The Timeline Battle of PlataeaIonian Battle of Battle ofRevolt Marathon Thermopylae,Begins Battle of Salamis Strait499 BCE 479 BCE War War Ends Begins 490 BCE 480 BCE
The Process Look at the chain of events For your side, write a short journal entry about how you would react if you had been there. Think about what you would need as an empire or city state from others, how you would feel, what your next step would be Write that down (like a boss) See what actually happened at write that down too. Nope, that‟s a guy named Hoss
Information about Greeks Were not allies at beginning of the war Athens and Sparta most powerful city states of the many throughout the Mediterranean Athens Sparta excels at land Sparta combat Athens, while having many soldiers, has a very strong navy
Greek Warfare Naval Warfare Greek Ships called Triremes- rowed ship with heavy Iron Ram on front Land Warfare Uses Phalanx Tactics metal shields Spears and swords (close range weapons)
The Persians Began as a small tribe in Iran Expanded quickly into the largest empire in history King Darius allowed conquered nations to keep their religions and kings in exchange for tribute (money or goods) and troops for the army
Persian Weapons Leather and wood shields Short Swords Depended on large number of archers Had larger navy than Athens
Event 1: Ionians Revolt The Persians had taken over Greek Settlements in Ionia- on the coast of Asia Minor The Greeks had moved there after the collapse of Mycenae and the beginning of the Greek Dark Ages They had to contribute soldiers and tribute to Persians in exchange for Why is our horse behind being a part of the empire- our Chariot? they had be conquered.
The Reaction Athens sends troops to Ionia as well as ships. The Persians are defeated in one battle The Athenians leave Persia comes back, burns city of Miletus to the ground People are sold into slavery- normal at the time Persia now mad at the Athenians
Event 2: Battle of MarathonDarius decides to invade the Greek mainland and take it over.Sends messengers to ask for surrenderGreeks- according to legend throw messengers into a pit So in real history I‟m Athenian? And this happens 20 years before? I thought movies were always accurate…
Reactions Darius is furious Spartaaaaa? Can Sends troops to Marathon, a city you help us? outside of Athens (about 26.2 miles) A runner is sent to run to Sparta to ask for help- the Marathon commemorates this run Sparta is having a religious festival and can‟t help until tomorrow Sorry it‟s a religious Athenians meet them with their Holidaaaaaaay! allies- led by Militades Sweep around the Persians, surround them and defeat them „Tis on Athens! Greeks form an Alliance to protect against further Persian Aggression
Event 3: Battle of Thermopylae Darius has died Xerxes, his son decides that the time has come to try to invade again Marches on Greece with largest army and navy ever assembled Army marches across a man made bridge over the Hellespont toward Greece Navy sails through a man made canal to avoid storms The Hellespont destroyed 1st bridge, so Xerxes ordered it to be whipped for being bad…seriously
What Actually Happened The Greeks use their alliance Athens and Sparta lead army and fleet to fight against Persians- anyone who can possibly fight, even the poor of Athens are brought in Sparta makes a stand at Thermopylae Athens makes stand at Salamis- a strait (narrow point in water) Hold on, I lost my contact. Has anyone seen it? Seriously guys? Just one second and we can get back to it.
Thermopylae Small passage between mountains- makes it hard for Archers to shoot, hard for troops in come in large numbers- Xerxes loses his biggest advantage A traitor shows the way around The Spartans decide to stay and defend- “give us your arms” “Come and get them” About 1300 men (300 were Spartans- fought to the death to stop the Persians Athens panics and abandons the city- only women, children, elderly left while all others are off fighting Xerxes burns it to the ground
Event 4: Salamis Strait Athenian navy commander- Themistocles thought of way to defeat the larger Persian navy Used similar tactics to Spartans- Salamis strait was a small channel between two areas of land. Told Persians that he wanted to switch sides Persians came to join him, Greeks retreat, suddenly attack and ram 300 ships down before the Persians retreat
Event 5: Battle of Plataea Xerxes retreats back to Asia Minor Bridges at Hellespont have been destroyed- weather is not a fan of Xerxes Leaves an army to attack in the Spring Greeks have to decide whether or not to continue their alliance
What Happened Greeks Continue their alliance Xerxes attacks in the Spring 80,000 allied Greek soldiers defeat the Persian Army Athens has been destroyed, but comes at as the city state that defeated the Persian Navy, created the alliance. Is poised to become the most powerful city state in Athens- a Golden Age