MexicanAmericans Desiree Ferwalt NUR 3393 Transcultural Nursing 20 November 2011
Englekirk and Marín (2011) states that after the Mexican-American War in1848 the U.S. annexed what is now the current Southwestern region fromMexico. This would include California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming. Mexicans residing in that territory became members of the US.
Giger (2008) states that Mexican Americans living in U.S. tend to beeconomically segregated working class group. They are often forced into low paying day labor jobs. This group of people are often discriminated in the US through education, jobs, and housing. Skin color, language differences, and Spanish surnames contribute to the discrimination (p. 241)
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican descent•Language- Spanish, American English, minority speaksIndigenous Mexican language•Religion- Roman Catholic, minority is Protestant•Race-Most Mexican Americans are the descendants ofthe Indigenous Mexicans and/or Spaniards withEuropeans.•Skin Color- persons with lighter skin color have moreSpanish ancestry and darker skinned person have moreIndian ancestry•Politics-Hispanic community lean toward the DemocraticParty•Family- traditional gender and family roles, patriarchalhead of house (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
• As of 2007, Mexican Americans make up 7.3% of the United States population with over 20,640,711 Americans listed as of Mexican ancestry.• Mexican Americans make up 58.5% of all Hispanics and Latinos in the United States• In 2008 there were approximately 7,000,000 undocumented Mexicans living in the United States which if included in the count would increase the US share to over 28% of the worlds Mexican origin population• The U.S. border region contains six of the eleven poorest U.S. metropolitan areas (Giger, 2008, p.242)
List of top 10 states by Mexican- American population percentageState/Territory PopulationMexican-Americans (2010 Census) Percentage • Texas • 7,951,193 •31.6 • California • 11,423,146 • 30.7 • New Mexico • 590,890 •28.7 • Arizona • 1,657,668 •25.9 • Nevada • 540,978 •20.0 • Colorado • 757,181 •15.1 • Illinois • 1,602,403 •12.5 • Oregon • 369,817 •9.7 • Idaho • 148,923 •9.5 • Utah • 258,905 •9.4 (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
US communities with high percentages of Mexican ancestryThe top 25 US communities with various Mexican Americanpopulations are:• San Elizario, Texas in El Paso • Fort Hancock, Texas 88.21% 99.00% • Calexico, California 87.72%• Tornillo, Texas 87.20% • Somerton, Arizona 87.42%• Lopezville, Texas 87.48% • Coachella, California 79.59%.• Progreso, Texas 87.54% • San Benito, Texas 87.00%• Cameron, Texas 90.79% • Huron, California 86.92%• Presidio, Texas 89.92% • Parlier, California86.42%• Alton, Texas 89.62% • Lost Hills, California 86.27%• Hidalgo, Texas 89.43% • Mecca, California 20.49%• Cactus, Texas 89.40% • Heidelburg, Texas 85.31%• Penitas, Texas 89.37% • San Juan, Texas 84.00%• Palmview, Texas 89.16% • Granger, Washington 83.94%• Roma, Texas 88.76% • La Joya, Texas 83.92% (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
Giger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment ModelCulturally unique Individual 3. Use of Silence 1. Born in Mexico or • Are infrequent and brief ancestors were from 4. Use of nonverbal Mexico • Use hands to exaggerate 2. Race is a mix of Indian expression and Spaniard heritage • Direct eye contact when communicatingCommunication • Tactile in relationships 1. voice quality • Nurses should touch • Strong, resonant children on the head when caring for them to 2. Pronunciation and prevent the “evil eye” enunciation 5. Touch • More than 50 different dialects • Accepts touch without difficulty
Giger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment Model con’tSpace 3. Number of children 1. Degree of comfort • Families are large, useally 4 or more children • Does not move when space is invaded Time 2. Distance in conversation 1. Orientation to time • 18 inches to 3 feet • Present-oriented 3. Definition of space 2. View of time • Enjoys the closeness while • Social time talking or visiting 3. Physiochemical reactionSocial Organization to time 1. Normal state of health • Puts a lot importance on • Will vary from poor to sleep excellent • Arrive on “Latin time” 2. Marital status • Divorce is uncommon
Giger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment Model con’tEnvironmental Control 1. Locus of Control • External locus of control 2. Value orientation • Believes in God • Believes folk health, prayer, and magic to affect changeBiological Variation 1. Skin color • Natural tan to dark brown 2. Hair color and distribution • Dark and coarse (Giger, 2008, p.9-11)
Giger (2008) states Mexican Americans rely frequently ontraditional medical beliefs and practices instead of Modern Western medicine to resolve health problems (p. 256).
