Podcasting - a technology for everyone?
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Podcasting - a technology for everyone?



Presented at the CPUT RITAL conference in Decmeber 2013 and at Heltasa at the UNISA in November 2013

Presented at the CPUT RITAL conference in Decmeber 2013 and at Heltasa at the UNISA in November 2013



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  • Not fancy technology needed…just a recording device and a headset…
  • Candice – can you maybe expand on this???
  • African homelanguage: 50% listened to all or most podcasts
  • African homelanguage: 50% listened to all or most podcasts
  • On campus and listening from lab higher for African homelanguage students

Podcasting - a technology for everyone? Podcasting - a technology for everyone? Presentation Transcript

  • Podcasting at CPUT – technology for everyone? Daniela Gachago Candice Livingston Eunice Ivala
  • What is podcasting?
  • Benefits of podcasting • Students take more active role – explore / create podcasts on their own (e.g. Ng’ambi and Lombe, 2012:191) • Different learning styles: learning through listening (e.g. Clark and Walsh, 2004:4, Scutter et al., 2010:181 and Dale, 2007:3) • Access: wherever and whenever (e.g. Lee and Chan, 2007:207 and Ng’ambi and Lombe, 2012:191) • Listening to archived lectures (e.g. Guertin, 2010:6)
  • Benefits ctd • Alleviates anxiety (e.g. Chester et al., 2011:245) • Improves reflection and engagement (e.g. Lee and Chan, 2007:216) • Especially useful for ESL students (e.g. Ng’ambi and Lombe 2008)
  • Challenges and limitations of podcasting? • Lecturer workload (e.g. Sloan, 2005, Menzies, 2005 and Blaisdell, 2005) • Barrier for students or lecturers who are technically challenged (e.g. Moss, 2006) or available technical support (e.g. Chabolla and Leh, 2009: 126) • Ability of receiver to decode messages (e.g. Heinich, 1982) • Socio-economic barriers – access to equipment
  • • Decrease in student attendance (e.g. Chabolla and Leh, 2009: 126) although Lonn and Teasley (2009:91) found otherwise • Shortcomings in the area of providing complex and/or detailed information that needs to be heavily processed, logically deconstructed, committed to memory, or otherwise requires a great deal of concentration (e.g. Chan and Lee, 2005:64)
  • Examples of use from our project • Recording of lectures – later edited and made available on Blackboard: – Health Sciences, Education and Engineering • Provision of introductions / summaries – Food Tech and Programming • Feedback on group assignments – Accounting
  • Old hat?
  • Socially inclusive technologies? a technology that does not exclude any learner, neither based on their gender, nor age, nor socioeconomic/racial background
  • Podcasting as socially inclusive technology? Studies have been conducted in the arena of - Distance learning (Bolinger et al.,2010:718), Economics (French and McDonald, 2008:7) and Reading theatre (Vasinda and McLeod, 2011:495) Students with disabilities or who need extra support (e.g. Tapp, 2013:5) which indicate that podcasting proves to be inclusive.
  • 2012/2013 PODCASTING IN HE - STUDY
  • Context • • • • UoT in Western Cape Merger of a variety of Technicons and Colleges Lowest fees in the Western Cape Large amount of ‘disadvantaged students’ or Non-Traditional Students (first ones to University, ill prepared, mature, working, ESL)
  • The study • • • • • RIFTAL funded 2012/2013 6 lecturers, 8 courses 434 students Survey (closed ended and open ended)
  • Course Title Abbreviation Level Focus Programme Faculty FOOD Year 2 Theory N.D Food Technology AS ACC Year 4 Theory SS Year 2 Practical NHC: Financial Information Systems BUS Communication Skills COMM Year 1 Theory/practic al ECP (Electrical Engineering) ENG Cell Biology (2012) CELL12 Year 1 Theory BHSc Medical Laboratory Science HW Molecular Biology (2012) MOL Year 4 Theory BTECH HW Molecular Biology (2013) CELL13 Year 4 Theory BTECH HW EDU Year 1/2 Theory BED EDU Food Technology 1 Accounting Software Skills 1 English first additional language (2013) BUS
  • Course Title Abbreviation Level Class size Surveys completed Response rate FOOD Year 2 105 67 64% ACC Year 4 45 FT (31 PT) 24 53% SS Year 2 48 47 98% Communication Skills COMM Year 1 84 12 14% Cell Biology (2012) CELL12 Year 1 56 49 88% Molecular Biology (2012) MOL Year 4 33 21 64% Molecular Biology (2013) CELL13 Year 4 250 115 46% EDU Year 1/2 120 99 83% Food Technology 1 Accounting Software Skills 1 English first additional language (2013) Total 434
  • Research questions 1. Access and use for differently positioned students 2. Models and perceived usefulness 3. Benefits and challenges of podcasting
