • Source: Sunday Times (London), 1979
  • New York Times, 1978
  • Data-ink = ink that directly shows the data and will result in loss of data if erasedAll else = decorations, metadata and redundant data.Proportion of a graphic’s ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data-information.1.0 – proportion of graphic that can be erased without loss of data-information
  • Duck-shaped building in Flanders, NY3 types of chart junk:1) Unintentional optical art2) Grid3) Self-promoting graphical duck
  • Moire’ EffectGraphic appears to vibrate or shimmer

Data visualization Data visualization Presentation Transcript

  • Data Visualization
    The Ideas of Edward Tufte
  • Graphical Excellence
  • Graphical Integrity
  • $0
    $(11,014)
    $(11,014)
  • Lie
  • Lie Factor
    𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑆h𝑜𝑤𝑛 𝐼𝑛 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑝h𝑖𝑐𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝐼𝑛 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎
     
  • Lie
    Graphical Increase = 783%
    Lie Factor=14.8
    Data Increase = 53%
  • Truth
  • Graphical Change = 527%
    Lie Factor=2.8
    Data Change = 188%
  • Graphical Change = 27,000%
    Lie Factor=48.8
    Data Change = 554%
  • Context
  • Before stricter
    enforcement
    After stricter
    enforcement
  • NY
    MA
    CT
    RI
  • Principles of Graphical Integrity
    Data Representations proportional to Data
    Real dollars, instead of deflated dollars
    #Dimensions in graph = #Dimensions in data
    Provide context
  • Data-Ink
  • Data-Ink Ratio
    = 𝐷𝑎𝑡𝑎 𝐼𝑛𝑘𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑘
     
  • Principles
    Above all else, show the data
    Maximize the data-ink ratio, within reason
    Erase non-data-ink
    Erase redundant data-ink
    Revise and edit
  • Chart JunkVibrations, Grids, and Ducks
  • Vibrations
  • Worst. Graph. Ever.
  • Multifunctioning Graphical Elements
  • Takeaways
    Maintain Graphical Integrity
    Minimize Data-Ink Ratio, within reason
    Avoid Chartjunk
    Use Multifunctioning Graphical Elements, if possible
    Keep Labels with data
  • Dr. Edward Tufte
  • David Giard
    MCTS, MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA
    blog: DavidGiard.com
    tv: TechnologyAndFriends.com
    e-mail: DavidGiard@DavidGiard.com
  • David’s Speaking Schedule