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  1. 1. Video-conferencing Basics
  2. 2. Videoconferencing 101
  3. 3. <ul><li>Eliminating the need to travel to meetings has been the ultimate goal of business communication since AT&T unveiled the first videophone nearly four decades ago. Today, videoconferencing has made many strides and companies are taking a hard look at the technology </li></ul><ul><li>as a… </li></ul><ul><li>cheaper alternative to business travel </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is video-conferencing? <ul><li>Transmission of image and speech back and forth between two or more separate locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to making a phone call </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity to talk to and see others in real time </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the benefits of video-conferencing? <ul><li>The visual interaction can enhance communication </li></ul><ul><li>Increases connections with the world </li></ul><ul><li>It can save time and other valuable resources </li></ul><ul><li>It can heighten motivation </li></ul>
  6. 6. How is video-conferencing being used? <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Telemedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Courts and judicial system </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  7. 7. Things to learn 1. System Components & Add-ons 2. Communication process 3. Networks & Protocols 4. Multipoint Videoconferencing 5. Applications & Best practices 6. Useful definitions 7. Top 3 manufactures
  8. 8. System Components <ul><li>Camera Video Input </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone Audio Input </li></ul><ul><li>Display Audio/Video Output </li></ul><ul><li>CODEC Core “Brains” of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Control Access system features </li></ul><ul><li>IMUX ISDN Network Device </li></ul><ul><li>NT1 ISDN Network Device </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Concert Computer Input </li></ul>Key Industry Terms!! CODEC IMUX NT1 <ul><li>Bandwidth Network </li></ul>
  9. 9. Add-on components <ul><li>Document camera </li></ul><ul><li>VCR </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty cameras </li></ul><ul><li>DVD players </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Concert Unit </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communication Overview Input Encode Transmit Receive Decode Display
  11. 11. Networks ISDN Internet Other
  12. 12. ISDN TEXT TEXT Integrated Services Digital Network, ISDN is a telecommunications standard (ITU) that uses digital transmission technology to support voice, video and data communications applications over regular telephone lines. ITU: International Telecommunication Union . An international organization within the United Nations System where governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services. Industry Term!! H.320 means ISDN based videoconferencing
  13. 13. ISDN TEXT TEXT <ul><li>Standard Bandwidth Capacity of an ISDN line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Channels of 64k (Called ‘b’ channels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Channel 16k (Called a ‘d’ channel) </li></ul></ul>128k – Bandwidth of 1 line (2 channels) 256k – Bandwidth of 2 lines (4 channels) 384k – Bandwidth of 3 lines (6 channels)
  14. 14. ISDN Advantages TEXT <ul><li>Reliable and Stable </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Spread Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Few technical barriers to implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Runs over existing phone wiring </li></ul>
  15. 15. ISDN Disadvantages TEXT <ul><li>High cost for installation and monthly service </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy technology, harder to order and get service </li></ul><ul><li>Limited bandwidth options </li></ul><ul><li>Calls are subject to long distance charges </li></ul>
  16. 16. Internet ADSL DSL T1 Wireless Satellite ETC TEXT Internet videoconferencing can use ANY type of high speed Internet connection. Industry Term!! IP conferencing typically means Internet based videoconferencing Industry Term!! H.323 means Internet based videoconferencing
  17. 17. Internet Advantages TEXT <ul><li>Wide spread availability of existing networks </li></ul><ul><li>No toll charges for long distance calls </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive installation and monthly costs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Internet Disadvantages TEXT <ul><li>Built for redundancy, not speed </li></ul><ul><li>Security plays havoc with videoconferencing (firewalls) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared network resources </li></ul><ul><li>Requires better quality wiring than ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>Higher bandwidth required for equivalent ISDN bandwidth </li></ul>
  19. 19. ISDN vs Internet TEXT Provides physical channel between hosts for duration of call. Multiple paths from source to destination. ISDN Internet
  20. 20. ISDN vs Internet TEXT Important Note ISDN and Internet Networks are NOT interoperable !!! Industry Term!! Gateway: Allows simultaneous conversion between ISDN (H.320) and IP (H.323) videoconference systems.
