CIOs should recognize the changes and develop strategies to balance the opportunities that changes in technology have brought to education with the challenges of efficiently managing an education technology portfolio.
Scott, Yield & Hendry (2009)Jaffer, Ngambi & Czerniewicz (2007)
According to Veletsianos (2010:17) emerging technologies are ‘tools, technologies, innovations, and advancements utlized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes’.personal technologies often sit uneasily with institutions; in some cases they are even banned within the university buildings and networks (Parry, 2005).
New Media Consortium
Parry, W., “School orders students to remove blogs”. USA Today, 26/10/2005. Downloaded from: http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techpolicy/2005-10-26-school-bans-blogs_x.htm
Source: http://mediaexposure1.blogspot.com/2011_07_01_archive.html1. Innovators- The adoption process begins with a tiny number ofvisionary, imaginative innovators2. Early adopters: Once the benefits start to become apparent, earlyadopters leap in. They love getting an advantage over their peers and they have time and money to invest3. Early majority: They are followers who are influenced by mainstream fashions and wary of fads. They are looking for simple, proven, better ways of doing what they already do. 4. Late majority: They are conservative people who hate riskand are uncomfortable your new idea.5. Laggards: They hold out to the bitter end. They arepeople who see a high risk in adopting a particular product orbehavior
Source: http://www.joanpinyol.com/2008/03/24/gartners-hype-cycle-for-emerging-technologies/Emerging technologies can’t be seen as emerging out of context (Veletsianos, 2010:18) – what is emerging in one context may not be in another or may be an established technology in another as we have seen in our data. Emergent theory provides us with the knowledge that events don’t happen in a formal and organised way but are spontaneous and can go in any direction (Veletsianos, 2010:18) – they both influence and are influenced by activity (Cole & Engestrom, 1993 cited in Veletsianos, 2010:18).Technologies developed for purposes other than education are finding there way into educational institutions and are both moulded and are moulding pedagogical practice in diverse ways depending on communities of practice, It is not only tools that are ETs it is also ideas, theories and approaches.Opinion leaders:Management should actively promote the importance of emerging technologies for transforming T&L – fund, evaluate and reward innovative pedagogical practices (Bates & Sangra, 2011)Leaders are critical for technology integration but need to take collaborative approach to setting and implementing goal. Leaders need to be convinced and to convince others of the importance of ETs to enhance teaching and learning (Bates & Sangra, 2011)Management should guide, facilitate and be responsive to a wide range of change agents (lecturers and students) in the institutionTraining offered to managementWill have to rethink issues of research and teaching as publishing is going to change due to availability of e-books. Evaluation of scholarly endeavours lags behind new ways of authoring, publishing and researching. Academics can now prepublish work, use blogsand video (You Tube) to put their ideas across to and get comments quickly and frequently from large audience but academia hasn’t really acknowleged this (Johnson & Adam, 2011:2 & 10)Will have to start considering how to make higher education more flexible for studentsHow to incorporate OERs into teaching and learning and researchWork on creative ways of incorporating mobile devices (cheap, ubiquitous), social networking into teaching and learning rather than banning themIncreasing need for digital media literacy and digital citizenship– so training for staff and students (Johnson & Adam, 2011:3; 16 & 19)Cloud computing – shared services across HEIs e.g. Bloomsbury Media Cloud 6 London HEIs shared resource on strategies to support teaching, learning and researchNorms and policies:Management should develop a clear, coherent and comprehensive governance structure for technology decisionmaking and policiesAnalysis of cost/benefit of infrastructure e.g. open educational resources; the use of big computer labs, tiered lecture hallsFlexible access for increasingly diverse student body (Bates & Sangra, 2011)Use technology to enhance design and delivery of teaching not reinforce traditional forms of classroom teaching (Bates & Sangra, 2011)Libraries would have to be restructured into new role to accommodate Ets e.g. repositories of research, information literacy, greater role in teaching and learningInformation