Structure Con’t…• Set up by the Constitution• Each of these courts have jurisdiction (the right to hear a case)• State courts also have jurisdiction, but state cases can enter the Federal system through state supreme courts• The case HAS to include a federal law or a US Constitutional issue
Jurisdiction• Original (trial court): Federal—US laws, the Constitution, 2 or more state governments, US government, citizens of different states or citizen and a different state, ambassadors or foreign officials• Concurrent (choice of courts): both Federal & state governments have jurisdiction• Appellate (hears an appeal): includes Supreme Court
The Supreme Court • Original jurisdiction: certain cases in which a state is a party; cases involving reps. of foreign governments • Appellate jurisdiction: almost all cases • Steps: 1. Grant certiorari/calendar 2. Oral arguments 3. Decision issued
Who Are The Judges (appointed by President, approved by Senate)?
Reagan AppointeesAntonin Scalia (C) Anthony Kennedy (M)