Executive Order 9066 Issued February 19, 1942 by FDR “protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises and national defense utilities
Why? Reason given—this will protect Japanese Americans Real reason—from Congressional debate: I know the Hawaiian Islands. I know the Pacific coast where these Japanese reside. Even though they may be the third or fourth generation of Japanese, we cannot trust them. I know that those areas are teeming with Japanese spies and fifth columnists. Once a Jap always a Jap. You cannot change him. You cannot make a silk purse out of a sow's ear.... Do not forget that once a Japanese always a Japanese. I say it is of vital importance that we get rid of every Japanese whether in Hawaii or on the mainland. They violate every sacred promise, every canon of honor and decency. This was evidenced in their diplomacy and in their bombing of Hawaii. These Japs who had been there for generations were making signs, if you please, guiding the Japanese planes to the objects of their iniquity in order that they might destroy our naval vessels, murder our soldiers and sailors, and blow to pieces the helpless women and children of Hawaii.Damn them! Let us get rid of them now What does this mean? Video Clip
Confiscated Property It was supposed to be returned, but… Seattle, Wash., April 27, 1942 Hon. John H. TolanChairman, Committee Investigation National Defense Migration, Washington, D.C.:Disposition of Japanese property in Seattle going well. Office for Emergency Management and Federal Reserve bank have done excellent job. No demolition in prospect. Some Japanese stores have been liquidated, some sold outright and some leased. First two zones to be evacuated this week do not touch heart of Japanese district. Evacuation thus far very quiet and orderly. No other official comment deemed necessary. Earl Millikin, Mayor of Seattle.
What To Take From official orders: Blankets and linens for each member of the family; Toilet articles for each member of the family; Clothing for each member of the family; Sufficient knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls, and cups for each member of the family; All items carried will be securely packaged, tied, and plainly marked with the name of the owner and numbered in accordance with instructions received at the Civil Control Office; No contraband items may be carried. All items carried will be securely packaged, tied and plainly marked with the name of the owner and numbered in accordance with instructions obtained at the Civil Control Station. The size and number of packages is limited to that which can be carried by the individual or family group
Working Wages (forced labor?): Unskilled $ 8.00 per month Skilled $12.00 per month Professional and technical $16.00 per month Definitions: Unskilled - common labor, to include dishwashing, tray service at mess halls, junior clerks, assistant playground directors, cook's helpers and other similar occupations. Skilled - nurses, accountants, senior clerks, playground directors, motion picture operators, cooks, etc. Professional and technical - physicians, dentists, chemists, engineers, teachers, etc.
Epilogue Korematsu v. US 1976: President Gerald Ford declared the evacuation a "national mistake." 1988: President Ronald Reagan provides for reparations for surviving internees. Beginning 1990 $20,000 in redress payments were sent to all eligible Japanese Americans.