Good afternoon. Today I am going to talk about Digital Storytelling in Higher Education and how research shows that if integrated appropriately into the curriculum, it can promote student-centred learning strategies. I will be discussing Digital Storytelling in a nursing context within an Extended Curriculum programme. The theoretical framework will be followed by the project design. I will then briefly discuss the impact of the study on Teaching and Learning, the challenges encountered with the implementation of Digital Storytelling the strategies for enhancing meaningful use, and the recommendations
Since ancient times, storytelling in the African culture has been a way of passing on traditions, codes of behaviour, as well as maintaining social order. The San use stories, music and dance to explain all that they experience in their world and to establish their relationship to it. They also created rock art to illustrate these stories( Brett, 2000)
Digital storytelling is the modern equivalent of traditional story-telling, and is defined as a short first person, multi-media, video narrative that documents human life experience, ideas or feelings through story-telling (Center for Digital Story-telling, 2012).
DST has entered Higher Education can promote student-centred learning strategies such as reflection for deep learning, project-based learning, collaborative learning; development of digital literacies and the effective integration of technology into teaching and learning. All of these can enhance student engagement and contribute to the student’s academic success
DST in Higher Education Educational Technology utilizes activities that may engage students to construct meaning in different ways not available before technology was introduced such as data bases simulation, games, email, discussion groups/blogs, PowerPoint, Word Movie maker. It increases student’s understanding of curricular content if teachers are willing to transform their pedagogy and curriculum to include digital storytelling.
It can be used to assist students gain literacy skills such as research, writing, problem-solving and assessment skills Addresses different learning styles for auditory, visual and kinaesthetic learners. Utilizes almost all the skills the student needs in the 21 st century
engenders student’s creativity, creates critical thinkers & critical viewers of the media - improves research skills & builds learning communities. Lowenthal (2009)
Reality shock due to dissonance experienced between expectations of newly qualified nurses and actuality of clinical practice. Use of DS to challenge negative experiences and outcomes. Creation of reflective digital stories of newly qualified nurses in their own words with personal photographs the newly qualified nurses relate stories about events they had particular challenges with during the transition from student to RN Stories were intended to provide opportunities for future students to learn and educators to reconsider the curriculum to facilitate preparation for the world of clinical practice.
Exposes students to human experience of being a patient and encourage the development of sensitive individualised and compassionate practice
acute shortage of nurses affecting the availability of newly registered nurses ECP Nursing implemented in January 2008 >90% pass rate in first and second year (ECP) Join 2 ND year mainstream Government DoH bursary provided to students/Faculty funding DoE
Negative status of ECP students Impact on self-esteem of students Low academic literacy skills (NBT) Mature students, many socio-economic problems / poverty 2 years for nurturing / building up of confidence before students enter mainstream 2 nd year
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Tajfel and Turner(1979) The Social Identity Theory is all about becoming part of different groups, and how membership to these groups helps construct our identities. Individuals strive to maintain a positive social identity They suggested that people have an inbuilt tendency to categorise themselves into one or more in-groups, building a part of their identity on the basis of membership of that group and enforcing boundaries with other groups
There are three elements Categorisation (put ourselves and others in categories i.e (Christians, black, white, Australians student, mother) identification : adopt identity of the group we have categorized ourselves into i.e. (your collective identity becomes your in-group, your family, your class, boosts your self- esteem and creates a sense of belonging and important source of pride . comparison i.e. people compare themselves and groups with other groups see favourable bias to own group, younger people divide themselves into social groups or subcultures based on clothing/music i.e goths/hoodies
Social identity theory: how does belonging to a social group impact on student engagement and success? Tajfel and Turner found a link between student’s social identities and student engagement Peer groups engage in social creativity realigning their value system away from success in class in order to maintain a positive social identity
Is Social identity: based on social class/ race or ethnicity / tracking –low/high Research by Kelly(2008)shows that although there is little evidence for direct correlation of social class and race with student engagement, there is high correlation between tracking students and engagement
In the case of tracking the evaluative dimension is academic ability. Tracking greatly polarizes the differences in attitudes and behaviours between high and low track students (According to Hargreaves and Lacy’s differentiation – polarization social identity theory) students labelled low track by the educational institution need to look elsewhere for positive self-image. Tend to think they deserve the track placement There are certain strategies that low track students use to obtain a positive social identity: can engage in Individual mobility(which is the desirable choice) via trying to move themselves out of low track to high track Can also engage in Social creativity excelling in something else such as sport, cool well dressed Direct competition with high track
Extending views of what it means to be a nurse : “So its really interesting because we didn’t know that. We were just coming for being nurses. We didn’t know that we can do something else except being a nurse” Moving from self-doubt to achievement . “I was not confident that we can make it but today I feel that we can make it and I am looking forward to doing it again. Skills transfer .” We going to use these skills in other things” “Its health education that we can give over then I think we could use it most effectively
New insights” “ a depressive person like a story saying this kind of person is maybe lazy but now you know it’s not like that” Understanding and empathizing with patient “ with the research that we did and now we understand what they(patient’s) go through” “I didn’t know how that person felt or how I affected his life” when it came to emotions and feelings and personal experiences it was kind of difficult to put yourself in that -That was enjoyable because you put yourself in the shoes of someone else and thinking as part of the project”
Helps transferring knowledge and experiences into community : “ We know how to deal as groups and then we know to teach now, the communities and the individuals and the families to deal with this – Combining information from personal experience and research : “some of the information is the things that we see in our communities and in our families and then we compile this with others from the Internet...we used our computers to combine everything” “and the research we did and we understand what they(patients) go through..”
