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Government by the People 2009 Edition

  1. 1. 1. The 2008 presidential campaign and election areexplored throughout the book, including a look at the2008 primary season, the party conventions, the roleof the media, the historic election of Barack Obamaand voter turnout. Figures and tables have also beencompletely updated with information on the 2008election.2. We have integrated the latest examples andscholarship on American politics and government,including recent Supreme Court decisions, theeconomic conditions at the end of 2008, andcomparisons with countries around the world.3. The new Generation Next feature presentsinformation about 16-25 year olds, showing theirissues, values, and challenges as they relate to specificquestions such as partisan differences, the rise of smallcampaign donors, search and seizure in the age ofterrorism, and levels of patriotism. Comparisons witholder voters and demographic breakdowns help youunderstand where you fit and why government shouldmatter to you.4. Being part of a government by the people requiresconsideration of differing points of view. You WillDecide/Thinking It Through explores in-the-newsquestions like the impact of third-party candidates,the advantages and disadvantages of a nationalpresidential primary, and the need for restrictions oncivil liberties during the war on terror and then asks youto weigh options for resolving the issue.5. Using a nationwide survey as a guide, we developeda master list of learning objectives to shape thisedition. Learning Objectives appear at the beginningof each chapter, while individual Objectives and keycoverage are called out in the text margins. A Summaryand Self-Test at the end of each chapter provides youwith a final check of your understanding.6. The growing importance of the Internet and thedeclining importance of newspapers are discussed indetail, including the role of the Internet in the 2008campaign and election (Chapter 10).7. An updated chapter on the presidency (Chapter 12)includes information on George W. Bush s use of vetopower, invocation of executive privilege, and use ofsigning statements. The section on the White HouseStaff now includes historic examples and explores thedifferent leadership approaches of presidents.8. An updated chapter on civil liberties (Chapter 15)combines two chapters and includes a new sectiondistinguishing civil liberties from civil rights. Newdiscussions include the Morse v. Frederick Bong Hits4 Jesus case and a discussion of habeas corpus usingthe Hamdan and Boumedienne cases.9. A new chapter on the process of making publicpolicy (Chapter 17) provides a brief introduction to thetopic to help you better understand the specific publicpolicy chapters.10. MyPoliSciLab, our Website that offers a widearray of multimedia activities videos, simulations,exercises, and online newsfeeds has been completelyintegrated with this edition to make learning moreeffective.If you re wondering why youshould buy this new edition ofGovernment by the People,here are 10 good reasons!, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  2. 2. Alabama9Arizona10 Arkansas6California55Colorado9Florida27Georgia15Idaho4Illinois21Indiana11Iowa7Kansas6 Kentucky8Louisiana9Maine4Michigan17Minnesota10Mississippi6Missouri11Montana3Nebraska4Nevada5New Mexico5New York31North Carolina15NorthDakota3Ohio20Oklahoma7Oregon7Pennsylvania21SouthCarolina8SouthDakota3Tennessee11Texas34Utah5Virginia13Washington11WestVirginia5Wisconsin10Wyoming3ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTES IN THE 2008 ELECTIONTHE UNITED STATESA political map showing the number of electoral votes per stateA political map with states drawn in proportion to the number of electoral votesCalifornia55Washington11Oregon 7Idaho4Montana3NorthDakota3SouthDakota3Colorado9Arizona10NewMexico5Kansas6Illinois21Iowa7Minnesota10 Wisconsin10Missouri11Arkansas6Louisiana9Mississippi6Alabama9Tennessee11Kentucky8Ohio20Michigan17Pennsylvania21Virginia13North Carolina15SouthCarolina8Georgia15Florida27New York31Connecticut7RhodeIsland4Washington D.C.3New Jersey15WestVirginia5Oklahoma7Texas34Hawaii4Alaska3Utah5Nevada5Wyoming3Delaware3Maryland 10Indiana11Obama victoryMcCain victoryMassachusetts12Maine4NewHampshire4Vermont3Hawaii4Alaska3Connecticut7Delaware3Washington D.C.3Massachusetts12NewHampshire4New Jersey15Rhode Island4Vermont3Maryland10411NebraskaNebraska splits its electoral votes; four went to McCainand one to Obama.Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  3. 3. Governmentby the PeopleGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  4. 4. This page intentionally left blankGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  5. 5. DAVID B. MAGLEBYBrigham Young UniversityPAUL C. LIGHTNew York University2009 National EditionLongmanNew York San Francisco BostonLondon Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore MadridMexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong MontrealGovernmentby the PeopleGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  6. 6. EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Eric StanoASSISTANT DEVELOPMENT MANAGER David KearDEVELOPMENT EDITOR Elisa AdamsASSOCIATE DEVELOPMENT EDITOR Donna GarnierSENIOR MEDIA PRODUCER Regina VertizMARKETING MANAGER Lindsey PrudhommePRODUCTION MANAGER Bob GinsbergPROJECT COORDINATION, TEXT DESIGN,AND ELECTRONIC PAGE MAKEUP Elm Street Publishing ServicesCOVER DESIGN MANAGER John CallahanCOVER DESIGNER Maria IlardiCOVER PHOTOS (sailboat) Gary John Norman/Taxi/Getty Images;( ag) Rich Vintage/iStockphotoPEARSON IMAGE RESOURCE CENTER/PHOTORESEARCHER Teri StratfordIMAGE PERMISSION COORDINATOR Ang John FerreriSENIOR MANUFACTURING BUYER Dennis J. ParaPRINTER AND BINDER Quebecor World/DubuqueCOVER PRINTER Phoenix Color CorporationFor permission to use copyrighted material, grateful acknowledgment is made to the copyrightholders on pp. 607 608, which are hereby made part of this copyright page.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataGovernment by the people. 23rd ed.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 978-0-13-606242-4 (national, state, and local) ISBN 978-0-13-606222-6 (national)ISBN 978-0-13-605040-7 (alternate) ISBN 978-0-205-66637-9 (brief)1. United States Politics and government Textbooks. I. Magleby, David B.JK276.G68 2009i320.473 dc22 2008024966Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orotherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States.12345678910 QWD 12 11 10 09ISBN-13: 978-0-13-606222-6ISBN-10: 0-13-606222-9Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  7. 7. viiBrief ContentsContents viiiLearning Objectives xiiPreface xviiAbout the Authors xxviiiPart I Constitutional PrinciplesChapter 1 Constitutional Democracy 2Chapter 2 The Living Constitution 28The Constitution of the United States 50Chapter 3 American Federalism 62Part II The Political ProcessChapter 4 Political Culture and Ideology 90Chapter 5 The American Political Landscape 114Chapter 6 Interest Groups 146Chapter 7 Political Parties 178Chapter 8 Public Opinion, Participation, and Voting 206Chapter 9 Campaigns and Elections 238Chapter 10 The Media and U.S. Politics 274Part III Policy-Making InstitutionsChapter 11 Congress 298Chapter 12 The Presidency 326Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy 356Chapter 14 The Judiciary 382Part IV Rights and LibertiesChapter 15 Civil Liberties 408Chapter 16 Civil Rights 438Part V The Politics of National PolicyChapter 17 Public Policy 468Chapter 18 Making Economic Policy 488Chapter 19 Making Social Policy 514Chapter 20 Making Foreign and Defense Policy 538Epilogue Sustaining Constitutional Democracy 564Appendix The Declaration of Independence 572The Federalist, No. 10 573The Federalist, No. 51 576The Federalist, No. 78 578Presidential Election Results, 1789 2008 582Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  8. 8. Learning Objectives xiiPreface xviiAbout the Authors xxviiiPart I Constitutional Principles1 Constitutional Democracy 2U.S. Government and Politicians in Context 4De ning Democracy 5* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the United States Adopt a National Initiative Process? 6* GENERATION NEXTFor Better or Worse? 9The Roots of the American Constitutional Experiment 13The Constitutional Convention of 1787 15* HISTORY MAKERSAlexander Hamilton and James Madison 16* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSThe Constitutional Convention 17* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNFactors Contributing to Democratic Stability 22To Adopt or Not to Adopt? 22Summary 25 | Chapter Self-Test 26 | Key Terms 27 |Further Reading 272 The Living Constitution 28Views of the Constitution 30Checking Power with Power 31* GENERATION NEXTSetting Aside the Constitution in an Age of Terror 35* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNComparing Constitutional Governance 37Judicial Review and the Guardiansof the Constitution 38* HISTORY MAKERSThurgood Marshall s Living Constitution 39The Constitution as an Instrument of Government 40Changing the Letter of the Constitution 42* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSThe United States Racial Heritage 45* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould We Interpret the Constitution Accordingto Original Intent or Today s Needs? 46Summary 48 | Chapter Self-Test 48 | Key Terms 49 |Further Reading 49The Constitution of the United States 503 American Federalism 62De ning Federalism 64* GENERATION NEXTA Preference for Local Government 66The Constitutional Structure ofAmerican Federalism 68* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSImmigrants and Federal, State, andLocal Responses 69* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNDifferent Visions of Federalism 75The Federal Courts and Federalism 75Regulatory Federalism 79* HISTORY MAKERSChief Justice William H. Rehnquist 80The Politics of Federalism 83* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the No Child Left BehindAct be Repealed? 84The Future of Federalism 85Summary 87 | Chapter Self-Test 87 | Key Terms 88 |Further Reading 89Part II The Political Process4 Political Culture and Ideology 90De ning the American Political Culture 92* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSImmigrants and Assimilation into American Political Culture 94* GENERATION NEXTPatriotism 97* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHIs the American Dream Still Alive and Important? 98* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNGovernment and Nation: Differing Public Perspectives 100Political Ideology and Attitudes Toward Government 103* HISTORY MAKERSRachel Carson and the Environmental Movement 109Political Ideology and the American People 109Summary 111 | Chapter Self-Test 112 | Key Terms 113 |Further Reading 1135 The American Political Landscape 114A Land of Diversity 116Where We Live 122Who We Are 124* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSA More Diverse Population 125* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould We Sample? 128* GENERATION NEXTReligion and Politics 130* HISTORY MAKERSLucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 134* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNAging Populations 142Unity in a Land of Diversity 142Summary 143 | Chapter Self-Test 144 | Key Terms 144 |Further Reading 145ContentsviiiGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  9. 