Clickers used since 2004From small pilots to College wide implementation2500 handsets, mainly for first and second year courses80 staff members involvedIssuing through library system2 surveys: 2008 on general perception of clickers & 2009 upgrade from IR to RF clickersStudent focus groups
In a confined spaced, the level of water would sink because the density of the boulder is higher than the density of water.
Clickers at CPUT
Clickers at CPUT– and student engagement?Daniela Gachago,Educational Technology Unit, Fundani Centre forHigher Education Development, CPUT
Interactive, instructingquestioning as teachingmethod is nothing new…
New technology…CLICKERS! Anonymous Instant feedback Variety of question types Record of data
My experience with clickers… Clickers used since 2004 2500 clickers, first and second year students in College of Science and Engineering Issued to students through library Clickers used since 2010 125 clickers, mainly for Foundation students Issued to lecturers on demand
Typical usage at Edinburgh Students bring clickers to each class 3-5 questions asked per class Knowledge type questions (right answer) Focus on consistent use Main purpose: keep students awake, engage large classes, feedback to staff and students, reveal common misconceptions
A boat carrying a large boulder is floating on alake. The boulder is thrown overboard and sinks.The water in the lake with respect to the shore1. Rises 67%2. Drops3. Remains the same 17% 17% 1 2 3
UoE (staff): Ranked byimportance, clickers seem to bemost useful to… Score (max 500)500450400350300250200 Score (max150100 50 0 increase get feedback on reveal common help students help students keep students keep students increase interaction students’ misconceptions understand practice awake entertained attendance understanding difficult concepts
Usage at CPUT Only 125 handsets for 2 campuses and 36.000 students No installed PCs in lecture theatres How? Why? Creativity! Discussion Testing of pre-knowledge Competitions Pub quizzes Data collection Change of opinion/behaviour
The figure below presents three corridors to beused for traversing a road connecting twotermini Mbazwana and Sodwana BayCivil Engineering First Year students
Q2: The earth is flat. 1. It is not flat, I can convince someone who says it is flat 2. It is flat, and I can convince someone who says it is not flat 3. It is not flat, although I do not know how to convince someone who says it is flat 4. It is flat, although I do not know how to convince someone who says it is not flatGeomorphology class: Testing of pre-knowledge
Lecturer’s feedback…Generally most students got all the questions right- which really surprised me, as I thought they had no idea of the concepts I was gonna teach. I had got this impression from the lecturer whom I took this topic from, and who has taught it for over 20 years. She said was certain, from her experience, that the students know nothing, hence my surprise at the consistently correct answers. ….This also made me re-think my teaching approach, and I have been able to spend less time on the basics, go faster in class (I gave the students typed notes), and Ive had time to include videos for teaching (which the students have loved very much!).
Why bother?“What is engaging about clickers … is increasedinteraction superficial or meaningful in terms oflearning? “ (Kay & LeSage 2009)
Steve Draper,University of Glasgow “Possibly the most productive application, however, and the one with the largest body of existing research, is in using the equipment to initiate a discussion.* ”* Draper S. (n.d.) Electronically enhanced classroom interaction.
Mazur Sequence “You can forget facts but you cannot forget understanding” Prof. Eric Mazur, Harvard
GD Foundationstudents: I like clickersbecause...
They are fun and full of energy I dont feel judged...They are an exciting new way of learning They make me feel like I am participating in class They are simple to use... although I dont speak up It feels safe to I like clickers... participate They make us learn from each other Nobody pushes you to talk if you dont want to..They let me see what other thinkThey make us think outside the box... It helps widening the thinkingand helps the flow of thinking juice You hear others opinions and then you weigh it up with your own and with that you can formulate a better answer
Student engagement levels Gachago D., Morris A., Simons, E. (in development)
Johnson et al. (1998): Cooperation is an essential pre-requisite for cognitive growth Controversy theory: “…students need to be confronted with opposing points of views, leading to uncertainty or conceptual conflicts, for students to re-conceptualize and look for more information, which then in turn leads to more refined and thoughtful conclusions.”