The Movement West<br />United States Studies<br />
Here’s What We’ll Learn<br />The West’s Geography<br />Why Easterners moved West<br />Conflict with Native Americans<br />Attempted “assimilation” of Native Americans<br />The Cattle Boom<br />Living in the West<br />
Why Move West?<br />Pull Factors:<br />Railroads—sold left-over land cheap<br />Homestead Act (1862)—160 acres<br />21 years old or head of a family<br />American citizen or immigrant applying for citizenship<br />Live on land for 6 months for 5 years<br />Railroads (Transcontinental Railroad)<br />
Fighting Native Americans<br />Whites: “Indian Problem”<br />Natives: Life or death—must do an all-out assault<br />Great Plains was their area: nomadic—followed buffalo herds<br />Indian Land until the Gold Rush & Homestead Act<br />First—made treaties (some kept; others not) to buy land, stop movement of Nomads, or put Natives in Reservations<br />
Result: Battles<br />1871: U.S. Government: won’t sign treaties any more; fight instead<br />Battle lines shifted; forts couldn’t be built; desertion common<br />Buffalo Soldiers (10th Cavalry)<br />Battle of Little Bighorn (1876): Custer’s Last Stand—Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse (Sioux) won<br />Battle of Wounded Knee (1890): Last battle between Natives & US Army<br />
New Policies Towards Natives<br />They were defeated, so…<br /> 1. Assimilation: Give up culture, learn English, children go to school<br /> 2. Dawes Act: Created many new reservations, Natives given 160 acres & granted US citizenship (went against Native ideas of shared land & tribal leadership)<br /> 3. More land for settlement (squatters)<br />
Homesteaders<br />Difficult life (~$1000 setup)<br />Sod house (leaky roofs; dirt floors)<br />Farming: no machines; tough land (backbreaking labor)<br />Pests: grasshopper & mosquito infestations; rattlesnakes get into sod homes easily)<br />Droughts common in great Plains<br />Help was on the way: irrigation; farm machinery (both increased debt)<br />“Bonanza Farms” were created too<br />
Making Money<br />Sutter’s Mill (Ca. Gold Rush)<br />Comstock Lode (Silver & Gold in Nevada)<br />Black Hills (many ores in Dakotas)<br />Result: boom towns<br />Cattle drive (Great Plains): Texas ranchers’ cattle escaped when they went to fight for the Confederacy<br />US: beef binge; ranchers made $<br />Cowboys: 18 hour days!<br />Cattle boom ended as price dropped and land became fenced<br />
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