9. CONTENTS * ix6 Interest Groups 146Interest Groups Past and Present:The Mischiefs of Faction 148Types of Interest Groups 150* HISTORY MAKERSJohn Sherman and the Sherman Antitrust Act 151* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNUnions and the Minimum Wage 154Characteristics and Power of Interest Groups 158The In uence of Lobbyists 162* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S POLITICSBreaking into a Male-Dominated Profession 163Money and Politics 164* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould Corporations and Unions Be Unlimited inFunding Parties and in Running Issue Ads? 168How Much Do Interest Groups In uence Electionsand Legislation? 172* GENERATION NEXTAre Corporations Too Powerful? 173Curing the Mischiefs of Faction Two Centuries Later 173Summary 175 | Chapter Self-Test 176 | Key Terms 176 |Further Reading 1777 Political Parties 178What Parties Do for Democracy 179* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHIs a Vote for a Third-Party Candidate with LittleChance of Winning a Wasted Vote? 184A Brief History of American Political Parties 185American Parties Today 188* HISTORY MAKERSFranklin Delano Roosevelt and the Democratic Party 189* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSPortrait of the Electorate 195* GENERATION NEXTPartisan Differences 196How Parties Raise and Spend Money 199Are the Political Parties Dying? 200* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNCampaign Finance Regulation 201Summary 203 | Chapter Self-Test 204 | Key Terms 205 |Further Reading 2058 Public Opinion, Participation,and Voting 206Public Opinion 208Participation: Translating Opinions into Action 218* HISTORY MAKERSLyndon Johnson and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 221* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNElectoral Institutions and Turnout 224* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSVoter Turnout by Demographic Factors 227Voting Choices 229* GENERATION NEXTWhy Vote? 230* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould We Allow Voting by Mail and on the Internet? 232Counting Votes 233Summary 234 | Chapter Self-Test 235 | Key Terms 236 |Further Reading 2369 Campaigns and Elections 238Elections: The Rules of the Game 240* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNTwo-Party vs. Multiparty Systems 241Running for Congress 244Running for President 248* GENERATION NEXTViews on Large and Small Donors 250* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSMore Diversity Among National Party NominationConvention Delegates 253* HISTORY MAKERSHenry George and the Secret Ballot 258Money in U.S. Elections 259Improving Elections 268* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould We Establish a National Presidential Primary? 270Summary 271 | Chapter Self-Test 272 | Key Terms 273 |Further Reading 27310 The Media and U.S. Politics 274The In uence of the Media on Politics 276* HISTORY MAKERSWalter Cronkite 278* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSToward a More Representative Newsroom 279The Changing Role of the U.S. News Media 280Mediated Politics 283* GENERATION NEXTMedia Consumption 284* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNFreedom of the Press in Comparative Perspective 285* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHHow Should the Media Report Sex Scandals? 288The Media and Elections 290The Media and Governance 294Summary 296 | Chapter Self-Test 296 | Key Terms 297 |Further Reading 297Part III Policy-Making Institutions11 Congress 298Congressional Elections 300* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould Congress Ban Earmarks? 302The Structure and Powers of Congress 304* GENERATION NEXTSupport for Compromise 305* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNStrong and Weak Legislatures 308Congressional Leadership and Committees 308* HISTORY MAKERSSpeaker Uncle Joe Cannon 310* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSDiversity in Congress 311The Job of the Legislator 315Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  10. 10. How a Bill Becomes a Law 320An Assessment of Congress 322Summary 323 | Chapter Self-Test 323 | Key Terms 324 |Further Reading 32412 The Presidency 326The Structure and Powers of the Presidency 328Controversies in Presidential Power 335The Evolution of Presidential Power 338* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNStrong and Weak Chief Executives 339Managing the Presidency 340* HISTORY MAKERSCondoleezza Rice 342The President s Job 344Congress and the Presidency 346* GENERATION NEXTThe President s Approval Rating 347* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSPresidential Appointees 349* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the Two-Term Limit Be Repealed? 350Judging Presidents 351Summary 353 | Chapter Self-Test 353 | Key Terms 354 |Further Reading 35413 The Federal Bureaucracy 356Understanding the Federal Bureaucracy 358* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSA Representative Government 363Leading the Federal Bureaucracy 367* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNBureaucracy Across the World 368The Civil Service 369* GENERATION NEXTTrust in Government 371The Job of the Federal Bureaucracy 373* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHWho Wants a Federal Career? 374Controlling the Federal Bureaucracy 375* HISTORY MAKERSLouis Brownlow 376A History of Great Endeavors 378Summary 379 | Chapter Self-Test 379 | Key Terms 381 |Further Reading 38114 The Judiciary 382Understanding the Federal Judiciary 384The Three Types of Federal Courts 386The Politics of Appointing Federal Judges 388* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSDiversity in the Federal Courts 393How the Supreme Court Decides 394* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the Federal Courts Be Active? 394* GENERATION NEXTEqual Rights 396* HISTORY MAKERS:Justice Sandra Day O Connor 399* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNJudicial Independence and Accountability 401Limits on Judicial Action 402Judicial Power in a Constitutional Democracy 404Summary 405 | Chapter Self-Test 406 | Key Terms 406 |Further Reading 407Part IV Rights and Liberties15 Civil Liberties 408Rights in the Original Constitution 410The Bill of Rights and the States 411First Amendment Freedoms 413* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSThe Continuing Importance of Religion and Personal Belief 415* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the Government Restrict Civil LibertiesDuring the War on Terror? 418Property Rights 422Due Process Rights 423Privacy Rights 424* HISTORY MAKERSEstelle Griswold 425Rights of Criminal Suspects 427* GENERATION NEXTSearches and Seizures in an Age of Terrorism 429The Death Penalty 432* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNThe Death Penalty Around the World 433Protecting Our Civil Liberties: Whose Responsibility? 434Summary 434 | Chapter Self-Test 435 | Key Terms 436 |Further Reading 43616 Civil Rights 438Equality and Equal Rights 440Citizenship Rights 440The Quest for Equal Justice 443* HISTORY MAKERSMartin Luther King Jr. 446Equal Protection of the Laws: What Does It Mean? 451* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNThe Treatment of Homosexuality Across the World 453* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould Marriage be Limited to Heterosexual Couples? 454Voting Rights 454Rights to Equal Access: Accommodations,Jobs, and Homes 456Education Rights 458* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSRacial and Ethnic Diversity in U.S. Public Elementaryand Secondary Schools 459The Af rmative Action Controversy 461* GENERATION NEXTAf rmative Action 462Equal Rights Today 464Summary 465 | Chapter Self-Test 466 | Key Terms 467 |Further Reading 467Part V The Politics of National Policy17 Public Policy 468De ning Public Policy 470* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHHow Should We Fix Social Security? 472x * CONTENTSGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  11. 11. CONTENTS * xiThe Eight Steps in Making Public Policy 472* HISTORY MAKERSRalph Nader 474* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSThink Tanks 476* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNThe Policy Process 479* GENERATION NEXTGovernment Control of Daily Life 480Citizens and Public Policy 484Summary 485 | Chapter Self-Test 485 | Key Terms 486 |Further Reading 48618 Making Economic Policy 488An Introduction to Economic Policy 490Fiscal Policy 492* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNTax Rates Around the World 495* GENERATION NEXTSatisfaction with the Financial Situation 497Monetary Policy 498* HISTORY MAKERSAlan Greenspan 499Promoting the Economy 500* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the Federal Government Do More toProtect U.S. Jobs? 504Regulating the Economy 504* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSFemale and Minority Board Members 506The Deregulation Movement 509A Continued Federal Role 511Summary 511 | Chapter Self-Test 512 | Key Terms 513 |Further Reading 51319 Making Social Policy 514The Role of the Federal Government inSocial Policy 516Types of Social Policy 517* GENERATION NEXTHelping the Needy 518The Expansion of Social Policy inthe Twentieth Century 521* HISTORY MAKERSMarian Wright Edelman 523* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould the Federal Government Promote Marriage? 526Social Policy Challenges for the Future: Health,Education, and Crime 526* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNWealth and Health 530* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSAccess to College, 2000 2008 534The Politics of Social Policy 535Summary 535 | Chapter Self-Test 536 | Key Terms 537 |Further Reading 53720 Making Foreign and DefensePolicy 538Understanding Foreign Policy and Defense 540The Foreign Policy and Defense Agenda 542* GENERATION NEXTHard Versus Soft Power 543* HISTORY MAKERSWoodrow Wilson 547The Foreign Policy and Defense Bureaucracy 549* THE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSDiversity in the Military 554Foreign Policy and Defense Options 554* HOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNScandinavia s Foreign Aid 557* YOU WILL DECIDE/THINKING IT THROUGHShould Women Engage in Combat? 558Prospects for the Future 559Summary 560 | Chapter Self-Test 561 | Key Terms 562 |Further Reading 562EPILOGUE Sustaining ConstitutionalDemocracy 564The Case for Government by the People 566Participation and Representation 566The Role of the Politician 569Leadership in a Constitutional Democracy 569The Importance of Active Citizenship 570Further Reading 571Appendix 572The Declaration of Independence 572The Federalist, No. 10 573The Federalist, No. 51 576The Federalist, No. 78 578Presidential Election Results, 1789 2008 582GLOSSARY 584NOTES 590PHOTO CREDITS 607INDEX 609Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  12. 12. Chapter 1* De ne government, politics, politicians, politicalscience, and constitutional democracy. 4+ Differentiate democracy from other forms ofgovernment. 6, Identify the conditions that help democracy ourishand explain why they do so. 8- Explain the importance to successfuldemocracy of values, political processes, andpolitical structures. 10. Show how politics before 1787 shaped theConstitution. 13/ Identify the most important compromises achieved bythe delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. 