  • Gender 2012 % 2013 % Total % Female 140 66 178 88 318 77% Male 71 44 24 12 95 23% Total 211 413 100% Age 2012 % 2013 % Total % under 18 yrs 2 1 0 0 2 0% 18-23 yrs 4 2 125 61 129 31% 24-30 yrs 36 17 49 24 85 21% over 30 yrs 166 80 32 16 198 48% Total 208 414 100% Home language 2012 % 2013 % isiXhosa 80 38 22 12 102 26% English 43 20 20 11 63 16% Afrikaans 31 15 117 66 148 38% French 27 13 0 27 7% Other African 25 12 11 44 11% Other 4 2 0 4 1% Total 210 388 100% 202 206 19 178 Total %
  • Use of podcasts 64% of students listened to podcasts gender home language 75% 24-30 years
  • Level of engagement (amount) listened to all or most podcasts 43% 50% gender African home language 84% 30+
  • Level of engagement (intensity) listened three times or more 47% 60% gender African home language 78% 30+
  • Access 80% 52% 51% Accessed on LMS gender Off campus access Listened from laptop
  • CELL/MOL COURSE used podcasts 81% 69% 65% listened to all/ most of podcasts Listened to three or more of podcasts
  • Is podcasting only useful for revision? 28% 42% 30% before exam regular use during semester no specific pattern
  • Does podcasting encourage passive learning? 51% 33% 22% take notes visit course notes/ modules do nothing
  • Benefits of podcasting 60% 56% 59% Provision of intro/summaries Revision tool Guidance in how to prepare for exams
  • Podcasts helped me… 65% stay focused structure weekly learning activities 64% 39% make good use of my time
  • Podcasts … 62% Liked format Helped stimulate interest 60% 58% Were Enjoyable/ motivational
  • when I listen to the podcasts it helps me to understand the work, it unconfuses me (female, 18-23, Afrikaans) Help me catch up for the days was feeling sleepy at class and the days I was not present at class (female, 18-23, African language) I could access them anytime, if the lecture went by too quick I could always go back. The fact that it feels like I'm in class again … (female, 24-30, African language) I liked the fact that in class it is not easy to stop the lecturer and ask her to repeat stuff for me but on podcasts I could stop, pause, rewind, fast forward anytime I wanted to. (female, 18-23, African language) I understand it better than normal speech (female, 18-23, Afrikaans)
  • it is really like you are in the same room with the lecturer (female, 18-23) Its like you are still in class. I also go back and relate to it. I wish I had used it since the start of the first term (female, 18-23, African language) Taught me how to manage time regarding school work and how to be time conscious (female, 18-23, African language) Reminded of being in the lecture. Triggered my memory of what was said before It helped me as i am audio learner (female, 18-23, English)
  • Podcasts for ESL students? 37% said podcasts are particularly useful for ESL students 75% of African home language speakers
  • Reasons for Non-Use? 47% 25% 17% 11% No relevance Lack of knowledge Technical difficulties Lack of time
  • Limits of podcasting I don’t find it interesting. I prefer sitting in a class listening to a lector, and be able to ask questions. Podcasts are more like a one way thing to me. (female, 18-23, Afrikaans) what could be improved in the podcasts that i have listened to is that the teacher could ask for more student participation because right now all we hear is just our teachers point of view and no student input. (female, 24-30, Afrikaans) if they do the podcasts ,they can put in visuals to make it easier to remember what’s been said. instead of just listening who can also see the work and then you will remember better (female, 18-23, Afrikaans) Podcast makes it easy for students to stay away from class. They simply listen to the podcast and get all the information we get in class. (female, 18-23, Afrikaans)
  • Discussion and conclusions • Definition of emerging technologies: context-based (Veletsianos 2010) • High amount of disadvantaged students / proliferance of African home language and resulting challenges with academic preparedness • Call for basic / inclusive adoption of technology – Low threshold applications (Gilbert, TLT group), socially inclusive technology • Particular focus on female, mature and African home language speakers (Non-traditional students) I wish all subjects had podcasts especially theory subjects. We want More!!! (male, 18-23, African home language)