Group cohesion / “getting to know your peers better. Pride of creating something together” Development of individual identities within groups , e.g. Director, editor, singer, collecting of images, based on skills and experience Peer support, learning from each other : “we helped more than we used to work as a group”
Different from normal assignments : “ it got to stimulate our creativity because we had to do the theory but now we needed to convert it into a story and ....it was different and exciting” Active/deep learning “ It’s going to be easier for me to write in the exams, because I will remember all these wonderful movies we saw today” “ I enjoyed the pictures, the people and how the pictures then tell a story about that person’s behaviour”
In Communication among group members , especially during service learning Access to computers and training : “ it would be lovely if we went with our groups to the lab and maybe you could show us – everyone to get involved with a computer and start . Because it doesn’t help that one group member knows how to do this MovieMaker and others didn’t know” Diverse computer skills in groups, which made some students take over technical aspects of project and led to some feeling isolated : “those people who don’t know computers because for sure sometimes as if we are isolated” easy to get the images and writing the story but to put it on the computer as a movie was difficult” “lack of equipment to work on stories at home”
Lack of time “ So it was just two hours they introduced us to the story and now you have to do the actual story and it is a bit difficult to do it”. Lack of support from lecturers “ most of us are not computer literate” No mark for digital stories and dovetailing with other assignments that are marked Technical problems disappointment with recording of the sound. “We don’t know what the problem was if you listened on the computer the sound was perfect but when it was screened it was there’s no sound
engages in “meaning making” reflecting on what they know and examining their assumptions. Gazarian (2010) helps build connections with prior knowledge and improves memory. Schank (1990) , good stories are remembered longer by students than lessons that lack them(Rex, Murnen, Hobb & McEaache (2002
Transcript of "Penny Gill's DST presentation"
Digital storytelling in NursingSeminar: The use of digital storytelling across disciplines and institutions. Cape Peninsula University of Technology: Cape Town Campus Penny Gill, Eunice Ivala, Daniela Gachago, Linda Mkhize, Zubeida Petersen and Nazma Vajat 23rd August 2012
Outline of Presentation Introduction Digital Story-telling - in Higher Education - in Nursing Theoretical Framework Project Design Impact of the study for Teaching and Learning Challenges encountered in implementation of DST Strategies for enhancing meaningful use of DST Recommendations for future use.
STORYTELLING TRADITIONStorytelling tradition in San Rock art to illustrate Africa their stories
Digital storytellingDigital storytelling is the modern equivalentof ancient story-tellingdefined as a short first personmulti-mediavideo narrativedocuments human life experience,ideas or feelings through story-telling(Center for Digital Story-telling, 2012).
Digital storytelling supportslearner-centred approaches, COLLABORATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVE INTEGRATION OF REFLECTION TECHNOLOGY INTO TEACHING & FOR DEEP LEARNING LEARNING DIGITAL STORYTELLING PROJECT-BASED DEVELOPMENT LEARNING OF DIGITAL LITERACIES
DST in Higher Education educational technology utilizes meaningful activities to construct meaning in different ways. Trilling & Hood (1999) increase student’s understanding of curricular content. Sadik (2008)
DST in Higher Education assists students gain literacy skills. Robin (2006) addresses the needs of students with different learning styles. Matthews-DeNatal (2008) utilizes almost all the skills the student needs in the 21st century Jakes(2006); Bugan & Robin (2008)
DST in Higher Education- engenders student’s creativity, creates critical thinkers & critical viewers of media- improves research skills & builds learning communities
DST IN NURSING Many applications in under and post graduate nursing Can be used to challenge negative experiences in nursing
DST IN NURSING Exposes students to human experience of being a patient and encourage the development of sensitive individualised and compassionate practice. (Wood and Wilson-Barnett, 1999; Costello and Home, 2001; Repper and Breeze, 2004.