180 Assess the arguments for and against therati cation of the Constitution. 22Chapter 2* Describe the basic structure of the Constitution andits Bill of Rights. 30+ Summarize the basic principles of governmentestablished by the Constitution. 31, Compare and contrast the three main branches ofthe U.S. Government. 32- Show how the system of checks and balancesoperates among the three branches of the U.S.government. 32. Show how the use of judicial review strengthensthe courts in a separation of powers system. 38/ Analyze the effect of Marbury v. Madison on the roleof the judiciary. 380 Explain how the meaning of the Constitution hasevolved over time. 401 Outline the way we make formal changes to theConstitution. 41Chapter 3* Compare and contrast the different interpretationsof federalism. 64+ Show how federalism protects citizens. 67, Differentiate between the types of national andstate powers. 68- Describe and compare the constitutional pillarsof national power. 70. Analyze the role of the national courts in regulatingfederalism. 76/ Compare and contrast the arguments ofdecentralists and centralists. 770 Analyze the differences between grants andmandates. 791 Establish the link between the growth ofthe national government and federalism. 83Chapter 4* Identify the most important elements of the Americanpolitical culture and how we learn them. 92+ Assess the importance of the American dreamin the context of economic change. 99, Compare and contrast different ideologicalassumptions about government. 103- Assess the arguments for and against eachideology. 104. Analyze the importance of political ideology in lightof competing ideas such as pragmatism, practicality,and the changing agenda of American politics. 111Chapter 5* Describe the opportunities and challenges posed bythe diversity of the American population. 116+ Explain how geography affects politics. 117, Describe the political evolution of theSouth. 119- Evaluate the role of population density and wherepeople live in American politics. 122. Assess the roles of race, ethnicity, religion,gender, and changing family demographics inAmerican politics. 124/ Evaluate the roles of education, income, class, andage in American politics. 136Chapter 6* Evaluate the role of interest groups and socialmovements in American politics. 148+ Identify the different types of interest groupsin the United States. 150, Compare the sources of interest grouppower. 158LEARNING OBJECTIVESxiiGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  13. 13. LEARNING OBJECTIVES * xiii- Describe lobbyists and how they in uencepolicy. 159. Assess how some interest groups use moneyto pursue their agendas and evaluate theconsequences for interest group pluralism ofsome groups having little money. 164Chapter 7* Explain why parties arise in democracies and theirprimary functions. 180+ Contrast the unique features of the American partysystem with those of other countries. 183, Understand the history of American political parties. 185- Distinguish parties functions as institutions,in government, and in the electorate. 188. Discuss how parties and elections are nanced. 199/ Assess the long-term prospects for the current partysystem and, speci cally, the Democratic andRepublican Parties. 201Chapter 8* Identify the key dimensions of public opinion andhow we measure it. 208+ Describe the forces that create and shapeindividuals political attitudes. 212, Analyze the relationship between public opinionand public policy. 216- Assess non-voting participation and how it maychange in the age of the Internet. 218. Describe the demographic, legal, and electioneeringfactors that affect voter turnout. 220/ Explain why people vote the way they do inelections. 2290 Identify the problems associated withadministering elections and proposedsolutions to those problems. 233Chapter 9* Summarize election rules and assess theirimplications for elections in the United States. 240+ Describe the electoral college, how it works, and itsimpact on presidential elections. 242, Identify the regularities of congressional electionsand explain why they are generally not competitive. 244- Identify the stages in U.S. presidential elections andanalyze the differences in campaigning at each stage. 248. Assess the in uence of money in congressional andpresidential elections and evaluate the mainapproaches to campaign nance reform. 259/ Evaluate the need for improving presidential andcongressional elections in the United States. 268Chapter 10* De ne the news media and show how their differentforms connect the government and the people. 276+ Describe the evolution of the media s interaction withpolitics from the Founding until today, including thechanges brought by the Internet. 280, Evaluate the media s in uence on public opinion andattention. 284- Identify the bene ts and problems of the media s rolein elections. 290. Assess the media s relationship to governance in theUnited States. 294Chapter 11* Describe the congressional election process anddemonstrate how it protects incumbents. 301+ Differentiate the powers of Congress. 305, Compare and contrast the structure and powers ofthe House and Senate. 305- Compare the leadership systems used in theHouse and Senate. 308. Analyze the committee structure and show howmembers are assigned to committees. 312/ Assess the effect of different forms of representationon citizen engagement. 3160 Examine the in uences on legislative decisions andhow these in uences may vary with issues. 3171 Identify the key steps by which a bill becomes a lawand the ways a bill can be stopped at each step. 320Chapter 12* Describe the constitutional foundations ofthe presidency. 328+ Compare and contrast the three types ofpresidential power. 331, Evaluate the controversies surrounding thepresident s assertion of additional executivepowers and the evolution of presidential power. 335- Analyze the roles of the White House staff, ExecutiveOf ce of the President, cabinet, and vice president. 340. Describe the president s job. 344/ Identify the sources of presidential/congressionalcon ict and the tools presidents use to in uenceCongress. 3470 Identify factors that make a great president. 352Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  14. 14. Chapter 13* Understand why the federal bureaucracy is calledthe unde ned branch. 358+ Analyze the pros and cons of bureaucracy. 360, Compare and contrast the different types of federalorganizations. 361- Describe the differences between the bureaucracy stwo types of leaders. 367. Evaluate the differences between the spoils andmerit systems. 369/ Identify the key regulations that govern the civil service. 3700 Analyze the tools of implementation and theireffectiveness. 3731 Compare and contrast efforts to control the federalbureaucracy. 376Chapter 14* Analyze the implications of the adversarialprocess. 384+ Explain the structure of the federal court system. 386, Evaluate factors important in appointing judicialnominees. 388- Compare and contrast arguments in favor of andagainst judicial activism. 392. Describe the process of reaching a decision in theU.S. Supreme Court. 394/ Assess the in uences on U.S. Supreme Courtdecision making. 3990 Compare and contrast the limits on judicial action. 4021 Assess the role of the judiciary in a constitutionaldemocracy. 404Chapter 15* Evaluate the arguments for amending a Bill of Rightsto the original Constitution. 411+ Identify protections under the establishment and freeexercise clauses of the Constitution. 413, Contrast the categories of protected andunprotected speech. 417- Compare and contrast procedural and substantivedue process. 423. Analyze the degree to which criminal suspects rightsare protected in our criminal justice system. 427Chapter 16* Evaluate the importance of citizenship rights,particularly concerning immigration and the waron terror. 441+ Compare and contrast different groups efforts toobtain equal protection of the law. 443, Appraise the reasons for delay in the women s rightsmovement. 446- Assess the constitutional tests applied todiscriminatory laws in the United States. 451. Analyze the protections provided by the 1965 VotingRights Act. 454/ Describe how Congress has legislated againstdiscrimination in housing and accommodations. 4560 Explain the dif culty of integration in a societylargely segregated by housing patterns. 4581 Evaluate the current state of af rmative action inthe United States. 461Chapter 17* Compare politics and public policy and show howeach affects the other. 470+ Analyze the three types of public policy. 471, Evaluate the eight steps in making public policy. 473- Compare and contrast the tools of public policy. 478. Identify how citizens can in uence each step of thepublic policy process. 483Chapter 18* Identify the two most important measures of economicperformance and show how they interact. 490+ Evaluate the role of scal policy in keeping theeconomy stable. 492, Outline the key steps in the federalbudget process. 494- Evaluate the role of monetary policy in keeping theeconomy stable. 498. Analyze the federal government s role in promotingthe economy. 500/ Analyze the federal government s role in regulatingthe economy. 5040 Contrast the advantages and disadvantages of thederegulation movement. 509xiv * LEARNING OBJECTIVESGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  15. 15. LEARNING OBJECTIVES * xvChapter 19* Explain the difference between entitlements andmeans-tested entitlements. 517+ Compare and contrast the two types ofsocial policy. 519, Identify the major contributions of the New Dealand the Great Society to social policy. 521- Evaluate the impact of welfare reform. 525. Analyze the causes of and solutions for the lack ofhealth coverage for all Americans. 529/ Assess the tools of federal education andcrime policy. 531Chapter 20* Analyze the ve questions that shape positionson U.S. foreign policy and defense. 540+ Compare and contrast hard and soft power. 542, Evaluate the seven issues that currentlydominate the foreign policy and defenseagenda. 542- Identify the goals of the war in Iraq and evaluatethe level of U.S. success. 546. Assess the components of the foreign policyand defense bureaucracy. 550/ Examine the defense hierarchy. 5520 Analyze the options for achieving foreign policyand defense goals. 554Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