is everywhere and OERs becoming more prevalent– how to access it, assess credibility and make effective use of it, what does it mean for learning (Johnson & Adam, 2011:6; Seeley-Brown; Littlejohn, 2011)More competition as newer models of education become available (internationalisation at home)Using apps and mobile devices to provide time and location sensitive informationTablets and applications easy to use in learning contexts – more and more ubiquitous, also economic and flexible (Johnson & Adams, 2011:7)Real change happens slowly in HE – faster in business sector collective knowledge transdisciplinary needed to solve complex problems e.g. Environmental problems need to develop new ways of thinking to deal with these (Littlejohn, 2011: presentation on MOOC 6 October, 2011) New opportunities for collaboration across sectors and geographical locations will have to be considered in HELearning analytics leverages wide range of data on the academic progress of students available for HEIs – how to incorporate this and use it to tailor educational opportunities address students’ personal learning needs (Johnson & Adams, 2011:9)How to acknowledge and use collective intelligences- promotes peer-to-peer learning e.g. twitter, bookmarks (Littlejohn, 2011; Dron & Anderson, 2010 How the crowd can teach; Johnson & Adams, 2011:13)Institutions should track and measure their performance on goals (Bates & Sangra, 2011).Educators / practitionersContinuous and comprehensive staff development and teacher training at a post-secondary level after appointment to navigate and make sense of information, visual and technological literacies. Ability to find, discern and use resources changing (Johnson & Adam, 2011:3 & 18)Incentives to encourage instructorsMay necessitate different lenses to view the world, different pedagogies, theories and approaches to teaching and learning (Veletsianos, 2010). There is conceptual mismatch between pedagogical mismatch between current pedagogical practice and the design of educational technologies. Will have to rethink role as educators (Johnson & Adams, 2011:16). Now more about the process than the content of learning (Johnson & Adams, 2011:3&6). Space needs to be made for self organised learning environments as part of the learning ecology which accommodates emerging and prescriptive learning (Williams, Karousou & Mackness, 2011)Student projects may become increasingly collaborative – changing how projects are structured and using things like google docs, wikis, skypeetc (Johnson & Adam, 2011:2& 16)Increase interaction between higher educators and students – this allows for more individualised learning and response to students’ needs (Bates & Sangra, 2011)Will have to start thinking about how to incorporate mobile devices into learning as they are so ubiquitous in SAThe abundance of resources and relationships which are now so easily available on internet will mean that we have to rethink our roles as educators (Johnson & Adam, 2011:2)Charting – connecting, collecting and creating (Littlejohn, 2011). Educators need to mentor students how to make sense of the world they live in (Johnson & Adam, 2011:16)Growing availability of bandwidth will change user behaviours in teaching and learning – transfer files more easily, store bigger content (Johnson & Adam, 2011:17)Educators and students using their own devices for learningChange agentsRecognitionStatus as pioneers (experts vs novices- who are experts and who are novices in collective learning?) (Littlejohn, 2011)Support!Senior executive team should interact and be responsive to change agents and other technology users and Bates & Sangra(2011)
Vivienne Bozalek, Dick Ng’ambi, Daniela Gachago
“Emerging ICTs in Higher Education” NRF project, 2011-2013 8 SA HEIs (SU, UWC, UCT, CPUT, UP, Rhodes, Wits, Fort Hare) 1 NGO (Open Courseware Consortium) More information at http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/
Future of Higher Education Through 2015, 50% of higher education CIOs will lose their jobs for failing to balance customer efficiency with organizational efficiency. Rust, B., Lowendahl, J-M., Bonig, R., Harris, M., (2010) Gartner Report, 17 Nov.
SA challenges Under-preparedness of students Diversity of student population Multilingualism Etc.... Scott, Yield & Hendry (2007), Jaffer, Ngambi & Czerniewicz(2007)
Focus of the research What role can emerging technologies play in addressing these challenges? Is it important for institutions to engage with these technologies? What are the consequences for institutions if they don’t engage with emerging technologies? What are the consequences for the institution if they do choose to adopt emerging technologies.Are they ready for the disruption?