ECP NURSING CONTEXT acute shortage of nurses implemented in January 2008 Government DoH bursary provided to students/Faculty funding DoE
Background to the study Negative status Impact on self-esteem Low academic literacy skills (NBT) Mature students, many socio-economic problems / poverty
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKTajfel and Turner(1979) The Social Identity Theory categorise themselves into one or more in- groups, building a part of their identity on the basis of membership of that group and enforcing boundaries with other groups
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKTajfel and Turner(1979 3 elements - categorisation - identification - comparison
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKTajfel and Turner(1979) Social identity theory : how does belonging to a social group impact on student engagement and success? Link between student’s social identities and student engagement Peer groups engage in social creativity realigning their value system away from success in class in order to maintain a positive social identity
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKTajfel and Turner(1979) Is Social identity : based on social class / race or ethnicity / track there is high correlation between tracking students and engagement Kelly(2008)
TRACKING Tracking greatly polarizes the differences in attitudes and behaviours between high and low track students (differentiation – polarization theory) Strategies for students: Individual mobility Social creativity Direct competition
Reasons for disengagement Consequences of disengagement much less felt for students who already have been labelled low-achievers than students that are high achievers Little opportunity for upward mobility
PROJECT DESIGN Topic: Caring for people with disabilities, linking personal experiences / stories with care theory Influenced by Centre for DS workshop model
PROJECT DESIGN3 workshops over the course of 2 months1st Workshop: introduction, communitymap, mind map in groupsSelf-study: development of script andrecording, 4 weeks service learning2nd Workshop: Finalising of scripts,recording, MovieMaker3rd Workshop: Screening and debriefing(focus groups
Centre for Digital Storytelling Origins from community theatre, strong social change background Focus on collective sharing of stories, story circle Focus on stories that are usually not heard Everybody has a story to tell Silenced voices
Participation and Learning Techniques Community map Drawing a map of community with resources and challenges Link back to students’ communities and lived service learning experiences among students Visual techniques to help students with low academic literacy Improves meaningful learning, transfer of theory and practice
Research design Qualitative study Focus groups with all 6 groups of students (2 groups per focus group) Each approximately 1 hour Inductive method of analysis
Findings and discussionThemes that arose: Developing a nursing identity Empathizing with the patient Link to communities Collaboration Acquisition of knowledge/multimodality Challenges
Developing nursing identity Extending views of what it means to be a nurse Moving from self- doubt to achievement. Skills transfer
Empathizing with patient New insights Understanding and empathizing with patient “What I got to learn about the unconscious patient is that they need people around them even if they don’t feel anything.. I think I will change like how I treat them
Link to communities Helps transferring knowledge and experiences into community: Combining information from personal experience and research:
Collaboration Group cohesion Development of individual identities within groups Peer support, learning from each other Distribution of roles within the group
Acquisition of knowledge /multimodality Different from normal assignments Active/deep learning Understanding the subject content better with DS
Challenges in: Communication amongst group members Access to computers and training Diverse computer skills in groups
Challenges continued Lack of time Lack of support from lecturers No mark for digital stories Technical problems disappointment with recording of the sound.
Discussion: Digital Storytelling Exposes students to the human experience of being a patient and encourages the development of sensitive individualised and compassionate practice. (Wood and Wilson-Barnett, 1999; Costello and Home, 2001; Repper and Breeze, 2004)
Discussion: Digital Storytelling engages in “meaning making” helps build connections with prior knowledge good stories are remembered longer by students than lessons that lack them
Discussion Social identity theory: comparison with other groups, feeling of dissatisfaction But also pride and confidence in final product Embodied learning, empathising with patients
Discussion Unconscious / taken for granted roles (in and out groups / more holistic perception of identity as nurse Transferable skills Blurring boundaries between formal / informal learning (Barrett 2006)
Recommendations Integration into curriculum and grading Extra workshop for MovieMaker Access to labs over period of time Make sure all students develop skills Include IT department and English teacher in the project
Acknowledgements This project was partly funded by the 2011 Research on Innovation in Teaching and Learning Fund Thanks to ECP lecturer Zubeida and ECP2 2012 students Special word of thanks to Daniela, Eunice, Linda and librarian Nazma