• Age of independence for the United States, Canada and Latin America• Legacy of Enlightenment was the effort to build societies based on freedom, equality and a constitutional government and proved to be a monumental challenge• An era characterized by continuous mass migration and explosive economic growth, occasional deep economic stagnation, civil war, ethnic violence, class conflict and battles for racial and sexual equality• With the purchase of the Louisiana territory, • The Sioux, Comanche, Pawnee and Apache the United States doubled in size fought encroachment by Euro-American settlers on their lands. By 1870, U.S. forces• After the Lewis and Clark expedition were using cannons and deadly rapid-fire settlers began to move west in search of guns that broke the native resistance and cheap land. By the 1840s westward opened the western plains to Euro-American expansion was well underway. expansion • Emancipation Proclamation signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863, sparking the Civil War. After four years in battle, the northern states won and ended slavery.
• The Canadian Dominion acquired independence without war. There were two dominant ethnic groups, the British Canadians and French Canadians• Until eighteenth century, French Canadians outnumbered British Canadian. French followed Roman Catholic church and French civil law, while British Canadians were Protestant and followed British law.• In 1781 British loyalists in the United States sought refuge in Canada and greatly enlarging the English speaking community • Argentine and Chilean forces brought modern there. weapons and conquered the indigenous peoples• The British North America Act of 1867 of South America joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New • Juan Manuel de Rosas, most notable caudillos Brunswick and recognized them as the (regional military leaders), ruled as a despot Dominion of Canada through his own army.• Latin American leaders had little experience • In the form of division, rebellion, caudillo rule, with self-government, since Spanish and and civil war, instability and conflict plagued Portuguese regimes were far more Latin America throughout the 19th century autocratic.
• Napoleon’s plans to take Louisiana back from Spain failed because ships were trapped in the harbor in Holland due to ice• George Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised the British in Trenton, where the Continental Army won the battle.• Vikings explored the coast of North America and put down settlements; eventually their colony in Greenland grew to over 3000 people. But as the Little Ice Age set in, the Viking culture of seafaring was destroyed; much of the year, their ships were trapped at home. Their North American settlers were cut off and eventually lost completely. With the Vikings out of business, it fell to the more southerly European countries–Spain, Portugal, France, and England–to colonize the Americas.
• American merchants used the Mississippi River to transport goods and stored them for export at the port of New Orleans• Thomas Jefferson threatens an alliance with Britain if France sends military forces to New Orleans. Napoleon Bonaparte plans to invade Britain and fears this alliance• Spain had not finalized transfer of Louisiana to France. Out of anger and a need for war money, Bonaparte decides to sell the Louisiana Territory to the U.S.• In 1803 the U.S. acquires Louisiana Territory from the French for $11,250,000 plus the cancellation of debts worth $3,750,000 - less than 3 cents per acre• The Louisiana Purchase encompassed all or part of 15 current U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Jefferson allowed slavery in the acquired area
• Saint-Domingue was the most profitable colony owned by the French. 60 percent of world’s coffee and 40 percent of world’s sugar produced in Saint-Domingue• African slaves labored hard under abusive situations. Slaves outnumbered free people 10-1• The French Revolution sparked the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue because white plantation owners refused to comply with civil equality for people of color.• The French were defeated by guerilla warfare used by the slaves and yellow fever. General Toussaint L ‘Ouverture led the slaves in revolution• The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) eliminated slavery in Saint-Domingue and was the founding of the Haitian republic. This is a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World• In 1807 Britain became the first major power to permanently abolish the slave trade
• The battle of Antietam (to Southerners, Sharpsburg) made the event of September 17, 1862 the bloodiest day in American history and changed the General George B. McClellan course of the Civil War.• The Civil War began as a fight to preserve the United States as a whole nation - a Union of all states. Lincoln delayed his proposed Emancipation Proclamation for a military victory.• Antietam was the first of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s attempt to carry the war into the North. 40,000 General Robert E. Lee Southerners were pitted against 87,000 men of the Federal Army of the Potomac under General George B. McClellan. The course of the Civil War had been greatly altered.
Thomas J. Jackson, known as “Stonewall” won five battles, with the main victory at Winchester on May 25, which drove Union General Nathanial Bank’s division across the Potomac into Maryland. This caused great frustration and panic in the North. McClellan was timid and irresolute in action and missed a series of opportunities to claim victory for the North. His troops numbered 100,000, while Lee’s numbered 90,000. The Seven Days Battles was a great strategic victory that kept Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, in the Confederates hands. The South’s success gained foreign recognition, which was dependent on the South’s cotton crop. The North feared British and France intervention.
• The British abolished slavery in 1833 and the French did the same in 1848. This put pressure on Lincoln to commit to emancipation in 1862.• Frederick Douglass pressed Lincoln to turn the war for Union into a war for freedom. As a strategic maneuver, this would weaken the South’s army and be a powerful advantage for the North.• The Republican majority in Congress enacted a new article of war on March 13, 1862, forbidding army officers to return escaped slaves to their masters• Congress passed an initiative to offer economic aid to any state which may adopt gradual abolishment of slavery. This offer was aimed at border states, with the idea that their commitment to emancipation would deprive the Confederacy and shorten the war.• The second battle of Bull Run was a defeat with greater potential danger to the Union cause. Confederate Stonewall Jackson’s army was stopped by the Union General John Pope at Chantilly, fifteen miles from Washington.
• McClellan disobeyed orders from Halleck and did not send 10,000 troops towards • Antietam was not the decisive Union Manassas (Bull Run), leaving Pope on his victory which Lincoln hoped for; it did give the own. Lincoln was appalled by his actions. President an opportunity to strike at the Confederacy• After his great victory at Manassas, Lee politically, psychologically and economically. The marched his army into Maryland hoping to Emancipation Proclamation was issued on find vitally needed men and supplies. September 22• McClellan obtained a copy of the Confederate battle plan and followed Lee into Frederick. By September 15, both armies had established new battle lines west and east of Antietam Creek near the town of Sharpsburg.• McClellan missed a series of opportunities for the success by failing to commit his forces to battle on September 15th and 16th. He failed to deliver a knockout blow to destroy Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. McClellan’s decision allowed Lee to withdraw to the safety of the Virginia shore.