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  17. 17. PrefaceGovernment and politics matter. Government matters in such areas as theeconomy, educational opportunity, and public health. One of the lessons from thegovernment s poor response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 is that in such times weall depend to a great degree on government to provide safety and security. Withoutthat security, we face a world of anarchy. While government can fail, as it did in itsresponse to Katrina, it can also succeed, as it did when the NASA space programplaced astronauts on the moon, polio was largely eradicated, and the Cold War waspeacefully resolved. We title this book Government by the People because we want toemphasize the important role people play in our constitutional democracy.Understanding American politics and government must include an appreciation ofthe people, their similarities and differences, their beliefs and attitudes, and theirbehaviors. A foundation of that understanding of the people is our chapter on theAmerican political landscape in which we examine such aspects of our populationas race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, income, and region. Our country is diverseand that diversity is important politically.The study of American government should be engaging, relevant, and rigorous. Asauthors of this book, we see politics and government as topics worthy of careful study.Constitutional democracy the kind we have in the United States is exceedingly hardto achieve, equally hard to sustain, and often hard to understand. Our political historyhas been an evolution toward an enlarged role for citizens and voters. Citizens havemore rights and political opportunities in 2008 and 2009 than they had in 1800 or 1900.The framers of our Constitution warned that we must be vigilant in safeguarding ourrights, liberties, and political institutions. But to do this, we must rst understand theseinstitutions and the forces that have shaped them.We want you to come away from reading this book with a richer understanding ofAmerican politics, government, the job of politicians, and the important role you, as acitizen, play in this country s present and future. We hope you will participate activelyin making this constitutional democracy more vital and responsive to the urgent prob-lems of the twenty- rst century.What s New in This EditionThe new edition of Government by the People builds on the longstanding reputationof this book for strong coverage of the foundations of American government that isaccurate, accessible, and current. We have integrated the latest in scholarship onAmerican politics and government, the dramatic 2008 elections, recent SupremeCourt decisions, and comparisons with countries around the world into a book thatintroduces you to the subject and the discipline of political science.Also new to this edition are data on how young people see politics and government.Using data from studies of 18 24 and 18 29 year olds, we examine the attitudes, opin-ions, and values of this emerging generation of voters with Generation Next boxes.Each feature includes the actual question asked of others in the studies, allowing you toanswer for yourself and compare your answers to others.Building on the theme of the people in government, we examine the changing faceof American politics in each chapter with current data on the importance of our diver-sity as a people. Each chapter also, as we suggest above, has a new approach to puttingthe U.S. government into comparative perspective.Perhaps most strikingly, this edition introduces a new framework of learningpedagogy to help you navigate each chapter s discussion, focus on the most impor-tant concepts, and understand American politics and goverment. After surveyingAmerican government and politics courses taught around the country, we developedxviiGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  18. 18. a list of learning objectives the concepts professors teaching this course most of-ten want their students to understand to shape and guide the development of thisedition. A master list of these objectives appears just before this Preface, providing afull inventory of the key concepts students must master to complete the course suc-cessfully. These objectives reappear at the beginning of each chapter, highlighting thelearning goals for that chapter, while individual objectives are called out in the textmargins as the key concepts are discussed. A summary and self-test at the end of eachchapter provide students with a nal check of their understanding, and the self-testincludes both short and longer essay questions to promote critical thinking.The 2009 Edition also includes the following changes:xviii * PREFACEChapter 1 begins with a new introduction that uses the elections of 2000, 2004,and 2008 to frame the chapter.Chapter 2 uses the issue of school prayer to establish the lack of speci city of theConstitution. The Democratic control of Congress in 2006 (continuing in 2008) hasbeen added to the discussion of divided government. Methods for proposing amend-ments include examples to clarify the two methods.Chapter 3 uses Californias emissions-standard battle with the EPA to frame thechapter. The discussion of federalism providing training for national of cials hasbeen expanded. No Child Left Behind has been added to the discussion of federalmandates and unfunded mandates.Chapter 4 looks at the struggle to establish Martin Luther King Jr. Day. The sectionon liberalism, conservatism, and criticisms of both has been updated to re ect recentissues, events and the 2008 campaign and election. Socialism has been expanded toSocialism and Communism, with an expanded discussion of the Soviet Union.Chapter 5 uses the 2008 primary season to explore identity politics and ethno-centrism. The demographic data in the discussions of different groups has beenupdated throughout the chapter. A discussion of the nomination and election ofBarack Obama has been added to the section on African Americans. Californias legal-ization and subsequent banning of same-sex marriage is explored.Chapter 6 adds a discussion of the free rider problem.The Internet has been added tothe discussion of techniques interest groups use to exert in uence.The discussion of PACsnotes the change in allegiance of PACs after the 2006 Democratic control of Congress.Chapter 7 adds the Democratic control of Congress in 2006 to the discussion ofparty function in the government. The history of American political parties has beenstreamlined to focus on the major periods and events, and information on the impactof the 2008 election has been added. How parties raise and spend money has beenstreamlined, but the distinction between hard and soft money is covered.Chapter 8 has been updated throughout to re ect the events and outcomes ofthe 2008 election. The role of the Internet and social networking sites in the 2008campaign has been added. A section on absentee and early voting has been added tothe discussion of voting.Chapter 9 has been thoroughly updated to re ect the 2008 election, includingnew information in the introduction, a new gure on safe/competitive seats in theHouse, updated data for the rising campaign costs in general elections, the candi-dates and nomination process in the 2008 primaries and conventions, acceptancespeeches at the conventions, the selection of Joe Biden and Sarah Palin as runningmates, the party platforms, campaign nance, and the outcome of the election.Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  19. 19. Chapter 10 discusses the role of the Internet in the 2008 campaigns and election.The declining importance of newspapers is discussed, as is the growing importanceof the Internet.Chapter 11 has been updated to re ect the 2008 Congressional elections. The dis-cussion of senatorial consent has been moved to Chapter 14 on appointing federaljudges.Chapter 12 includes updated information on Bushs use of veto power, invoca-tion of executive privilege, and use of signing statements.Chapter 13 includes a new section on de ning bureaucracy that includesMax Weber s work, describing the six characteristics of an effective bureaucracy, andidentifying the major weaknesses of bureaucracy today. A new section at the end ofthe chapter discusses the great achievements of the bureaucracy.Chapter 14 uses cases related to using race to assign students to individual pub-lic schools to show the importance of the membership of the Court. The section onSupreme Court decisions has been rewritten to more clearly guide the studentsthrough the entire process.Chapter 15 has been combined with Chapter 16 from the last edition, bringing allthe civil liberties topics together. The discussion of habeas corpus includes updatesfrom the Hamdan and Boumedienne cases. A section distinguishing civil liberties fromcivil rights has been added. The discussion of property rights has been moved to thischapter from Chapter 16, including a new discussion of Kelo v. City of New London.Due process rights, privacy rights, including abortion and sexual orientation, therights of the accused and the death penalty have been moved here from Chapter 16.Chapter 16 (previously Chapter 17) adds Barack Obamas candidacy to the dis-cussion of racial equality, and Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin to the discussion ofwomens rights.Chapter 17 is a new chapter that takes the brief introduction to public policyfrom Chapter 18 in the previous edition and expands it to provide a more thoroughdiscussion of the process. It begins with a de nition of public policy, including thevarious types of public policy. The chapter then explores the eight steps in makingpublic policy, including more detail and examples.Chapter 18 includes updated budget and expenditure data throughout thenarrative and in gures and tables. The discussion of the Federal Reserve Systemincludes a new section and gure on the prime interest rate and the Fed s recentactivity. A new section on corporate responsibility has been added to the chapter.Chapter 19 includes an expanded discussion of help for the unemployed, includ-ing a new section on low-income workers, the minimum wage, and the earnedincome tax credit. The section on education includes updated information on theimpact of No Child Left Behind and Head Start.Chapter 20 has been reorganized to focus on ve approaches to foreign policy.The discussion of the war in Iraq has been updated to re ect events of the past twoyears. A new section on the role of contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan has been added.PREFACE * xixGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  20. 20. xxRead by over one million students, this new edition of the classicGovernment by the People has been substantially rewritten andredesigned to assist you in your study of American governmentand politics.A Focus on Foundations . . .New! Learning Objectives help you identify thekinds of learning you will be expected to do witheach chapter. We also integrate the LearningObjectives throughout the chapter and return tothem at the end of the chapter in a shortChapter Summary. This closely knit pedagogicalsystem helps you navigate through chapter dis-cussions and demonstrate that you have mas-tered the concepts.Some years ago, a community college district in Los Angeles held a nonpartisan elec-tion for its trustees in which any registered voter could run if he or she paid the$50 ling fee and gathered 500 valid signatures on a petition. Each voter could cast up toseven votes. Political parties were not allowed to nominate candidates, and party labelsdid not appear on the ballot to help orient voters to the candidates.A total of 133 candidates ran. They were listed alphabetically, and those whosenames began with the letters A to F did better than those later in the alphabet. Being wellknown or having a Mexican American surname was also an advantage. Endorsementsby the Los Angeles Times also in uenced the outcome, as did campaigning by a conser-vative group. But how do people vote in an election without parties?Parties are both a consequence of democracy and an instrument of it. They servemany functions, including narrowing the choices for voters1 and making nationaland state elections work. American voters take for granted the peaceful transfer ofpower from one elected of cial to another and from one party to another, yet in newdemocracies where holding power may be more important than democratic princi-ples, the transfer of power