Data Visualization<br />The Ideas of Edward Tufte<br />
Graphical Excellence<br />
Graphical Integrity<br />
$0<br />$(11,014)<br />$(11,014)<br />
Lie<br />
Lie Factor<br />𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑑 𝑆hπ‘œπ‘€π‘›Β πΌπ‘›Β πΊπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘hπ‘–π‘π‘†π‘–π‘§π‘’Β π‘‚π‘“Β πΈπ‘“π‘“π‘’π‘π‘‘Β πΌπ‘›Β π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž<br />Β <br />
Lie<br />Graphical Increase = 783%<br />Lie Factor=14.8<br />Data Increase = 53%<br />
Truth<br />
Graphical Change = 527%<br />Lie Factor=2.8<br />Data Change = 188%<br />
Graphical Change = 27,000%<br />Lie Factor=48.8<br />Data Change = 554%<br />
Context<br />
Before stricter<br />enforcement<br />After stricter<br />enforcement<br />
NY<br />MA<br />CT<br />RI<br />
Principles of Graphical Integrity<br />Data Representations proportional to Data<br />Real dollars, instead of deflated do...
Data-Ink<br />
Data-Ink Ratio<br />= π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘ŽΒ πΌπ‘›π‘˜π‘‡π‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™Β πΌπ‘›π‘˜<br />Β <br />
Principles<br />Above all else, show the data<br />Maximize the data-ink ratio, within reason<br />Erase non-data-ink<br /...
Chart JunkVibrations, Grids, and Ducks<br />
Vibrations<br />
Worst. Graph. Ever.<br />
Multifunctioning Graphical Elements<br />
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Data visualization

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  • Hand-drawn graph from the 1880’s, showing Paris train schedule.Attributed to the French engineer Ibry.Source: E.J. Marey, La Methode de Graphique (Paris, 1885)
  • William Playfair (1759-1823)3 series over time:-Wheat prices-Labor wages-Monarch
  • From 1960 census:# of families per county with very low income (&lt;$3,000)# of families per county with very high income (&gt;$10,000)
  • Charles Joseph Minard, French Engineer, 1781-1870β€œIt may well be the best statistical graphic ever.” – TufteTan line = Napoleon’s march to Moscow in the winter of 1812. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Black = Napoleon’s retreat to Poland. (422,000 men – 100,000 men)Width of lines represents size of army. (100,000 men - 10,000 men)Bottom line is linked to lower graph, showing dates and temperatures (very cold winter)Auxiliary troop movements are shown.Crossing Berzina River was a disaster.Variables: -Size of army -Location -Direction of movement -Temperature -Dates
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From NY Times, 1978Fuel economy standards increased by 53%Graphic shows fuel economy increased by 783%Lie factor = 14.8
  • From TheLos Angeles Times, 1979Lie factor = 2.8(also horizontal spacing of X-axis is wrong)
  • Time, 19791-dimensional data is shown as 3-dimensional objectsIncrease of 454% is shown as volume increase of 27,000%Lie factor=48.8, a record!
  • Source: Washington Post, 1979Graphic suffers from bias of 2-dimensional figures representing 1-dimensional data points.But also represents Nominal dollars – not Real (or inflation-adjusted) dollars
  • Source: Sunday Times (London), 1979
  • New York Times, 1978
  • Data-ink = ink that directly shows the data and will result in loss of data if erasedAll else = decorations, metadata and redundant data.Proportion of a graphic’s ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data-information.1.0 – proportion of graphic that can be erased without loss of data-information
  • Duck-shaped building in Flanders, NY3 types of chart junk:1) Unintentional optical art2) Grid3) Self-promoting graphical duck
  • Moire’ EffectGraphic appears to vibrate or shimmer
  • Data visualization

    1. 1. Data Visualization<br />The Ideas of Edward Tufte<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4. Graphical Excellence<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6.
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Graphical Integrity<br />
    10. 10. $0<br />$(11,014)<br />$(11,014)<br />
    11. 11. Lie<br />
    12. 12. Lie Factor<br />𝑆𝑖𝑧𝑒 𝑂𝑓 𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑑 𝑆hπ‘œπ‘€π‘›Β πΌπ‘›Β πΊπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘hπ‘–π‘π‘†π‘–π‘§π‘’Β π‘‚π‘“Β πΈπ‘“π‘“π‘’π‘π‘‘Β πΌπ‘›Β π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž<br />Β <br />
    13. 13. Lie<br />Graphical Increase = 783%<br />Lie Factor=14.8<br />Data Increase = 53%<br />
    14. 14. Truth<br />
    15. 15. Graphical Change = 527%<br />Lie Factor=2.8<br />Data Change = 188%<br />
    16. 16. Graphical Change = 27,000%<br />Lie Factor=48.8<br />Data Change = 554%<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18.
    19. 19.
    20. 20. Context<br />
    21. 21. Before stricter<br />enforcement<br />After stricter<br />enforcement<br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24. NY<br />MA<br />CT<br />RI<br />
    25. 25. Principles of Graphical Integrity<br />Data Representations proportional to Data<br />Real dollars, instead of deflated dollars<br />#Dimensions in graph = #Dimensions in data<br />Provide context<br />
    26. 26. Data-Ink<br />
    27. 27. Data-Ink Ratio<br />= π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘ŽΒ πΌπ‘›π‘˜π‘‡π‘œπ‘‘π‘Žπ‘™Β πΌπ‘›π‘˜<br />Β <br />
    28. 28.
    29. 29.
    30. 30.
    31. 31.
    32. 32.
    33. 33.
    34. 34.
    35. 35.
    36. 36.
    37. 37.
    38. 38.
    39. 39.
    40. 40.
    41. 41.
    42. 42.
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Principles<br />Above all else, show the data<br />Maximize the data-ink ratio, within reason<br />Erase non-data-ink<br />Erase redundant data-ink<br />Revise and edit<br />
    45. 45. Chart JunkVibrations, Grids, and Ducks<br />
    46. 46. Vibrations<br />
    47. 47.
    48. 48.
    49. 49.
    50. 50.
    51. 51.
    52. 52.
    53. 53. Worst. Graph. Ever.<br />
    54. 54. Multifunctioning Graphical Elements<br />
    55. 55.
    56. 56.
    57. 57.
    58. 58. Takeaways<br />Maintain Graphical Integrity<br />Minimize Data-Ink Ratio, within reason<br />Avoid Chartjunk<br />Use Multifunctioning Graphical Elements, if possible<br />Keep Labels with data<br />
    59. 59. Dr. Edward Tufte<br />
    60. 60. David Giard<br />MCTS, MCSD, MCSE, MCDBA<br />blog: DavidGiard.com<br />tv: TechnologyAndFriends.com<br />e-mail: DavidGiard@DavidGiard.com<br />
    61. 61. David’s Speaking Schedule<br />
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