Characteristics of ET May or may not be new technologies Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into being Go through hype cycles They are not yet fully understood They are not yet fully researched They are potentially disruptive, but that potential is mostly unfulfilled Veletsianos, 2010:13-17
Shift of locus of control “Although lecturers and students are seemingly embracing emerging technologies enthusiastically, it is taking longer for institutions and policy makers to adopt and implement them. Institutions and policy makers are not yet fully engaging with these technologies to understand the usefulness of these technologies and therefore administrative policies may slow down or halt adoption.” COL 2008, 16
Consequences of non-engagement with ET Increased gap between educators with resources and the will to experiment and those who cannot or are not willing to… Students are increasingly disengaged Mismatch between student expectations of HEI Opportunities for preparing 21st century graduates are lost Student skills are not visibly assessable Missions of HEI tend to be failing students
2011 Emerging Technologies Survey Part of NRF project Target group: lecturers that are known to be open to/engaged with technology Sent by email to contacts in all public HEIs institution, snowball sampling Content: 3 parts, demographic, tools and open ended questions around practice with ET Respondents: 242 (by 31 August 2011) 187 (77%) completed second part survey (tools) 149 (62%) completed all three parts of survey
Impact of ET (82 open comments) Direct/tangible: better grades (2%) and better attendance (7%) Direct / intangible impact: Improved interaction/ communication/feedback (30%), improved student engagement (27%) , improved skills (9%), better course organisation (7%), integration theory/practice (6%), independent learning (5%), providing a diverse learning experience (2%) Indirect: cutting cost (2%), research opportunity (1%)
“…positive impact… students like ducks to water….” “Feedback needs to be regular and fresh and in a style that the student appreciate. No slacking on posting after hours, no matter what’s happening in my personal or professional life. If students see your commitment to staying in touch, they will match that commitment – equal or better!”
Challenges (97 comments) Institution (54%): Lack of equipment, inadequate Internet access Lecturers attitudes and time (25%) Students skills and motivation (22%)
“If there is no incentive for marks, students do not bother – there is no doing something entirely for their learning that they will motivate on their own. The university won’t allow me to claim the $2.95 that it requires per month to keep the site going. So I pay this out of my pocket, and it is costing me since I have several sites at the time for different classes.“
Any questions? See more information on our project on our blog: http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/
References Bates, T. and . Sangra. 2011. Managing Technology in Higher Education: Strategies for Transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brown, J.S. (2008) Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume43/MindsonFireOpenEducationtheLon/162420 Delich, P., K. Melly, and D. McIntosh. 2008. Emerging Technologies in E-learning. In Education for a Digital World, ed. Sandy Hirtz and David Harper, 5-22. Commonwealth of Learning. http://www.col.org/resources/crsMaterials/Pages/edDigitalWorld.aspx. Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2009). How the Crowd Can Teach. Handbook of Research on Social Software and Developing Ontologies London IGIGlobal (Vol. Handbook o, pp. 1-17). IGI Global. http://www.igi-global.com/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=48657 Jaffer, S., D. Ng’ambi and L. Czerniewicz. 2007. “The role of ICTs in higher education in South Africa: one strategy for addressing teaching and learning challenges.” International Journal of Education and Development using ICT 3 (4). Johnson, L. and S. Adams. 2011. Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education 2011-2016: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium Littlejohn, A. (2011). Collecctive Learning. Presentation to Change 11 Massive Open Online Course, 5 October 2011 Rogers, E. 1995. Diffusion of Innvation. 4th ed. New York: Free. Rust, B., J-M. Lowendahl, R. Bonig and M. Harris. 2010. Gartner Report, 17 Nov Scott, I., N. Yeld and J. Hendry. 2007. Higher Education Monitor A case for Improving Teaching and Learning in South African Higher Education. Higher Education. http://www.che.ac.za/documents/d000155/HE_Monitor_6_ITLS_Oct2007.pdf. Sharpe, R., Beetham, H., & de Freitas, S. (Eds.). (2010). Rethinking learning for a digital age: How learners are shaping their own experiences. London: Routledge. Veletsianos, G. 2010. Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press. Williams, Karousou & Mackness, (2011).Emergent Learning and Learning Ecologies in IRRODL, 12(3)http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/883/1824