after an election is often problematic. Well-establishedparties help stabilize democracy.This chapter begins by examining why parties are so vital to the functioning ofdemocracy. We then examine the evolution of American political parties. AlthoughU.S. political parties have changed over time, they remain important in three differentsettings: as institutions, in government, and in the electorate.We ll look at the way par-ties facilitate democracy in all three. Finally, we discuss the strength of parties todayand the prospects for party reform and renewal.What Parties Do for DemocracyAmerican political parties serve a variety of political and social functions, some welland others not so well. The way they perform them differs from place to place andtime to time.Party FunctionsPolitical parties are organizations that seek political power by electing people to of cewho will help party positions and philosophy become public policy.Organize the Competition Parties exist primarily as an organizing mechanism to winelections and thus win control of government. For some races, parties recruit andnominate candidates for of ce; register and activate voters; and help candidates bytraining them, raising money for them, providing them with research and voter lists, andenlisting volunteers to work for them.2179Political PartiesLEARNING OBJECTIVESExplain why parties arise in democra-cies and their primary functions.Contrast the unique features of theAmerican party system with those ofother countries.Understand the history of Americanpolitical parties.Distinguish parties functions asinstitutions, in government, and in theelectorate.Discuss how parties and elections arenanced.Assess the long-term prospects for thecurrent party system and, speci cally,the Democratic and Republican Parties.Essential to DemocracyEach chapter begins with aChapter Outline that breaks downlarger subjects into importantsubparts and previews the topicsto come.LEARNING OBJECTIVEExplain why parties arise indemocracies and their primaryfunctions.opposition. Moreover, to win elections, pparty and gain their support. This actiontwo large national political parties in the AParties have great dif culty buildinabortion or gun control. Not surprisinglyde ning themselves or the election in siners disagree with the party s stand on onagree on other issues. Deemphasizing sand unify the electorate.Explain why parties arise in democracies and their primaryfunctions.Political parties are essential to democracy. Theysimplify voting choices, organize electoral competition,unify the electorate, help organize government by bridgingthe separation of powers and fostering cooperation amongbranches of government, translate public preferences intopolicy, and provide loyal opposition.Contrast the unique features of the American party systemwith those of other countries.CHAPTER SUMMARYCHAPTER OUTLINEWhat Parties Do for DemocracyA Brief History of U.S. PoliticalPartiesU.S. Parties TodayHow Parties Raise and SpendMoneyAre the Political Parties Dying?Local and judicial elections in most states are nonpartisanmeans no party af liation is indicated. Such systems make it morecal parties to operate precisely why many jurisdictions have adcontending that party af liation is not important to being a gooboard member. As in the community college board election at thchapter, many voters in nonpartisan elections rely more on howname of a candidate is, or whether he or she now holds of ce. In adtend to turn out for nonpartisan elections than for standard partisaUnify the Electorate Parties are often accused of creating con ichelp unify the electorate and moderate con ict, at least within the pstrong incentive to ght out their internal differences but come togeGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  21. 21. In several close elections, including the 2000 presidential election, the votecast for one or another minor party, if cast for the likely second choice ofthose voters, would have changed the outcome of the election. In such asituation, should voters care more about in uencing who wins an election ormore about casting a vote for a candidate whose views are closest to theirown, even if that candidate has little chance of winning?Is a Vote for a Third-PartyCandidate with Little Chance ofWinning a Wasted Vote?DECIDEYOU WILLDECIDEChapter Self-Test1. De ne the term political party. (p. 179)2. Explain the ve major functions of political parties,using one or two sentences for each one. (pp. 179 181)3. In a short essay, describe the bene ts and problems witheach form of nominating candidates caucus, open pri-mary, closed primary, and blanket primary. Choose whichmethod is best and defend your answer. (pp. 179 181)4. Keeping in mind the ve functions of political parties,discuss in a few sentences why partisan ghting is aninevitable part of the party system. (pp. 181 182)5. From each pair, identify which feature is part of the system and which is part of a typical parliamen-tary system. (pp. 179 183)a. winner-take-all/proportional representationb. multi-member districts/single-member districtsc. party-centered campaigns/candidate-centeredcampaignsd. two dominant parties/many partiese. weak party organization/strong party organizationf. ideological parties/centrist parties6. In two or three sentences, explain why a vote for a third-party candidate in a U.S. election is typically considereda wasted vote. (pp. 183 185)7. Place the following partisan realignments in chronologi-cal order and match them to the party that gainedpower as a result Democratic, Republican orFederalist. (pp. 185 187)a. The Foundingb. Jackson and grassroots democracyc. The Civil Ward. The progressive erae. The New Deal8. Analyze the chart on page 195 and identify three or fourchanges in partisan identi cation in the last forty years.For example, far fewer men identify themselves asDemocrats today.9. Match each of the following activities with the aspect of apolitical party it best represents (a) parties as institutions(b) in government, or (c) in the electorate. (pp. 188 194)i. A student registers to vote, stating-his party prefer-ence as Republican on the registration form beforehanding it to the county clerkii. Howard Dean, Chair of the Democratic NationalCommittee, decides whether the votes of Democratsin Michigan and Florida should count during the2008 presidential primariesiii. The Senate splits 55 45 on a bill authorizingfunds for the Iraq War, with Republicans voting 44 5in favor and Democrats voting 50 1 against10. A woman in Michigan learns about Barack Obama andbegins campaigning enthusiastically for him, despitenever caring much about politics before. This woman ismost likely________. (p. 194)a. A party regularb. A candidate activistc. An issue activistTHINKINGTHINKING IT THROUGHHow you answer this question depends on what you want to accomplishwith your vote. Those who see the vote as a largely symbolic exercise willlikely vote for a minor party candidate with little chance of winning. Theproblem is that the more electable candidate who is clearly preferred overthe other more competitive alternative may not win of ce at all if a voterdoes not consider electability. The winner-take-all system makes this trade-off more consequential. In a system in which proportional representation ispossible, a voter is more likely to be able to translate policy preferencesinto a vote for representatives. But in our system, voters must often vote fortheir second choice in order to avoid letting their third choice win of ce.Interest groups, like environmental groups, often nd themselves not en-dorsing a minor party candidate who may be closer to their views becausethey want to avoid helping to elect a competitive alternative candidatewhose views they abhor.One way to lessen the in uence of these candidates is to requirea run-off election of the top two vote-getters if no candidate gets amajority. Although this would forceanother election in some instances,it would also force people whovote to decide among the moreviable options. A counterargu-ment is that many people whosupport minor party candidateswould opt out of an election with-out this chance to express theirpreferences, and so such a run-off is already accomplished withthe plurality winner system wenow have.Questions1. Was a vote for someone otherthan Bush or Gore in 2000 awasted vote? Why or why not?2. What are some issues a minorparty might push that would affectthe major parties, even if the minorparty does not win an election?3. What are the obstacles minorparties face that major parties donot?xxiNew! The study of government and politics is not justabout learning facts; it is about becoming good criticalthinkers and, by extension, better citizens. This skill is en-hanced with practice, and to assist you with this criticalthinking we have provided a box in each chapter calledYou Will Decide Thinking It Through. You Will Decideasks a question that you as a citizen will decide. ThinkingIt Through provides some ways to think through the ques-tion and discussion. There is no right or wrong answerwhat is important is that you have considered multipleways to answer the question and how you would go aboutapproaching the issue.. . . a Focus on Learning ObjectivesNew! To assist you in preparing forexams and make your learning ex-perience more effective, we haveprepared a Chapter Self-Test whichincludes at least one essay ques-tion. A tip that will improve yourperformance in the class is to tryand answer these questions soonafter you read the chapter. Beforeyou take an exam, practice on oneor more of the essay questions.Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  22. 22. HISTORY MAKERSChief Justice William H. RehnquistWhen asked his career plans by hiselementary school teacher, William H.Rehnquist once recalled saying, I amgoing to change the government. * Afterserving in the army during World War II,Rehnquist majored in political science atStanford University and later graduatedfirst in his class from Stanford Law School.He then clerked for a Supreme Courtjustice and went into private legal prac-tice while becoming active in Republicanpolitics.As an assistant attorney general in theadministration of President Richard M. Nixon,Rehnquist was appointed associate justice ofthe Supreme Court in 1972. In his early yearson the Court he emerged as a champion offederalism, limiting the power of the nationalgovernment and returning power to thestates. However, he could not persuade amajority to go along with his views andearned the nickname Lone Ranger forwriting more dissenting opinions than anyother justice at the time. In 1986, PresidentRonald Reagan elevated him to chief justice,and he presided over the Court until his deathin 2005.A major legacy of the Rehnquist Court isthe way it curbed Congress in defense ofthe states. Besides resurrecting the rhetoricof states rights and the Tenth Amendment,Chief Justice Rehnquist was central to aseries of decisions that strengthened thestates:Congress must make a plain statementof its intent to preempt state laws; other-wise the Court will defer to the states.Congress s power over interstate commercehas inherent limits, and it may not compelstates to enact laws in compliance withfederal standards or compel them to enforcefederal laws.Congress s power under the commerceclause permits it to regulate noneco-nomic activities, but only if they sub-stantially affect interstate commerce. §Congress s power to enforce theFourteenth Amendment guarantee ofequal protection of the law is limited toremedying violations that the Courtrecognizes; it does not extend to creat-ing rights.