  • Conclusions • • • • • • • Most important: timely upload of podcasts Cater for different learning styles (auditive, visual, textual) Content heavy modules Learning beyond the classroom / improved student engagement Not a ‘totally mobile’ technology – used in usual study context, quiet, ability to take notes Allowing for cognitive strategies synonymous for self-regulated learning Performativity or style of lecturing important The podcasts are a very good motivational way of studying, they are understandable and just awesome. I love them (female, English, 18-23)
  • References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bollinger, D. U., Supanakorn, S & Boggs, C. 2010. Impact of podcasting on student motivation in the online learning environment. Computers and education, 55: pp. 714-722. Chan, A., Lee, M.J.W. and McLoughlin, C. 2006. Everyone’s learning with podcasting: A Charles Sturt University experience. Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference: Who’s learning? Whose technology. The University of Sydney: Sydney, pp. 111-120. Chester, A., Buntine, A., Hammond, K. and Atkinson, L. 2011. Podcasting in Education: Students Attitudes, Behaviours and Self-Efficacy. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2): 236-247. Clark, D. & Walsh, S. (2004). iPod-learning. [White paper]. Brighton, UK: Epic Group. Creswell, John W. 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dale, C. (2007) Strategies for using podcasting to support student learning. Journal of hospitality, leisure, sport and tourism education, 6(1):49-57. Dearman, P. & Galloway, C. (2005). Putting Podcasting into Perspective. In S. Healy, B. Berryman & D. Goodman (Eds.), Radio in the world: Papers from the 2005 Melbourne Radio Conference. (pp. 535–546). Melbourne: RMIT Publishing. Edirisingha, P., Hawkridge, D. & Fothergill, J. 2009. A renaissance of audio: podcasting approaches for learning on campus and beyond. European Journal of open, distance and e-learning www.eurodl.org/?article=393 French, E. L. and McDonald, P. K. 2008. Embedding inclusivity in Business Curricula. Papers from the 2008 International Conference of Learning and Teaching (pp. 1-8). Malaysia: QUT Digital Respository http://eprints.qut.edu.au/ Guertin, L. A. 2010. Creating and using podcasts across disciplines. Currents in teaching and learning, 2(2), Spring. Pp. 4-12. Kazlauskas, Alanah, and Kathy Robinson. 2012. “Podcasts Are Not for Everyone.” British Journal of Educational Technology 43 (2) (March 2): 321–330. Kuh, George D. 2009. “The National Survey of Student Engagement: Conceptual and Empirical Foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research.” New Directions for Institutional Research (141) (March). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ir.283/pdf Lee, M.J. & Chan, A. 2007a. Pervasive, lifestyle-integrated mobile learning for distance learners: an analysis and unexpected results from a podcasting study. Open learning, 22(3):201-218 Lee, M. J. W. & Chan, A. 2007b. Reducing the effects of isolation and promoting inclusivity for distance learners through podcasting. Turkish online journal of distance education, 8(7): Retrieved: 23 October 2013 tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde25/articles/Article_7.htm. Mayer, R. and Moreno, R. 2003. Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia leaning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), pp. 43-52. Ng’ambi, D. (2008). Podcasts for Expansive Learning: A Case of Reflective Student Stories Student Stories. SACJ, 42, 913. Ng’ambi, D and Lombe, A. 2012. “Using Podcasting to Facilitate Student Learning: A Constructivist Perspective.” Educational Technology & Society 15 (4): 181–192. Ralph, J., Head, N. and Lightfoot, S. 2010. Pol-casting: the use of podcasting in the teaching and learning of politics and international relations. European Political Science, 9: pp. 13-24. www.palgrave-journals.com/eps/ Scutter, S., Stupans, I., Sawyer, T. & King, S. 2010. How do students use podcasts to support learning? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(2):180-191.s Strydom, J F, and M Mentz. 2010. Focusing the Student Experience on Success Through Student Engagement. Pretoria: South African Council for Higher Education. http://www.che.ac.za/documents/d000208/SASSE_2010.pdf. Swain, H. (2006) ‘Let them tune in’, The Times Higher, 3 February. Summarised on http:// www.lums.lancs.ac.uk/news/7196/. Vasinda, S. and McLeod, J. 2011. Extending Readers Theatre: A Powerful and Purposeful Match with Podcasting. The Reading Teacher, 64(7), pp. 486497. WOODS, R., & KEELER, J. (2001) The Effect of Instructor’s Use of Audio E-mail Messages on Student Participation in and Perceptions of Online Learning: a preliminary case study, Open Learning, 16, 3, pp. 263-278.