  21. 21. Other Networks TEXT <ul><li>Satellite Phone (i.e. Field reporters in war zones) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Phone Lines (Extremely limited, never caught on) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Data Networks (X.25, Frame Relay) </li></ul>These are all uncommon applications and you most likely will never run into them!
  22. 22. Protocols TEXT Video Audio Data HD 720p 4SIF 2SIF SIF CIF H.264 H.263 H.261 Siren16 Siren 22 G.722 G.723 G.711 T.120 H.239 People+Content HDX Series Common protocols used Used only when connecting to another newer Polycom System
  23. 23. Videoconference Applications TEXT <ul><li>Widely used in every major industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Best Practices in Video-conferencing <ul><li>Learn the system – feel comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain appropriate on-camera position </li></ul><ul><li>Move and gesture slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Speak in a strong, clear voice </li></ul><ul><li>Keep noises to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Select clothing appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Useful Definitions
  26. 26. Useful definitions Pg.1 <ul><li>ISDN - (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a system of digital telephone connections. It allows multiple digital channels to be operated simultaneously through a single, standard interface. The Basic Rate Interface (BRI) consists of two 64 kbps plus another lower rate channel to handle signalling. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) consists of 23 channels plus a signalling channel. ISDN is adequate for videoconferencing and other high bandwidth applications. </li></ul><ul><li>SPID - Service Profile Identifier used in North America to identify the services and features the ISDN switch provides for ISDN devices. An ISDN service provider normally allocates a unique SPID (SPID1 and SPID2) for each ISDN B Channel. </li></ul><ul><li>NT-1 - ISDN terminator unit for 1 ISDN line </li></ul><ul><li>NT-3 - ISDN terminator unit for 3 ISDN lines </li></ul><ul><li>NT-4 - ISDN terminator unit for 4 ISDN lines </li></ul><ul><li>IMUX - Hardware that aggregates available ISDN lines together to achieve a required transmission rate. (Two channels – 128kbps, four channels – 256kbps, six channels – 384kbps). </li></ul><ul><li>64k – Maximum rate of one data line. In 1 ISDN line there are normally 2 data lines. </li></ul><ul><li>H.323 - ITU (International Telecommunications Union) standard for videoconferencing over local area networks and packet-switched networks generally. It is based on a recognized real-time standard and is commonly used with video over the Internet. (They include a number of individual recommendations for coding, framing, signaling and establishing connections. Three audio algorithms, G.721, G.722 and G.728, are also included in the standards.) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Useful definitions Pg.2 <ul><li>H.320 - ITU-T H.320 is a family of standards developed for video teleconferencing systems using ISDN. It references H.261 (for video); G.711, G.722, and G.728 (for audio); H.221, H.230, H.231, H.233, H.234, H.242, and H.243 (for control). </li></ul><ul><li>MCU - Multipoint Control Unit Videoconferencing equipment that allows more than three individual videoconference units to connect together to form a multiparty videoconference session. The MCU uses fast switching techniques to patch the presenters or speaker's input to the output ports representing the other participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulitpoint - A video conference call requiring more than two parties Mulitpoint Control Unit (MCU) A device which links three or more videoconference locations for fully-interactive audio, video and teleconferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>S interface - For basic rate access in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) environment, a user-to-network interface reference point that (a) is characterized by a 4 wire, 144 Kbit's (2B+D) user rate, (b) serves as a universal interface between ISDN terminals or terminal adapters and the network channel termination </li></ul><ul><li>T interface - This is the NT unit which terminates the ISDN line </li></ul><ul><li>U interface - For basic-rate access in an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) environment, a user-to-network interface reference point that is characterized by the use of a 2-wire-loop transmission system that (a) conveys information between the 4-wire user-to-network interface, i.e., the S/T reference point, and the local exchange, (b) is located in the servicing central office, and (c) is not as distance sensitive as a service using a T interface </li></ul><ul><li>Point to point – Videoconference between two participants </li></ul>
  28. 28. Top videoconference manufacturers <ul><li>Tandberg </li></ul><ul><li>Polycom </li></ul>
  29. 29. Agenda <ul><li>Videoconference Network Connection </li></ul>2. Polycom 9004 3. VSX 7000e 4. ViewStation 512 5.