||States immunity from lawsuits under theEleventh Amendment bars lawsuitsagainst them, without their consent, infederal and state courts, and by citizensof other states as well as of their ownstate who seek state compliance with fed-eral laws forbidding, for example, discrim-ination on the basis of age or disability.¶In short, Chief Justice Rehnquist presidedover a Court that curbed the expansion ofcongressional powers and federal regulationsin a renewed defense of the boundaries offederalism.QUESTIONS1. What do you think were Rehnquist smost important contributions inprotecting states from the nationalgovernment?2. How can citizens influence SupremeCourt decisions, and should they try?3. How was Rehnquist able to in uencethe court even when he was in theminority?*Quoted in Craig Bradley, William H. Rehnquist, in Clare Cushman, ed., The Supreme Court Justices (CQ Press, 1993), p. 496.Gregory v. Ashcroft, 501 U.S. 452 (1991).New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144 (1992), and Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997).§United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995), and United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000); but see Nevada v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003).||City of Bourne v. Lopez, 521 U.S. 507 (1997), and United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000).¶See, for example, Alden v. Maine, 527 U.S. 706 (1998).William H. RehnquistxxiiGovernment...Government by the people has become more and more a realityduring the course of American history.History Makershighlights the contributionspeople have made to ourgovernment and providesrecognizable and tangibleexamples of the influence ofthe principles and theoriesdiscussed in the text.The Changing Faceof U.S.Politics. In importantways, the people of theUnited States today aremuch more diverse than atany previous time. Thisfeature explores the impactof the ever-increasing levelof diversity in the Americanpolitical landscape, includinghow race and gender arechanging the way theAmerican government works.These unique boxes aredesigned to re ect theconcerns and experiences ofethnic and minority groups inAmerican politics.For most of the twentieth century, the high-est percentage of immigrants to theUnited States came from Europe. Today LatinAmericans and Asians exceed Europeans asimmigrants.The number of immigrants arriving in theUnited States has been growing. Many enterthe country illegally and join the workforce.According to the Pew Hispanic Center, in2005 the United States had 35.7 million for-eign-born residents, of whom 61 percentwere legal permanent residents and 29 per-cent were undocumented migrants.*The majority of undocumented aliens canbe found in California, Texas, Florida, NewYork, Illinois, and New Jersey. However, al-most two in ve undocumented aliens now re-side in other states, which makes the issue ofimmigration relevant in almost every electionas the total number increases, including chil-dren who were born in theUnited States or crossedthe border with a parent.Whereas 1.3 million illegalimmigrants came to theUnited States in the1980s, 5.8 million came inthe 1990s, and 3.1 millionarrived in 2000 2004.As a result of the sub-stantial recent growth inillegal immigration, bro-ken borders and the ris-ing unemployment rateamong U.S. citizenshave become very con-troversial issues. Manyobject to undocumentedImmigrants and Federal, State,and Local ResponsesTHE CHANGING FACE OF U.S. POLITICSworkers taking jobs away from U.S. citi-zens, and the children of illegal immigrantsoften receive education and health bene ts.The controversy is complex, and there isno consensus about how to resolve it. Morethan 50 immigration bills have been intro-duced in Congress, and another 1,562 billswere introduced in state legislatures in 2007alone. They address many solutions to immi-gration issues such as extending visas forhighly educated workers in hard-to-recruitprofessions, establishing new procedures forlegalizing undocumented workers, providingsome form of amnesty for illegal immigrantswho have been living in the United States foryears, and increasing border security.QUESTIONS1. Why does the number of undocumentedaliens provoke such controversy acrossthe nation even though most immigrantslive in California, Illinois, New York,Texas, and Florida?2. Should the nation deny public bene tssuch as access to schools, health care,and housing to undocumented alienswho are children? Why or why not?*Jeffrey S. Passel, Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population, Pew Hispanic Center report, March 21, 2005, p. 7.National Conference of State Legislatures, 2007 Enacted State Legislation Related to Immigrants and Immigration, Immigrant Policy Project, November 29,2007, p. 1.Menaged 18 39:4.5 million43%Womenaged 18 39:3.0 million29%Adultsaged40 and over:1.1 million11%Childrenunder 18:1.7 million17%Age and Sex of Undocument Aliens, 2004.Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  23. 23. xxiiiThe demographics of a nation in uences itspolitics and policy. The gures summa-rized here come from the United NationsPopulation Division. They compare our sam-ple of countries in terms of median age, andthe dependency ratio, or the ratio of the popu-lation over age 65 to the working-age popula-tion. This ratio measures the extent to which acountry has a working population and showsthe number of younger people who will beable to support the older population.The median age for all countries in thissample rose a little less than 3 years be-tween 1950 and 2000, but is projected toclimb more than 11 years between 2000 and2050. The United States and the UnitedKingdom had the highest median age in1950, but by 2000, Japan s was higher.Median age is in uenced by not only publichealth but by birthrates. Mexico, with thelowest median age of the sample countriesin 1950, is projected to have a higher me-dian age than the United States in 2050.One reason is that Mexico s birthrate wasthe highest of the sample countries in 1950but by 2050 will be essentially the same asthe rate in China, India, the United States,and the United Kingdom.This kind of information is relevant to pol-itics and policy because it in uences thekinds of demands populations place on gov-ernments for health care and other services.A shrinking population may not have enoughworkers to keep an economy viable, perhapsforcing aging populations to work moreyears than they are presently doing. In theUnited States this issue has surfaced in de-bates over the long-term viability of SocialSecurity.QUESTIONS1. How might a nation s median age in u-ence where global commerce willchoose to locate?2. What are some policy issues associatedwith a high old-age dependency ratio?3. Do these data on dependency ratioshave any bearing on policies to encour-age or discourage people from havingchildren?Aging PopulationsHOW OTHER NATIONS GOVERNMedian Age and Dependency Ratio in Comparative PerspectiveWorld China India Japan Mexico Nigeria United Kingdom United StatesMedian Age1950 23.9 23.9 21.3 22.3 18.7 19.1 34.6 302000 26.7 30 22.7 41.3 23.4 17.1 37.7 35.32050 38.1 45 38.6 54.9 43.1 28 43.4 41.1Old-Age Dependency Ratio1950 9 7 5 8 6 5 16 132000 11 10 8 25 8 6 24 192050 25 39 21 74 34 9 40 34SOURCE: United Nations Population Division, 2006 Revision Population Database.New! Generation Next.Because you are the nextgeneration to assume fullcitizenship responsibilities,we have identi ed key issuesthat persons under age 30face now or will face in thefuture. Drawing from datagathered by the Pew studyHow Young People ViewTheir Lives: A Portrait ofGeneration Next we havebroken out the youngestcohort of persons, 18 25 or18 29 depending on the sur-vey, and contrasted the viewsand behaviors of this groupwith older citizens.One of the reasons federalism ourishesin the U.S. system of government is thatthe closer the government is to the people,the greater their trust. Most U.S. citizenstrust local governments most.Members of Generation Next feel the same.According to the Pew Research Center s 2007A Preference for Local GovernmentGENERATION NEXTsurvey of the nation s political landscape,younger U.S. adults are just as likely as anyother age group to agree that the federalgovernment should run only those things thatcannot be run at the local level.Members of Generation Next do not allagree on this issue, however. Members ofminority groups are much less likely to favorlocal government over national government,perhaps because they see the national gov-ernment as an essential guarantor of theircivil liberties and civil rights. Independentsare more likely to favor national action, too,perhaps because they have less con dencein the two parties to represent them. Finally,conservatives favor local action, in part be-cause they see the national government asa source of big spending and meddling inlocal affairs.As a group, members of Generation Nextare not signi cantly different from other gen-erations in their preference for local govern-ment. All generations tend to have greaterfaith in the governments they know best,which are the ones closest to home.QUESTIONS1. How does local government give youmore say in the issues you care about?2. What issues do you think the federalgovernment might be better suited todeal with? Why?3. Why is the national government some-times the best level of governmentaction for achieving change in issuessuch as global warming or access tohealth care?0 10 20 30 40 50GenderRacePoliticalPartyIdeologyMaleFemaleWhiteNonwhiteDemocratIndependentRepublicanVeryconservativeConservativeModerateLiberalVery liberalPercentage of 18- to 29-year-olds who completely agree that the federal governmentshould run only those things that cannot be run at the local level.How Other Nations Govern contrasts an important dimension of each chapter across thefollowing countries: China, Great Britain, India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States.This feature highlights the experience of the people in other political systems and examinesforeign political structures and processes, and how these similar and/or differing approachescan affect and be affected by American the PeopleGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  24. 