cultural beliefs of health and illness•Health is seen as holistic involving mind, body, andspirit.•Curanderismo describes the entire Mexican Folk systemof disease and healing. Curaneros are folk healers whouse their belief in God.•Yerberos are root and herb doctors.•Mexican American Folk Medicines include plants(onion, garlic, aloe vera, cactus), precious stones (silver,gold, copper), magical perfumes•Other healers are Sobadores (massage therapists),Brujos (Witches), and Espiritistas (Spiritualists). (Englekirk and Marín, 2011)
Common Mexican American Folk Illnesses:• Empacho (food lodged • Ataques De Nervios in digestive tract) (nervous attack)• Mal Ojo (evil eye) • Nervios (nervous• Caida de la Mollera breakdown) (fallen fontanelle) • Penas (shame,• Latido (anorexia or suffering) hyperglycemia) • Dolor De Cerebro• Bilis (suppressed anger) (occipital headache• Susto (magical fright) with neck pain) Englekirk and Marín (2011)
Giger (2008) states Mexican Americans believe that many diseases are hot and cold imbalances. It is thought that the illnesses are caused fromprolonged exposure to hot or cold. The cure from these kinds of illnesses is to use the opposite quality of the disease (p. 254).
Hot-Cold conditions and their corresponding treatment Hot Conditions Cold ConditionsFever liver problem Cancer RheumatismInfection ulcers Cold Stomach crampDiarrhea constipation Earache pneumoniaKidney problem rashes Malaria joint painSore throat skin issues Teething HeadacheCold Medicine to treat Hot Paralysis tuberculosisPenicillin Tobacco Hot Medicine to treat ColdGarlic Aspirin Orange flowers LindenVitamin Castor oil Sage Milk of MagnesiaCinnamon Ginger root Bicarbonate of Soda (Giger, 2008, p.255)
Folk Health Interventions• Prayers • Relaxation techniques• Incantations • Herbal teas• use of incense • Baridas (sweeping the• Massage body using special• Chiropractic aromatic leaves and branches• use of ointments • burning of candles (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
Health Risk Factors• Percent of men 18 years and over who currently smoke: 19% (2007-2009)• Percent of women 18 years and over who currently smoke: 8.5% (2007-2009)• Percent of men 20 years and over who are obese: 31% (2005-2008)• Percent of women 20 years and over who are obese: 43% (2005-2008)• Percent of men 20 years and over with hypertension: 18% (2005-2008)• Percent of women 20 years and over with hypertension: 19% (2005-2008) (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
Factors that contribute to poor health• Percent of persons all ages in fair or poor health is 9.5%• language and cultural barriers• No access to preventive care• Large population movement• poor environmental conditions (crowded substandard city housing)• Low education• Undocumented aliens cannot get Medicaid and Medicare• In 2007, influenza vaccination coverage for Mexican American was 35.5%• Percent of persons under 65 years without health insurance coverage are 37% (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
Healthcare statistics• Mexican American women are more than 2.3 times likely to have late or no prenatal care than Caucasian women• Mexican American women had the highest incidence rate for cancers of the cervix• HIV/AIDS death rate is 2.5 times higher for Mexican American than Caucasian• Mexican Americans had a higher prevalence of overweight (77.3%) and obesity (30.4%) than Caucasians (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
Common Diseases that Mexican American are Susceptible to• Diabetes• Hypertension• Pernicious Anemia• Communicable Diseases (TB, respiratory infections, skin disorders, diarreaha)• Hepatitis C• Childhood Obesity• HIV/AIDS (Giger, 2008, p.260-262)
10 Leading Causes of Death Hispanic/Latino Population, U.S., 20071. Heart Disease2. Cancer3. Unintentional injuries4. Stroke5. Diabetes6. Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis7. Chronic lower respiratory disease8. Homicide9. Certain conditions dealing with perinatal period10. Influenza and pnuemonia (Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities , 2010)
When caring for a patient who doesn’tspeak English there are a few ways to that can be done to relieve stressful situation• Friendly facial expression• Facing the client• Talk directly to the client• Involve family in the care• Use a interpreter (Giger, 2008, p.246)
Englekirk and Marín (2011) states one of the main issues nurses face is ethnocentrism(belief in the superiority of ones own ethnic group)
Giger (2008) states Nurses who donot understand the culture of theirclients are likely to be negative andless effective in their care (p. 266).
Conclusion• Understanding cultural values, diversity, and beliefs will give better health care.• Will increase cultural proficiency among health care providers.• Patients will be better satisfied with culturally sensitive care.• Can reduce any inconstancies in the health care treatment.
ReferencesEnglekirk, A., & Marín, M. (2011, March 18). Mexican American. In Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican- Americans.htmlGiger, J.N. & Davidhizar, R.E. (2008). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment & Intervention, (5th Ed). Mosby: St LouisOffice of Minority Health & Health Disparities . (2010). Hispanic or Latino Populations. In CDC: Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities . Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/Populations/HL/HL.htm