  30. 30. Network Connection - ISDN <ul><li>First connection is from the ISDN wall jack to your NT Unit or Terminator. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also referred to as your U loop interface </li></ul>NT UNIT / Terminator ISDN wall jack
  31. 31. Network Connection - ISDN <ul><li>The connection from your NT Unit or Terminator is then connected to the IMUX. </li></ul><ul><li>This is also referred to as your S loop interface </li></ul><ul><li>Some IMUX will be built into the videoconference unit </li></ul>IMUX NT UNIT / Terminator
  32. 32. Network Connection - ISDN <ul><li>Finally you connect the single lines from your IMUX to the videoconference unit. </li></ul><ul><li>This line is the joined ISDN of all wall jacks </li></ul><ul><li>Most units allow up to 512k unless a PRI IMUX is used </li></ul>IMUX Video unit
  33. 33. Network Connection - IP <ul><li>With IP all you need to do is connect from the wall to the videoconference unit using a Cat 5 cable </li></ul>Video unit
  34. 34. Polycom HDX 9004 Setup & Instructions
  35. 35. Polycom HDX 9004 Parts Videoconference Codec Eagle Eye camera w / cable Microphone pod w/ mic cable Videoconference remote
  36. 36. Putting it together – The back view Audio IN / OUT To send audio thru the videoconference codec connect an RCA cable here from the mixer (Use Phoenix connector to stereo plug) To send audio into a mixer from the videoconference codec connect an RCA cable here (Use Phoenix connector to stereo plug)
  37. 37. Putting it together – The back view Video IN / OUT / Preview This is where the main camera unit gets plugged in using the appropriate cable provided This output is to plug into your preview monitor either using BNC or a BNC to RCA . Use the White output only This output is to plug into your main screen to show the far end only. Use BNC or a BNC to RCA . Use the White output only
  38. 38. Polycom HDX 9004 Using the remote control
  39. 39. Polycom HDX 9004 - The remote If you hit this button you can switch camera inputs Zoom the camera in / out Dial a video call Pan / Tilt of camera or moves cursor Chooses near end control Mutes near end audio so other side cannot hear anything Up / Down of far end volume Enter button Ends a video call Start / stop people & content streaming
  40. 40. Polycom HDX 9004 Menu’s
  41. 41. Polycom HDX 9004 Menu’s Enter video phone number Select either H.323 (IP) or ISDN and hit the green connect button on your remote to dial out Move the cursor down to here and hit enter to find any important alerts regarding your IP or ISDN lines if an alert pops up Move the cursor down to here and hit enter to get to the admin or diagnostic menu
  42. 42. Polycom VSX 7000e Setup & Instructions
  43. 45. VSX 7000e Remote Volume control Zoom In / Out Near / Far select Cursor control
  44. 46. Polycom Viewstation Setup & Instructions
  45. 47. Putting it together – The back view
  46. 48. Putting it together The &quot;Analog Phone Add-On Port&quot; can be used to attach a standard telephone to your ViewStation. This comes in useful to bring conference call participants into a videoconference if they are unable to be physically present. Polycom Viewstations have the ability to connect to IP videoconferences as well as ISDN videoconferences. The &quot;ISDN Connection Port&quot; is where you would plug in your ISDN connection
  47. 49. Putting it together Plug the supplied S-Video/Composite/AV cable and into the &quot;Primary Monitor Video Output&quot; and &quot;Primary Audio Output&quot; ports. The supplied power cable should be plugged into the &quot;Power&quot; port.
  48. 50. Putting it together The supplied microphone pod gets plugged into the &quot;Mic Pod Input&quot; port. The &quot;2nd Camera&quot; and &quot;2nd Monitor&quot; outputs can be used for advanced room configurations. The &quot;Composite VCR Input/Output&quot; ports can be used to connect a VCR in order to record a videoconference.
  49. 51. Putting it together Your network connection (from the wall) plugs into the &quot;Network LAN Port&quot; The &quot;PC LAN Port&quot; can be used to share an internet connection with the Polycom.
