The Little Ice Age<br />Assignment 3<br />Diana Bruce<br />History 141 - Section 71154<br />
What was the Little Ice Age ?<br /><ul><li> Period of cooling after the Medieval Warm Period.
Several dates ranging over 500 years. Cooling change ranging from 6-14 degrees F.
Colder winters in Europe and North America. In Ethiopia snow reported on mountain peeks at levels not seen today. Timbuktu was flooded 13 times, which had not happened before or since.
Crops were destroyed creating famine and disease, killing thousands of people. </li></li></ul><li>Theories of Little Ice Age<br />1. Prolonged periods of less sunspots known as Maunder Minimum <br />2. Sulfur deposits from five major volcanic eruptions, which block the radiation from the sun. <br />3. Ocean Conveyor belt where an interruption of circulation by large amounts of fresh water introduced to the North Atlantic. <br />4. New data suggests decreased agricultural activity after the Black Death led to reforestation allowing carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere, which may have created cooling. <br />Thermohaline Circulation or Oceanic Conveyor Belt<br />
Years of the Little Ice Age<br /><ul><li>1315–1317 - Rains and cold destroyed the cereal type crops. Peasants were starving and dying. Massive flooding caused loss of life
1550 – Theorized beginning of worldwide glacial expansion. Glaciers advanced in Europe engulfing farms and villages
1600’s – Famine in France, Norway and Sweden caused death in 10% of the population in each country. The River Thames froze so deeply that the Frost Fair ran from 1607-1814.
1645-1715- Temperatures</li></ul> dipped 3%<br /><ul><li>1780 – New York Harbor froze, allowing people to walk from Manhattan to Staten Island. 1645-1715- Temperatures dipped 3%</li></li></ul><li>The Little Ice Age’s affect on History<br /><ul><li> European searches for a Northwest Passage to Asia failed due to heavy ice.
The Vikings in Greenland starved and vanished since crops failed and shipment of goods was impossible.
Agricultural revolution- Turnips and clover were grown as hardier crops for human and livestock consumption. Potatoes from Peru began to be accepted. Livestock became increasingly important.
Antonio Stradivari produced his violin. It is believed that the colder climate produced denser wood that gave the violin its special tone.
George Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised the British in Trenton, where the Continental Army won the battle.
The English forced the Spanish Armada north causing the death of 21,000 Spanish and 56 ships to be destroyed. A huge victory for the English.</li></li></ul><li>Sources<br /><ul><li>Documentary Film: “Little Ice Age: Big Chill” The History Channel </li></ul> 08/29/2011<br /><ul><li> “The Little Ice Age” Wikipedia.com</li></ul> 08/29/2011<br /><ul><li>Ravilious, Kate. “Europe’s chill linked to disease” BBC News </li></ul> 08/29/2011<br /><ul><li>“Facts: Cold, Icy and Arctic” The Little Ice Age Athropolis.com</li></ul> 08/29/2011<br />