Phonology

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Phonemes
Allophones
Rules of Pronunciation
Quiz

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Phonology

  1. 1. PHONOLOGY
  2. 2. • What is the difference between phonetics and phonology?
  3. 3. • Phonetics relates to the sounds of language, while phonology studies how those sounds are put together to create meaning.
  4. 4. PHONOLOGY • phōnḗ - voice, sound • Lógos - word, speech, subject of discussion branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
  5. 5. Goals of Phonology 1. To provide the complete phonemic inventory of a language. 2.To discover and formulate all the phonological processes and rules of the language. 3. To ensure that the results of (1-2) are compatible with the results of (1) for the same language as well as explaining, determining, and having limited predictive powers about the phonetic description of the language obtained in line with (1).
  6. 6. PHONEMES • A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. • Knowing about phonemes is important for spelling. • A phonemes may be made up of one or more letters which make one sound. Notice how the three phonemes sound the same. Two new shoes
  7. 7. Examples Here are examples of the phonemes /r/ and /l/ • rip • lip The phonemes /r/ and /l/ serve to distinguish the word rip from the word lip.
  8. 8. OTHER EXAMPLES: • hat -- 3 (/h/a/t/) • knock -- 3 (/n/o/k/) • bring -- 4 (/b/r/i/ng/) • through -- 3 (/th/r/U/) • strict -- 6 (/s/t/r/i/k/t/)
  9. 9. Examples: Rich --------3 phonemes Pitch --------3 phonemes Shaking --------3 phonemes
  10. 10. • "He stuck in his thumb, and pulled out a plum"? How many phonemes are there? 28 phonemes (/h/e/)(/s/t/u/k/)(/i/n/)(/h/i/s)(/th/u/m/b/) (/a/n/d)(/p/oo/ld/)(/ow/t/)(/a/)(/p/l/u/m/) FIND OUT:
  11. 11. Two kinds of spellings get teachers messed up: • Digraphs- is a multiletter spelling (usually 2 letters) for a single phoneme. Digraphs can be consonants (ck, ll, tch, ng) or vowels (ee, ew, igh, ow). Either way, the combination stands for one mouth move.
  12. 12. • Cluster consonants- (dr, pl, st, spl, nk) are combination of single consonants pronounced in a rapid sequence. Each consonant retains its distinctive mouth move, but sometimes the individual phonemes are blurred a bit to make a smooth sequence.
  13. 13. ALLOPHONES • is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds used to pronounce a single phoneme.
  14. 14. • Examples (English) [p] and [pH] are allophones of the phoneme /p/. • [t] and [tH] are allophones of the phone
  15. 15. RULES OF PRONUNCIATION
  16. 16. INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET
  17. 17. Phonetic Alphabet The English Consonants /p/pit /b/bit /t/tin /d/din /k/cut / /ɡ gut /t /ʃ cheap /d /ʒ jeep /f/fat /v/vat /θ/thin-unvoiced /ð/then-voiced /s/sap /z/zap / /ʃ she / /meaʒ sure /x/loch /w/we /m/map /l/left /n/nap /r/run /ŋ/bang /j/yes /h/ham
  18. 18. The English Vowels /æ/ cat /a/ father /ə/ afraid /e/face / / lotɒ / / thoughtɔ /i /fleece /I/kit / / eggɛ / / fullʊ /U/ fool / / countryʌ /o/goat
  19. 19. / / eggɛ / / fullʊ /U/ fool / / countryʌ /o/goat
  20. 20. Transcription: Ex. Attend – [ə t n d ]ɛ
  21. 21. Word Stress • is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.
  22. 22. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. -Nelson Mandela
  23. 23. Quiz • Test I. 1. It is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. 2. It is the smallest unit of sound in a word. 3. It is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds used to pronounce a single phoneme. 4. It is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.
  24. 24. • Test II • Count the Phonemes 1.Food 2. Chair 3. Table 4. Computer
  25. 25. • Test III Transcribe the following. 1.Hammer 2.Father 3.Sick 4.Toss
  26. 26. • Test IV • Indentify the word stress of the following. 1.Debris 2.Object (verb) 3.Present (noun)
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