  50. 52. Polycom Viewstation Using the remote control
  51. 53. Using the remote control Allows your to connect / disconnect a conference call or to add another endpoint Returns you to the main menu / goes back one page Allows you to select which unit Near / Far you wish to control **If you hit the button again, this will also allow you to switch to Camera / Doc Cam or VCR if installed These buttons are used to either move the cursor around the menus, Move the camera angle or make a selection from a menu These volume buttons allow you to raise or lower the audio coming from the far end. The Zoom button allows you to zoom in / out the near or far end camera This is the numeric keypad which allows you to type in your IP / ISDN number you wish to call or also allows you to set and retrieve your presets as well as other functions The mute button allows you to mute the audio coming from your Mic pod so the far end will not hear you speaking.
  52. 54. Polycom Viewstation Menu’s
  53. 55. Polycom Viewstation Menu’s Main menu
  54. 56. Polycom Viewstation Menu’s – Main menu <ul><li>This menu allows you to go to other sub menu’s like: </li></ul><ul><li>System info </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone audio conference </li></ul><ul><li>Video call </li></ul><ul><li>Address book </li></ul>
  55. 57. Polycom Viewstation Menu’s - System info menu <ul><li>This menu allows you to go to: </li></ul><ul><li>Admin Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>User Setup </li></ul>
  56. 58. Polycom Viewstation Menu’s - Admin menu <ul><li>The Admin menu allows you to select different options on: </li></ul><ul><li>How your videoconference unit looks </li></ul><ul><li>How the system dials out / speeds </li></ul><ul><li>How many monitors it uses </li></ul><ul><li>And other helpful features </li></ul>
  57. 59. Types of conferencing
  58. 60. Types of conferencing Videoconferencing Point To Point
  59. 61. Types of conferencing Videoconferencing Point To Point Point to point conferencing is when there are two sides to a videoconference, the “Near End” and the “Far End”. This is the most common type of conferencing that happens. Both sides would have to have the same method of communication, either ISDN or IP. A site that is IP only cannot communicate with a site that is ISDN only. Diagram view ISDN ISDN IP IP
  60. 62. Multipoint Videoconferencing ISDN IP IP IP ISDN IP Two sites – Point to Point More than two sites – Multipoint Industry Term!! MCU: Multipoint Control Unit also called a bridge Audio IP IP ISDN ISDN
  61. 63. Multipoint Advantages <ul><li>MCU can connect any type of endpoint </li></ul><ul><li>High capacity for endpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of screen layout options </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable than the endpoints </li></ul>
  62. 64. Types of conferencing Webcasting Webcasting is when you are sending out a broadcast stream for one or more viewers to watch. The viewer in this case will not be seen by the broadcasting location but can participate by sending questions using our “Ask a question” button or dial in over an audio bridge which is directly connected to the broadcast location. Diagram view IP
  63. 65. Types of conferencing Web conferencing Web conferencing is when you are conferencing over a computer based software system which allows for 2 way communication amongst all participants. The software we use is called Persony… Diagram view Persony
  64. 66. Types of conferencing Audio conferencing Audio conferencing is when you are conferencing over a telephone system which allows for 2 way communication amongst all participants. Diagram view Audio bridge
  65. 67. On site's TEXT Taking different audio and visual devices and incorporating it to send to another location over a videoconference or webcast at a venue other then our studios…
  66. 68. On site's What we do? TEXT <ul><li>Our responsibility: </li></ul><ul><li>Setup and dismantle of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Test with A/V </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support when needed </li></ul>
  67. 69. On site's What we do? TEXT The fact of setting up a system is the easy part… But when things go wrong, THAT is where we are the most important! Our knowledge, Pro-activeness and ability to “Resolve” issues is what makes us the best amongst other companies.
