Discovery and Analysis for Case Management


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Presentation I gave to the BPM & Case Management Summit 2014 in Washington

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Discovery and Analysis for Case Management

  1. 1. Discovery and Analysis for Case Management with BPMN and CMMN Denis Gagné, CEO & CTO Chair BPMN MIWG at OMG BPMN 2.0 FTF Member at OMG BPMN 2.1 RTF Member at OMG CMMN Submission at OMG Chair BPSWG at WfMC XPDL Co-Editor at WfMC
  2. 2. Abstract Discovery and Analysis for Case Management (with BPMN and CMMN) Denis Gagné, Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) and Trisotech Presented by one of the foremost experts in BPMN and CMMN, this session will take a step-by-step approach to the discovery and analysis necessary for any successful case management initiative. Explained and demonstrated will be both general methods and best practices, as well as the specific roles and usage of the dominant process modeling notations, BPMN and (uniquely for case management) CMMN. Participants will learn how to articulate and differentiate case management processes from more structured workflows, and the unique considerations for discovery and analysis. For over a decade Denis Gagné has been a driving force in the majority of international BPM standards in use today. He is a member of the Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) Steering Committee, chair of the Business Process Simulation Working Group (BPSWG), and the co-Editor of the XPDL 2.2 process definition standard. For the Object Management group (OMG), Denis is the Chair of the BPMN Interchange Working Group (BPMN MIWG), and a member of the Business process Model and Notation (BPMN) and the Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) team.
  3. 3. Is this your current business?
  4. 4. Or is it more like this?
  5. 5. Context of Discovery & Analysis What is going on in the organization? Work is performed without having the big picture Things get done informally Individual responsibilities are passed by word of mouth How things get done is implicit
  6. 6. Goal of Discovery To make “How things get done” explicit (as the foundation for improvement) Make the as-is situation known, understood and shared
  7. 7. Agenda Discovery Caveat: Many confuse Discovery with Detailed Modeling As-is situation Process & Case Management Managing “How things get done” via processes or via cases Discovery Analysis Make explicit “How things get done” Foundation for improvement
  8. 8. Making explicit “How things get done” Discovery
  9. 9. Potential Benefits of Discovery  Clarify and document the current situation  Ensure everybody work together  Support integration of new hires  Ensure products and services reach the quality level customers expect  Meet standard that govern the enterprise practices Discovery’s goal is to make explicit the as-is situation
  10. 10. Discovery from Evidences Tacit Evidence (What people know and perceive) Facilitated Sessions Interviews Observations Evidence from Documentation Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) ISO 9000 Evidence from Systems Logs Automated Discovery (Process Mining) Discovery is and investigative exercise
  11. 11. Discovery and Analysis as a Project Document the rational, scope, risks, and very importantly, the desired outcomes or goals of the various stakeholders As with any projects “Expectation Management” of stakeholders is key Need to: Define Scope Identify the project Stakeholders Enumerate desired outcomes Itemize challenges and risks
  12. 12. Discovery and Analysis as a Project
  13. 13. Initiating Discovery Work Effort Focus Start by creating an inventory of Activities List the activities leading to the desired outcome (Happy Path, Value Chain,..) Alternative starting points Creating an inventory of Events Creating an inventory of Artifacts Creating an inventory of Goals …
  14. 14. Inventory of Entities
  15. 15. Foundation for improvement Analysis of as-is situation
  16. 16. Work Effort Focus How things get done W5 Analysis Who is involved in getting things done Why things are getting done What is involved in getting things done When are things getting done Where things get done
  17. 17. W5 Analysis of as-is situation
  18. 18. Analyzing Work Efforts Quality Cost ValueTime Lean
  19. 19. Analyzing Value of as-is situation Value Adding VA Essential to the production and delivery of the product or service to meet the customer’s needs and requirements Value Enabling VE Necessary precursors to Value Adding activities. Required by law or regulations to allow the Value Adding activities to be carried out. Non Value Adding NVA Do not add value to the customer and do not meet the criteria for a Value Adding activity
  20. 20. Analyzing Value: D.O.W.N.T.I.M.E Defects D The effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects Over-production O Overproduction of things not demanded by actual customers Waiting W Waiting for the previous step in the process to complete Non-productive N Nonproductive or underutilized resources, employees that are not effectively engaged Transportation T Transportation or handling of products, good or services not actually required to perform the processing Inventory I Inventory or information that is sitting idle (not being processed) Motion M People, information or equipment making unnecessary motion due to workspace layout, ergonomic issues or searching for misplaced items Extra processing E Performing any activity that is not necessary to produce a functioning product or service
  21. 21. Analyzing Value of as-is situation
  22. 22. Analyzing Time of as-is situation Lag Time LT Elapsed time from the completion the predeceasing activity to the start of this one Processing Time* PT Elapsed time from the start of the activity to its completion - The Temporal Perspective: Expressing Temporal Constraints and Dependencies in Process Models. D. Gagne and A. Trudel. BPM & Workflow Handbook 2008 *Simplification equates Processing time to Duration
