Graft , corruption, and politicsPresentation Transcript
US History Graft , Corruption, and Politics
Immigration Restrictions The Rise of Nativism • Melting pot—in U.S. people blend by abandoning native culture - immigrants don’t want to give up cultural identity • Nativism—overt favoritism toward native-born Americans • Nativists believe Anglo-Saxons superior to other ethnic groups • Some object to immigrants’ religion: many are Catholics, Jews • 1897, Congress passes literacy bill for immigrants; Cleveland vetoes - 1917, similar bill passes over Wilson’s veto I Forgot To Mention…
Elections were always close Power switched between Republicans & Democrats 1877 to 1897: Only twice did either party control both White House & Congress (lasted two years) Politics During Gilded Age Characterized By:
Both parties: blocked legislation until they could get power
1876: Ben. Harrison loses popular vote but still wins
Result: Inaction and corruption
inducement to wrong by improper or unlawful means (as bribery)—Dictionary Bribery Graft Extortion and robbery Patronage Cronyism Embezzlement Kickbacks What is Corruption?
Thank Goodness We’ve Progressed!
Look for Examples in Newsweek
The Emergence of Political Machines •Political machine—organized group that controls city political party • Give services to voters, businesses for political, financial support • Machine organization: precinct captains, ward bosses, city boss
The Emergence of Political Machines The Role of the Political Boss • Whether or not city boss serves as mayor, he: - controls access to city jobs, business licenses - influences courts, municipal agencies - arranges building projects, community services • Bosses paid by businesses, get voters’ loyalty, extend influence Immigrants and the Machine
Many captains, bosses 1st- or 2nd-generation Americans
Machines help immigrants with naturalization, jobs, housing
Municipal Graft and Scandal Election Fraud and Graft • Machines use electoral fraud to win elections • Graft—illegal use of political influence for personal gain • Machines take kickbacks, bribes to allow legal, illegal activities The Tweed Ring Scandal • 1868 William M. Tweed, or Boss Tweed, heads Tammany Hall in NYC • Leads Tweed Ring, defrauds city of millions of dollars • Cartoonist Thomas Nast helps arouse public outrage - Tweed Ring broken in 1871
Civil Service Replaces Patronage •Patronage—government jobs to those who help candidate get elected • Civil service (government administration) are all patronage jobs • Some appointees not qualified; some use position for personal gain • Reformers press for merit system of hiring for civil service
Garfield gives patronage jobs to reformers; is shot and killed
• As president, Arthur urges Congress to pass civil service law • Pendleton Civil Service Act—appointments based on exam score
Death of President Garfield The first doctor on the scene administered brandy and spirits of ammonia, causing the president to promptly vomit. Then D. W. Bliss, a leading Washington doctor, appeared and inserted a metal probe into the wound, turning it slowly, searching for the bullet. The probe became stuck between the shattered fragments of Garfield's eleventh rib, and was removed only with a great deal of difficulty, causing great pain. Then Bliss inserted his finger into the wound, widening the hole in another unsuccessful probe. It was decided to move Garfield to the White House for further treatment.
Leading doctors of the age flocked to Washington to aid in his recovery, sixteen in all. Most probed the wound with their fingers or dirty instruments. Though the president complained of numbness in the legs and feet, which implied the bullet was lodged near the spinal cord, most thought it was resting in the abdomen. Alexander Graham Bell devised a metal detector specifically for the purpose of finding the bullet, but the metal bed frame Garfield was lying on made the instrument malfunction. Because metal bed frames were relatively rare, the cause of the instrument's deviation was unknown at the time. The president's condition weakened under the oppressive heat and humidity of the Washington summer combined with an onslaught of mosquitoes from a stagnate canal behind the White House. It was decided to move him by train to a cottage on the New Jersey seashore.
Shortly after the move, Garfield's temperature began to elevate; the doctors reopened the wound and enlarged it hoping to find the bullet. They were unsuccessful. By the time Garfield died on September 19, his doctors had turned a three-inch-deep, harmless wound into a twenty-inch-long contaminated gash stretching from his ribs to his groin and oozing more pus each day. He lingered for eighty days, wasting away from his robust 210 pounds to a mere 130 pounds. The end came on the night of September 19. Clawing at his chest he moaned, "This pain, this pain," while suffering a major heart attack. The president died a few minutes later.