  68. 70. On site's What we do? TEXT <ul><li>Examples of setups: </li></ul><ul><li>Presenter & Slides (Audio only) </li></ul><ul><li>Presenter only (Video & Audio) </li></ul><ul><li>Presenter, Slides & Video </li></ul><ul><li>Output to: </li></ul><ul><li>Projector </li></ul><ul><li>TV monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Mixer </li></ul>
  69. 71. On site's Typical setup TEXT
  70. 72. On site's Typical setup TEXT
  71. 73. <ul><li>Intro to ISDN / IP videoconferencing (Pg 1 of 3) </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of videoconferences take place over an ISDN or IP-based network in a point-to-point call between two machines or a multipoint call between three or more video endpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN technology has been around the longest, though it's usage growth has stagnated as IP technology matures. ISDN calls are usually made at a data rate of 64K, 128K, 256k, 384K or greater bit/sec using the H.320 protocol , which combines a number of separate audio and video protocols. The higher the bandwidth used means better call quality. ISDN lines are assigned a 10-digit phone number or SPID . Higher bandwidth is achieved by bonding, or combining, multiple ISDN lines together to form a single virtual line . Depending on how the ISDN lines are bonded and type of router used, one or more of these 10-digit numbers or SPID may be needed for completing a video call. </li></ul><ul><li>Because ISDN uses the public switched telephone network and not the Internet, the technology's main benefit is that it gives a consistent level of bandwidth throughout a call, reducing the levels of hiccups in the audio and video. Also, ISDN is not subject to restrictive firewall settings that can affect IP traffic. The downside of the technology is that one has to be located at least 18,000 feet from a local phone office; further distances require repeaters, which can add to the cost. And, multiple lines must be bonded to provide adequate bandwidth for video calls, again adding to the total cost. Moreover, it can be cost prohibitive to roll out ISDN lines to individual desktops. ISDN is better suited for group video systems that are setup in a conference room. </li></ul>
  72. 74. <ul><li>Intro to ISDN / IP videoconferencing (Pg 2 of 3) </li></ul><ul><li>IP-based conferencing uses a standard Ethernet connection and the H.323 protocol for connecting endpoints to a network. Calls can be made over the public Internet or by using a service provider network and dedicated T-1 lines connected to an office. Their IP address or an E.164 alias - a telephone-like number assigned by an H.323 gatekeeper, usually identifies machines. Connection speeds can go as high as 768K bit/sec . Like ISDN, the higher the connection speed the better the call quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Service providers and organizations with large numbers of IP-based endpoints use gatekeepers. Gatekeepers can be used to reserve and set up conference calls, as well as limit the number of simultaneous calls to keep individual call quality high. </li></ul><ul><li>While IP is relatively inexpensive and Ethernet connections can be found just about anywhere in a corporate setting, it does have its problems when used with videoconferencing. Network congestion and dropped packets can create jitter, delay and other problems in the call, reducing the overall experience. This is particularly true for conferences over the public Internet. Also, restrictive corporate firewalls may block videoconferencing traffic coming in or out of the local-area network. </li></ul><ul><li>Service providers have network backbones dedicated to videoconferencing traffic, minimizing the potential disruptions. Using a service provider and dedicated lines can provide for a better connection and overall experience, but could be expensive if videoconferencing is only used on a limited basis. </li></ul><ul><li>A connection between conference participants is only part of the equation. The videoconferencing endpoint can also have an impact on the overall call quality. Endpoints range from a pair of $50 Webcams connected to PCs running Microsoft NetMeeting to $50,000 boardroom-based systems that have multiple cameras and microphones. </li></ul>
  73. 75. <ul><li>Intro to ISDN / IP videoconferencing (Pg 3 of 3) </li></ul><ul><li>On the low end, a Webcam and software such as NetMeeting can connect two users over the Internet. Webcams are inexpensive and all that is needed is a 56K bit/sec dial-up connection, though broadband is recommended for better video quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, hardware-based personal videoconferencing devices are available from Polycom for under $1,000. These units plug into a USB port on a PC and come with built-in processors to handle the heavy lifting of encoding and decoding the audio and video. They can be used for calls over the public Internet or through a private backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Group conferencing systems are the most popular in corporate settings. Group systems range from $4,500 to $20,000. According to study done by Perey Research and Consulting, an average user will spend about $10,000 per group unit, including the network connections. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of systems come with ports for adding laptops for sharing presentations and applications, as well as spots for document viewers and external cameras. Some endpoints and service providers offer a streaming media capability that lets other users to view and hear a conference, but they cannot directly participate. </li></ul><ul><li>Completing calls between two units can be complicated if they connected to different network types or service providers. Network bridges can be used to transcode, or translate, ISDN and IP calls, so the two types of machine can talk to each other . Most videoconferencing providers offer this type of service. Also, if there are multiple locations in a single call, a Multipoint Control Unit - or MCU - is necessary. An MCU can combine the multiple incoming calls into a single co nference. Some higher-end group conferencing systems come with built in MCUs that support up to four additional users. </li></ul>