• What is the difference
between phonetics and
• Phonetics relates to the sounds of
language, while phonology studies how
those sounds are put together to create
• phōnḗ - voice, sound
• Lógos - word, speech, subject of discussion
branch of linguistics concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds in
Goals of Phonology
1. To provide the complete phonemic inventory of a language.
2.To discover and formulate all the phonological processes and rules
of the language.
3. To ensure that the results of (1-2) are compatible with the results
of (1) for the same language as well as explaining, determining, and
having limited predictive powers about the phonetic description of
the language obtained in line with (1).
• A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a
• Knowing about phonemes is important for spelling.
• A phonemes may be made up of one or more
letters which make one sound.
Notice how the three
phonemes sound the
Two new shoes
Here are examples of the phonemes /r/ and /l/
The phonemes /r/ and /l/ serve to
distinguish the word rip from the word lip.
• hat -- 3 (/h/a/t/)
• knock -- 3 (/n/o/k/)
• bring -- 4 (/b/r/i/ng/)
• through -- 3 (/th/r/U/)
• strict -- 6 (/s/t/r/i/k/t/)
• "He stuck in his thumb, and pulled out a
How many phonemes are there?
Two kinds of spellings get
teachers messed up:
• Digraphs- is a multiletter spelling
(usually 2 letters) for a single
phoneme. Digraphs can be
consonants (ck, ll, tch, ng) or vowels
(ee, ew, igh, ow). Either way, the
combination stands for one mouth
• Cluster consonants- (dr, pl, st, spl, nk) are
combination of single consonants
pronounced in a rapid sequence. Each
consonant retains its distinctive mouth
move, but sometimes the individual
phonemes are blurred a bit to make a
• is one of a set of multiple possible
spoken sounds used to pronounce a
• Examples (English) [p] and [pH] are
allophones of the phoneme /p/.
• [t] and [tH] are allophones of the phone
• is the relative emphasis that may be given
to certain syllables in a word, or to certain
words in a phrase or sentence.
Education is the most powerful weapon
which you can use to change the world.
• Test I.
1. It is a branch of linguistics concerned with the
systematic organization of sounds in languages.
2. It is the smallest unit of sound in a word.
3. It is one of a set of multiple possible spoken
sounds used to pronounce a single phoneme.
4. It is the relative emphasis that may be given to
certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in
a phrase or sentence.
• Test II
• Count the Phonemes
• Test III
Transcribe the following.
• Test IV
• Indentify the word stress of the following.
¿Le ha llamado la atención una diapositiva en particular?
Recortar diapositivas es una manera útil de recopilar información importante para consultarla más tarde.