  23. 23. Analyzing Time of as-is situation
  24. 24. Analyzing Cost of as-is situation Fixed Cost FC Cost not dependent on the level of goods or services produced by the business Variable Cost VC Cost that change in proportion to the good or service that a business produces
  25. 25. Analyzing Cost of as-is situation
  26. 26. Analyzing Quality of as-is situation Yield Y The proportion of results conforming to specifications compared to the number of raw inputs
  27. 27. Analyzing Quality of as-is situation
  28. 28. Analyzing Responsibility of as-is situation Responsible R Does the work to achieve the task Accountable A The one ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the deliverable or task Consulted C Those whose opinions are sought Informed I Those who are kept up-to-date on progress and results
  29. 29. Analyzing Responsibility of as-is situation
  30. 30. From Discovery to Modeling Your Discovery results can be used as a launch pad for modeling
  31. 31. Managing “How things get done” via processes or via cases with BPMN or CMMN
  32. 32. Desired Operating Models Low Integration High High Low Standardization - Enterprise Architecture as Strategy. J. Ross, P. Weill and D. Robertson Diversification Coordination Unification Replication We define how work efforts are organized ( fit-for-purpose )
  33. 33. Characterizing Work Efforts Efficiency Effectiveness Efficient (adj.) Performing or functioning in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort. Effective (adj.): Adequate to accomplish a purpose; producing the intended or expected result. Meaning Doing things the right way Doing the right thing Goal Oriented Yes Yes Measure More Quantitative More Qualitative Example Cycle time, Response time, Cost per unit, etc. Achievement of goals, Satisfaction, etc.
  34. 34. Why can’t you see it my way Process Management Concerned with the Lifecycle of a Process Content/Document Management Concerned with the Lifecycle of Content/Document Case Management Concerned with the Lifecycle of a Case All Involve Structured and Unstructured Work Efforts All are Means to achieving the Organization’s Ends Hybrids in all dimensions are possible and do exists C Case Management P Process Management Work Effort D Document/ Content Management
  35. 35. Evidences of Work Efforts The evidences of work efforts left behind from a process or a case are the same: A trigger, a collection of work efforts that leads to an outcome (a posteriori viewable in a temporal sequence) A priori is where the work effort model is very different
  36. 36. From a Work Effort point of view C Case Management P Process Management Work Effort D Document/ Content Management Defining the context for the work effort Prescribing the work effort First class citizen: Activities (Work Effort) Events while doing activities First class citizen: Events (Context) Activities to undertake as events emerges
  37. 37. What is CMMN? What is CMMN? Case Management Model and Notation CMMN is a standard published by the Object Management Group (OMG). Why CMMN matters? A common meta-model and notation for modeling and graphically expressing a Case Aim to model activities that depends on evolving circumstances and ad hoc decisions by knowledge workers Provides flexibility via planning at run time Current Status CMMN 1.0 just released May 2014
  38. 38. Core Concepts of CMMN Case Plan Model & Case File Notion of Discretionary A BA
  39. 39. Core Concepts of CMMN Sentries and ECA (Event Condition Action) ! Stage A ! Stage B Milestone A ! Task A ! Task A ! Task A
  40. 40. Event Listener Case File Item Fragment Basic Elements of CMMN Stage Task Milestone !
  41. 41. CMMN Example Treat Fracture Examine Patient Prescribe Medication Prescribe Sling Perform XRay Perform Surgery Prescribe Fixation Apply Cast Prescribe Rehabilitation
  42. 42. What is BPMN? What is BPMN? Business Process Model and Notation BPMN is a standard published by the Object Management Group (OMG). Why BPMN matters? Universal graphical notation for drawing business processes Readily understandable by business stakeholders Aim to bridge the gap from modeling to subsequent implementation Current Status BPMN 2.0 is the current version
  43. 43. Basic Elements of BPMN Event Activity Gateway Flow
  44. 44. LoanofficerTitleResearcherLoanUnderwritter Receive Loan Application Record Loan Application Verify Employment Request Credit Report Receive Credit Report Perform Title Search Review Title Report Review Loan Application Send Rejection Letter Close-Out Rejection Loan Request Rejected Send Approval Letter Underwrite Loan with Terms Set with Default Terms 1 Hour Time Limit Close-out Approval Loan Request Approved [Initial] Loan Application [Rejected] Loan Application [Approved] Loan Application BPMN Example
  45. 45. Business Process Management Case Management Purpose Means to an end (desired outcome) Means to an end (desired outcome) First Class Citizen Activities (Work Effort) Events while doing activities Events (Context) Activities to undertake as events emerges Way to attain the desired outcome Prescribed Described Aim for Efficiency Effectiveness Standard BPMN CMMN
  46. 46. Conclusions Discovery aims to make explicit the as-is situation Do not confuse Discovery with Detailed Modeling Analyze the as-is situation as foundation for improvement HW5, Value, Time, Cost, Quality, Responsibility Based on your desired operating model and situation at hand you should prescribe or describe “how things get done” Efficiency is more predictable when prescribing “how things get done” In highly unpredictable context, effectiveness is more likely when describing “what could be done”
  47. 47. Questions CMMN Execution (Fall 2014) BPMN Execution (Now)