24. Name ofSupplement Available to DescriptionAmerican GovernmentStudy SiteInstructor s Manual0-13-606243-1Test Bank0-13-606253-9MyTest0-13-606244-XStudy GuidePowerPoint PresentationDigital TransparencyMastersLongman PoliticalScience Video ProgramYou Decide! CurrentDebates in AmericanPolitics, 2009 Edition0-205-68405-XVoices of Dissent: CriticalReadings in AmericanPolitics, Eighth Edition0-205-69797-6Writing in PoliticalScience, Third Edition0-321-21735-7Choices: An American Gov-ernment Database ReaderOnline resource of practice tests, Web links, and flashcards organized bymajor topics and arranged according to Government by the People s tableof contents. Visit www.pearsonamericangovernment.comOffers chapter summaries, recent news and pop culture examples,discussion topics, and Web activities.Contains over 200 questions per chapter in multiple-choice, true-false, shortanswer, and essay format. Questions address all levels of Bloom s taxonomyand are correlated to the Learning Objectives in the book. All questions havebeen reviewed for accuracy and effectiveness.This flexible, online test generating software includes all questionsfound in the printed Test Bank.Contains learning objectives, chapter summaries, and practice tests.Slides include a lecture outline of the text along with graphics from the book.It is available on the Instructor Resource Center*.These PDF slides contain all maps, figures, and tables found in the text.It is available on the Instructor Resource Center*.Qualified college adopters can peruse our list of videos for the Americangovernment classroom.This debate-style reader by John Rourke of the University of Connecticutexamines provocative issues in American politics today by presenting varioussides of key political topics.This collection of critical essays assembled by William Grover of St. Michael sCollege and Joseph Peschek of Hamline University goes beyond the debatebetween mainstream liberalism and conservatism to fundamentally challengethe status quo.This guide by Diane Schmidt of California State Univeristy-Chico takesstudents through all aspects of writing in political science step-by-step.Instructor/StudentInstructorInstructorInstructorStudentInstructorInstructorInstructorStudentStudentStudentStudent This customizable reader allows instructors to choose from a database ofover 300 readings to create a reader that exactly matches their course needs.Go to for more information.Ten Things That EveryAmerican GovernmentStudent Should Read0-205-28969-XPenguin-Longman ValueBundlesLongman State PoliticsSeries* Instructor Resource Center available at by Karen O Connor of American University. We asked American gov-ernment instructors across the country to vote for the 10 things beyond thetext that they believe every student should read and put them in this briefand useful reader. Available at no additional charge when ordered packagedwith the text.Edited by Peter Woll of Brandeis University, this longtime best-selling readerprovides a strong, balanced blend of classic readings and cases that illustrateand amplify important concepts in American government, alongside extremelycurrent selections drawn from today s issues and literature. Available at adiscount when ordered packaged with this text.Longman offers 25 Penguin Putnam titles at more than a 60 percent discountwhen packaged with any Longman text. Go for more information.These primers on state and local government and political issues areavailable at no extra cost when shrink-wrapped with the text. Available forTexas, California, and Georgia.StudentStudentStudentStudentAmerican Government:Readings and Cases,Eighteenth Edition0-205-69798-4Print OnlineResources in Print and OnlineGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  25. 25. Improve results withDesigned to amplify a traditional course in numerous ways or toadminister a course online, MyPoliSciLab combines pedagogyand assessment with an array of multimedia activities videos,simulations, exercises, and online newsfeeds to make learningmore effective for all types of students. Now featuring the com-bined resources, assets, and activities of both Prentice Hall andLongman Publishers, this new release of MyPoliSciLab is visu-ally richer and even more interactive than previous iterations aquantum leap forward in design with more points of assessmentand interconnectivity between concepts.TEACHING AND LEARNING TOOLSAssessment: Comprehensive online diagnostic tools learningobjectives, study guides, ashcards, and pre- and post-testshelp students gauge and improve their understanding.E-book: Identical in content and design to the printed text,an e-book provides students access to their text whereverand whenever they need it.UPDATED! PoliSci News Review: A series of weeklyarticles and video clips from traditional and non-traditionalnews sources recaps the most important political newsstories, followed by quizzes that test students understanding.NEW! ABC News RSS feed: MyPoliSciLab provides anonline feed from ABC News, updated hourly, to keep studentscurrent.ABC News Video Clips: Over 60 high-interest 2- to4-minute clips provide historical snapshots in eachchapter of key political issues and offer opportunities tolaunch discussions.UPDATED! Roundtable and Debate Video Clips: Thesevideo clips feature professors discussing key concepts fromideologically diverse perspectives and debating politicallycharged issues.Student Polling: Updated weekly with timely, provocativequestions, the polling feature lets students voice their opin-ions in nationwide polls and view how their peers across thecountry see the same issue.Political Podcasts: Featuring some of Pearsonsmost respected authors, these video podcasts present short,instructive and even entertaining lectures on key topicsthat students can download and play at their convenience.NEW! Student Podcasts: The new MyPoliSciLab allowsstudents to record and download their own videos for peer-to-peer learning.INTERACTIVE ACTIVITIESNew and Updated Simulations: Featuring an appealingnew graphic interface, these role-playing simulations helpstudents experience political decision-making in a way theynever have before including new mini activities within thesimulations that prepare students to make the right decisions.NEW! Debate Exercises: These provocative new exercisespresent classic and contemporary views on core controver-sies, ask students to take a position, and then show them thepotential consequences of taking that stand.More Focused Comparative Exercises: These exerciseshave been revised in scope to concentrate on a more speci cissue when comparing the US to other political systems, giv-ing students a more concrete foundation on which to analyzekey similarities and differences.More Interactive Timelines: With redesigned media andgraphics, these timelines let students step through the evolu-tion of some aspect of politics and now include more interactivequestions throughout.More Dynamic Visual Literacy Exercises: These revisedexercises offer attractive new graphs, charts, and tables andmore opportunities to manipulate and interpret political data.Expanded Participation Activities: Re ecting ourcountrys growing political interest, these expanded activitiesgive students ideas and instructions for getting involved in allaspects of politics.Icons in the margins of this book direct students to theactivities on MyPoliSciLab related to the topics theyare studying.ONLINE ADMINISTRATIONNo matter what course management system you use or if you donot use one at all, but still wish to easily capture your studentsgrades and track their performance Pearson has a MyPoliSciLaboption to suit your needs. Contact one of Pearsons TechnologySpecialists for more information or assistance.A MyPoliSciLab access code is no additional cost when pack-aged with selected Pearson American Government texts. To getstarted, contact your local Pearson Publishers Representative by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  26. 26. AcknowledgmentsThe writing of this book has pro ted from the informed, pro-fessional, and often critical suggestions of our colleaguesaround the country. This and previous editions have beenconsiderably improved as a result of reviews by the followingindividuals, for which we thank them all:Scott Adler, University of ColoradoWayne Ault, Southwestern Illinois College BellevillePaul Babbitt, Southern Arkansas UniversityThomas Baldino, Wilkes UniversityBarry Balleck, Georgia Southern UniversityRobert Ballinger, South Texas CollegeJodi Balma, Fullerton CollegeJeff Berry, South Texas CollegeCynthia Carter, Florida CommunityCollege Jacksonville, North CampusLeonard Champney, University of ScrantonMark Cichock, University of Texas at ArlingtonAnn Clemmer, University of Arkansas, Little RockAlison Dagnes, Shippensburg UniversityPaul Davis, Truckee Meadows Community CollegeRon Deaton, Prince Georges Community CollegeRobert DeLuna, St. Philips CollegeAnthony Di Giacomo, Wilmington CollegeRichardson Dilworth, Drexel UniversityRick Donohoe, Napa Valley CollegeArt English, University of Arkansas, Little RockAlan Fisher, CSU Dominguez HillsBruce Franklin, Cossatot Community Collegeof the University of ArkansasEileen Gage, Central FloridaCommunity CollegeRichard Glenn, Millersville UniversityDavid Goldberg, College of DuPageNicholas Gonzalez, Yuen DeAnza CollegeCharles Grapski, University of FloridaBilly Hathorn, Laredo Community CollegeMax Hilaire, Morgan State UniversityJames Hoe er, Dickinson CollegeJustin Hoggard, Three Rivers Community CollegeGilbert Kahn, Kean UniversityRogan Kersh, Syracuse UniversityTodd Kunioka, CSU Los AngelesLa Della Levy, Foothill CollegeJim Lennertz, Lafayette CollegeJohn Liscano, Napa Valley CollegeAmy Lovecraft, University of Alaska FairbanksHoward Lubert, James Madison UniversityMichael McConachie, Collin CountyCommunity CollegeLowell Markey, Allegany College of MarylandLarry Martinez, CSU Long BeachToni Marzotto, Towson UniversityBrian Newman, Pepperdine UniversityAdam Newmark, AppalachianState UniversityRandall Newnham, Penn StateUniversity BerksKeith Nicholls, University of South AlabamaSean Nicholson-Crotty, Universityof Missouri ColumbiaRichard Pacelle, Georgia Southern UniversityWilliam Parente, University of ScrantonRyan Peterson, College of the RedwoodsRobert Rigney, Valencia CommunityCollege Osceola CampusBren Romney, Vernon CollegeJack Ruebensaal, West Los Angeles CollegeBhim Sandhu, West Chester UniversityGib Sansing, Drexel UniversityColleen Shogan, George Mason UniversityTom Simpson, Missouri SouthernLinda Simmons, Northern Virginia CommunityCollege Manassas CampusDan Smith, Northwest MissouriState UniversityJay Stevens, CSU Long BeachLawrence Sullivan, Adelphi UniversityHalper Thomas, CUNY BaruchJose Vadi, CSU PomonaAvery Ward, Harford Community CollegeShirley Warshaw, Gettysburg UniversityIfe Williams, Delaware CountyCommunity CollegeMargie Williams, James Madison UniversityChristy Woodward-Kaupert, San AntonioCollegeChris Wright, University of Arkansas MonticelloxxviGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  27. 27. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS * xxviiThis book builds on a long tradition of clear and accessible writ-ing, good scholarship, and currency. James MacGregor Burns andJack Peltason, the founding authors of the book, andTom Cronin,who later joined them, set a high standard in these areas.We alsoexpress appreciation to David O Brien for his work on the twenty-rst and twenty-second editions of the book. As additional au-thors have joined the book we have worked hard to maintain thislegacy while at the same time extensively revising each new edi-tion. Joining us in writing four chapters of this edition has beenChris Nemacheck of the College of William and Mary. ProfessorNemacheck is an expert in the courts and constitutional law andhas substantially strengthened the book in those areas. We aregrateful for her many contributions to the 2009 edition of thebook. Writing the book requires teamwork rst among thecoauthors who converse often about the broad themes, features,and focus of the book and who read and rewrite each othersdrafts; then with our research assistants, who track down looseends and give us the perspective of current students; and nallywith the editors and other professionals at Pearson Longman.Important to each revision are the detailed reviews by teachersand researchers, who provide concrete suggestions on how toimprove the book. We are grateful to all who helped with thisedition.Research assistants for the current edition of Governmentby the People are Aaron M. Anderson, E. Kyle Barnett, BradleyJones, David Lassen, Tim Taylor, and Russell Thacker ofBrigham Young University. Bryan Bradley, an expert in educa-tional assessment, consulted with us on the chapter reviewquestions found at the end of each chapter.We gratefully acknowledge the professionalism, energy,and commitment of Political Science Editor-in-Chief EricStano. Our work with Eric and the Longman team was collegialand symbiotic.Many skilled professionals were important to the publica-tion of this book. They include Elisa Adams and David Kear fortext development, Bob Ginsberg for production, HeatherJohnson at Elm Street for page layout, Teri Stratford for photoresearch, and John Callahan for cover design.We also want to thank you, the professors and studentswho use our book, and who send us letters and email messageswith suggestions for improving Government by the People.Please write us in care of the Political Science Editor at PearsonLongman, 51 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010, or contact usdirectly:David B. Magleby Distinguished Professor of PoliticalScience and Dean of FHSS, Brigham Young University,Provo, UT 84602 david_magleby@byu.eduPaul C. Light Paulette Goddard Professor of Public Service atNew York University and Douglas Dillon Senior Fellow at theBrookings Institution, pcl226@nyu.eduGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  28. 28. xxviiiAbout the AuthorsDavid B. Magleby is nationally recognized for his expertise on direct democracy,voting behavior, and campaign finance. He received his B.A. from the University ofUtah and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. CurrentlyDistinguished Professor of Political Science, Senior Research Fellow at the Centerfor the Study of Elections and Democracy, and Dean of the College of Family, Homeand Social Science at Brigham Young University, Professor Magleby has also taughtat the University of California, Santa Cruz, and the University of Virginia. He and hisstudents have conducted statewide polls in Virginia and Utah. For the 1998 2008elections he has directed national studies of campaign finance and campaign com-munications in competitive federal election environments involving a consortiumof academics from nearly 80 universities and colleges in 38 states. This research issummarized in six edited books. In addition, he is co-editor of a longstanding seriesof books on financing federal elections. In partnership with colleagues, he has beenstudying the implementation of new voting technology, work funded in part by theNational Science Foundation. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at Oxford Universityand a past president of Pi Sigma Alpha, the national political science honor society.Magleby is the recipient of many teaching awards including the 1990 UtahProfessor of the Year award from the Council for the Advancement and Support ofEducation and the Carnegie Foundation, the 2001 Rowman & Littlefield Award forInnovative Teaching in Political Science, and several department and universityawards. At BYU he served as Chair of the Political Science Department before beingnamed dean. He is married to Linda Waters Magleby. They are the parents of fourand grandparents of one.Paul C. Light is the Paulette Goddard Professor of Public Service at New YorkUniversity s Wagner School of Public Service. He received his B.A. from MacalesterCollege and his Ph.D from the University of Michigan. Professor Light has a wide-ranging career in both academia and government. He has worked on Capitol Hill asa senior committee staffer in the U.S. Senate and as an American Political ScienceAssociation Congressional Fellow in the U.S. House. He has taught at the Universityof Virginia, University of Pennsylvania, and Harvard University s John F. KennedySchool of Government. He has also served as a senior adviser to several nationalcommissions on federal, state, and local public service. He is the author of 15 bookson government, public service, and public policy. Light s current research focuses ongovernment reform, Congress, the presidency, and social entrepreneurship. His lat-est books are A Government Ill Executed (Harvard University Press, 2008) and TheSearch for Social Entrepreneurship (Brookings Institution Press, 2008). He was thefounding director of the Brookings Institutions Center for Public Service and contin-ues his research on how to invite Americans to serve their communities throughpublic service. His work has been funded by the Douglas Dillon Foundation, the PewCharitable Trusts, the David and Lucille Packard Foundation, among many others.He is also an expert on preparing government, charitable organizations, and privatecorporations for natural and human-made disasters, and was a recognized leader inthe response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005. He has testi ed before Congress morethan a dozen times in the last ve years.Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  29. 29. A SpecialAcknowledgmentxxixIt is rare for a college textbook in any eld to be a leader in its discipline for more thana generation. The competition between publishers is intense. Moreover, there is noshortage of leading scholars who are eager to share their ideas with students by pub-lishing their own textbooks. With so many works to choose from, it is not surprisingthat some very good books cease publication after only two or three editions. JamesMacGregor Burns and Jack W. Peltasons book has more than stood the test of time, ithas set a high standard for scholarship, clarity of writing, and currency. Their book,Government by the People, has been a leader among American government texts fordecades.Government by the People began when two young assistant professors, JamesMacGregor Burns of Williams College and Jack W. Peltason of Smith College, de-cided to partner and write an American government text sixty years ago, in 1948.Their first edition had a publication date of 1952. Although much has changed incollege text book publishing since then, one constant has been the extraordinarycommitment of the authors to producing a well-written, accessible, and balancedlook at government and politics in the United States. Burns and Peltason werejoined by Tom Cronin of Colorado College in the tenth edition of the book and byDavid O Brien of the University of Virginia in the twenty-first and twenty-secondeditions of the book. As current authors of the book, we share the founding authorspassion for the subject of American government and their desire as teachers andauthors to communicate the importance of government by the people. As the booknow transitions to a new author team, we wish to acknowledge the important foun-dation provided by James MacGregor Burns, Jack W. Peltason, Thomas E. Cronin,and David M. O Brien. We provide a brief personal acknowledgment below and wededicate this edition to them.James MacGregor Burns was the Woodrow Wilson Professor of Government atWilliams College. He also taught at the University of Michigan and University ofRichmond where he directed centers on leadership. A proli c writer, he won thePulitzer Prize and National Book Award for his biographies of Franklin Roosevelt,Roosevelt the Lion and the Fox and Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom. His clarity of ar-gument and willingness to challenge readers to think critically are his hallmarks. Hisbook, Deadlock of Democracy, on how the separation of powers can result in deadlock,continues to foster healthy debate about the strengths and weaknesses of our consti-tutional system. More recently his focus has been on leadership, where he has pub-lished multiple books in the past several years. The University of Maryland has createdthe James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership, re ecting his contributions tothat specialization. Burns was a leader in political science, having been elected presi-dent of the American Political Science Foundation.Jack W. Peltason has shaped American higher education as well in his own disci-pline of political science. His teaching and writing is in the area of judicial process andpublic law. His book on the federal judges who implemented the Supreme Court sschool integration decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas is a clas-sic which he titled, Fifty-Eight Lonely Men: Southern Judges and School Desegregation.Peltason was quickly seen as a leader and became the Chancellor of the University ofIllinois, Chancellor of the University of California Irvine, and President of theUniversity of California with leadership responsibility for all ten campuses of theUniversity of California system. As President of the American Council on Education,Government by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  30. 30. xxx * A SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGMENThe represented higher education before Congress and state legislatures. Peltasonbrought clarity of writing to Government by the People and a willingness to push him-self and his coauthors to understand their audience and reach them. Peltason andBurns saw the entire book as their shared creation and pushed each other and the au-thors who later joined them to substantiate arguments, consider different points ofview, fully document and support the text, and keep the book current and engaging.Thomas E. Cronin joined the author team of Government by the People in thetenth edition. He fully subscribed to the approach of intense author interaction and asa skilled teacher at Colorado College and other institutions helped ensure that thebook understood and spoke to college students. Cronin had been a White HouseFellow and, like Burns, once ran for the U.S. Congress. He later became President ofWhitman College. He is the McHugh Professor of American Institutions andLeadership at Colorado College.David M. O Brien participated in the twenty- rst and twenty-second editions ofthe Government by the People. He is the Leone Reaves and GeorgeW. Spicer Professor atthe University of Virginia. He was a Judicial Fellow and Research Associate at theSupreme Court of the United States, and a Fulbright Lecturer at Oxford University; heheld the Fulbright Chair for Senior Scholars at the University of Bologna and was aFulbright Researcher in Japan, as well as a Visiting Fellow at the Russell SageFoundation. Among his publications are Storm Center: The Supreme Court in AmericanPolitics, 6th Ed.; a two volume casebook, Constitutional Law and Politics, 5th Ed.; anannual, Supreme Court Watch; and Animal Sacri ce and Religious Freedom: Church ofLukumi Babablu Aye v. City of Hialeah. He received the American Bar AssociationsSilver Gavel Award for contributing to the publics understanding of the law.As the current authors of Government by the People we recognize the legacy we in-herit and wish to express our appreciation to Jim Burns, Jack Peltason, Tom Cronin,and David O Brien for their commitment to scholarship, teaching, and citizenship.DAVID B. MAGLEBYPAUL C. LIGHTGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  31. 31. Governmentby the PeopleGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.
  32. 32. 1chapterGovernment by the People, 23/e 2009 Edition, by David B. Magleby and Paul C. Light. Published byLongman. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc.