Basics of sap sd module

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  • 1. Basics of SAP SD MODULESAP Organizational Structure Configuration – SD ModuleMandatory: To check the system year and date before log on to SAPTrans Code: OMSY (Material Management view on Company codes)1. Check the period and year for your company code is set as current month and yearDefine: Company CodeCredit Controlling Area:Always HO will be the credit control areaBuss.AreaPlant:DivisionSales OrganisationDist ChannelStorage LocationOrganisation Configuration SettingsStep 1. IMG Screen….>--Enterprise Structure…)----Definition……)-------Financial Accounting (FICO Settings…)------Define Company Code : INFY, Information Systems,CTRY:In,Language: En, Currency: INR------Define Credit Control Area: INFY,Currency: INR, Update: 000018,FY Variant:K4(Calendar year 4 spec.periods)------Copy,delete, Check company code: Copy from C Cod:1000 to NewCompany code created.(PCIL) ( Tran Code:EC01)------ Edit Company Code Data: Posit Comp.Code (change View screen)Click Details View(Ctrl+Shift+F2)Change Company name and other details.Save and Enter……------ Define Buss.Area: New Entries (PCIL-Buss Area PCIL-Blore) 1
  • 2. -------Controlling Settings…)-------Maintain Ctrlg Area: Maintain Ctrlg Area:New EntriesThe above screen shows the field entries for maintain Controlling Area.-------Logistics-General Settings…)------Define Copy,delete, Check Plant:Define Plant:New Entries, Plant:PC01Factory Calendar: GBCountry Code: IN------Define Division: New Entries,Division: (CH-Channel-Micro)-------Sales and Distribution ( S & D Settings…)-----Define Sales Orgn: New Entries,Sales Orgn: (PCIL-SO for PCIL-Blore)Country Code: In-----Define Copy, Delete, Check Distr Chanel: New EntriesDist.Channel: IM-Disti.PCIL-------Materials Management ( M & M Settings…)------Maintain Strg.Loc: Enter Plant: PC01New Entries: Storg Loc: PBLR-Stor Loc-PCIL, Blore 2
  • 3. -------Logistics Execution Settings….-----Define Copy, Delete, Check Shpng Point: New EntriesShpng Point.(SBLR)Cntry Code:In Fctry clndr:GBThe below screen displays the fields to be entered------Maintain Trns.Plng Point:new Entries, TPPT:PCILCmpy Code:PCILCntry Code:InEnd of Definition of Company Code……………….=================================What are the differences between cash sales and rush order?1) Cash sale : in this delivery automatically happen when you save the sales order. After thatyou have to give an invoice to the customer.2) Rush order. Here also delivery automatically happen when you save the sales order. But thedifference is you can send invoice after some time but the delivery should happenimmediately. 3
  • 4. If you goto any super market first, you pick up the item and then pay the bill and then youwill get the bill, this process is cash sales.Cash sales is order related billing whereas RO is delivery related.Cash sales is not relevant for availability check as you will be picking the goods whereas RO isrelevant for availability check.Cash sales is also not relevant for credit management whereas RO is relevant creditmanagement.Cash sales uses RD03 as output which immediately prints the invoice whereas RO usesstandard output RD00.Cash sales has one time customer account group where as RO normally doesnt.For cash sales order type is BV or CS and for RO it is ROCash sales triggers petty cash a/c where as in RO customers account is debited.Delivery and settlement will be done immediately in cash sales where as in RO only deliverywill be done immediatrly.Rush Order/Cash Sales –Rush orders and Cash sales are sales document types that are used in the sales from plantprocess or when the customer needs to pick their goods immediately from the warehouse.In the sales document type, the following changes have to be made for rush order/cash sales –a. order type – RO/CSb. shipping conditions – immediatelyc. immediate delivery – Xd. lead time in days – not to be specifiede. delivery type – LF/BVf. billing type – F2/BVg. item category – TAN/BVNh. schedule line category – CP/CPIn case of rush orders and cash sales once the goods have been withdrawn from thewarehouse, picking and posting goods issue can begin. 4
  • 5. In case of rush orders, when you create the billing documents the system prints the invoicepapers and sends them to the customer.But in case of cash sales, an order related billing index is generated automatically. Thisupdates the billing due list. Billing type BV is created, while the billing due list is beingprocessed and the system does not print invoices during billing for a cash sale.In cash sales when you save the order, the system automatically generates a cash receipt thatcan be given to the customer as an invoice and the goods are picked up from the warehouseimmediately by the customer. You control the output with output type RD03, contained in theoutput determination procedure for order type CS.=========================================Sales Organization :Responsible for: • Distribution of goods and services • Negotiating Sales Conditions • Product Liability and rights of recourse • A sales organization is uniquely assigned to a company code • Master data’s are separately maintained for a sales organization • All items in the Sales and Distribution document belong to a sales organizationDistribution Channel:Means through which products and services reach the customerA distribution channel: • Defines responsibilities • Helps in achieve flexible pricing • Differentiate Sales statisticsDivision: • A division is used to group products and services. • A division represents a product line.Sales Area:A Sales area is a combination of 5
  • 6. • Sales organization • Distribution Channel • DivisionEach Sales and distribution document is assigned exactly to one sales area.A sales area can belong to only one company code. Sales Organization Distribution Channel DivisionSales AreaPlant and Storage Location: • A Plant is a location where stock is maintained • Plant and storage location are used by all logistic area of R/3 System • A Plant is uniquely assigned to a company codeShipping point: • Shipping point is the highest level of organizational unit in shipping • Each outbound delivery is processed by one shipping point • Shipping points are assigned to a plant • More than one shipping point can be assigned to a plantSales and Distribution is SAP begins with establishing customer relationship and ends withinvoicing for the delivery of goods or service provided to the customer .A Standard sales transaction has the following flow:Inquiry --> QuotationOrderDeliveryBillingThe customer order management cycle begins with pre-sales activities.A standard order in SAP contains: 6
  • 7. • Customer and material info • Pricing conditions • Delivery dates and quantities • Shipping info • Billing InfoInventory sourcing in SAP is taken care by • Availability checkShipping in SAP supports • Outbound delivery creation • Picking • Packing • Post Goods IssueBilling in SAP supports • Creating invoices for products and services • Creating credit and debit memo • Cancel previously posted billing documents • Automatically transferring billing documents to accountingWhen a billing document is created for a sales order we • Credit the sales revenue account • Debit the customer receivables accountSales DocumentA sales document is grouped into three structures • Header • Item • Schedule LineOutbound deliveryA delivery document is grouped into two structures • Header • Item 7
  • 8. Several orders can be grouped into same outbound delivery if they have same • Shipping point • Delivery date • Ship-to- addressPicking • A transfer order is created for an outbound delivery • A transfer order is created for a warehouse numberPost Goods IssueWhen PGI is done the system • Updates the quantity in inventory management and delivery requirements in materials planning • Generates additional documents for accounting • Adds the delivery to the billing due list • Updates status in sales documentsBillingWe can group deliveries into single billing document if the deliveries have same • Billing date • Payer • Destination CountryThe effects of billing are • Debit on the customer receivables account and credit on sales revenue account is created • Sales information system • Sales statistics is updatedMaster data in SAPSAP SD has got the following main masters: • Customer master • Material master • Condition master 8
  • 9. • Output master • Customer material information masterCustomer masterGeneral DataSales Area DataCompany Code dataAddress Order AccountingControl data Shipping PaymentPayment terms Billing CorrespondenceMarketing Partner functions InsuranceUnloading pointsExport dataContact personsThe chart above shows detail on three main areas of customer master and the tab pages foundunder each area.Material Master is maintained in different views and important views of sales anddistribution are • Basic data 1 • Sales Org 1 • Sales Org 2 • Sales : Gen/Plant • Foreign Trade • Sales textSales document in Sales and distribution mainly controls: • Number range • Item No increment • Reference mandatory • Item division 9
  • 10. • Read info record • Document pricing procedure • Incomplete messages • Alternative sales documents • Delivery block • Billing block • Immediate delivery • Delivery type • Billing type • Proposed delivery date • Lead time for delivery • Proposed pricing datePlant determination in Sales and distribution:To determine the plant in an order the system checks the master in the following order:a) Customer material info. record of the sold-to –partyb) Customer master record of the ship-to-partyc) Material master record of the materialShipping point determinationThe following rule is used in determining shipping point in a sales order :Plant + Shipping condition (Sold-to-Party) + Loading group Shipping pointMaintained in Material master Gen: Plant dataRoute determinationRoute determined using the following rule in Sales and Distribution (SAP)Departure Zone of Shipping Point+Shipping condition (Sold-to-Party)+Transportation Group (Material master)+ 10
  • 11. Transportation Zone (Ship-to-Party)RouteDelivery scheduling:As name denotes delivery scheduling is scheduling delivery for an order and it carries thefollowing important dates: • Material availability date • Transportation planning date • Loading date • Goods Issue date • Delivery dateAvailability Check in SAP: • Availability check is carried out at item level for a plant • Availability check is done on the material availability date • If material availability date is in the past the forward scheduling is done, if not backward scheduling is done.Item category determination in the order:Item category denotes the category to which the item belongs and the following rule is usedfor determination of item category. Item category controls the way in which item behaves in asales document.Sales document type+Item category group (Material master)+Item usage+Item category of higher level itemItem category of the itemItem category in a sales document mainly controls the following • Relevance for billing of an item 11
  • 12. • Billing block • Pricing relevance • Business data relevance item • Schedule line allowed • Item relevant for delivery • Returns • Determine cost • Credit active • Incompletion procedure • Partner determination procedure • Structure scope (relevant for bill of material explosion) • Value contract material • Contract release controlSchedule line category:Every item which has a delivery will have a schedule line and the schedule line category isdetermined with the following rule: Item category + MRP type(Material Master) Schedule line categorySchedule line category mainly controls: • Delivery Block • Movement type • Item relevant for delivery • Req/Assembly • Availability • Product AllocationCopy Control:Copy control is normally set for • Header • Item • Schedule line levels 12
  • 13. To control copying procedure we have • Data transfer routines • Copying requirements • SwitchesPricing Procedure determination:Pricing is an important component in SAP-SD. Once an order is entered taking intoconsideration some major factors, the pricing procedure for the particular order is determined.The major factors taken into consideration for pricing procedure determination is:Sales area+Customer Pricing procedure(Customer Master –Sales area data)+Document Pricing Procedure(Sales Document Type)Pricing ProcedureWhat are the components of pricing procedure?How is that a person should work on Pricing Procedure?To start with firstDefine a Condition table:What is a condition table?A table where the key fields are data combinations for which messages are triggered (andoffered for processing).For each data combination, there is a condition record in the table. The data part contains theactual message.As mentioned above a condition table is a table which carries key fields for picking up theprices.Define Access SequencesThe access sequence is a search strategy which the SAP System uses to search for conditionrecords valid for a condition type. 13
  • 14. For example, you can define for a price that the SAP System first searches for a customer-specific price and then for a price list price.Recommendation· If you define your own access sequences, the key should start with the letter Z since SAPreserves this letter for the standard system.· Do not change access sequences contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.Actions1. Check to what extent you can use the access sequences contained in the standard SAP R/3System.2. Create new access sequences by copying a similar access sequence and changing itaccording to your needs. Specify an alphanumeric key which may have up to 4 digits and atextual description.3. Maintain the accesses for the access sequence by specifying the condition tables in thedesired sequence. With the sequence, you define the priority of the accesses. You can displaycombinations of key fields using possible entries.4. Generating the accesses is no longer necessary as of 3.0, as this is carried out automatically.You can generate the accesses manually, if required, by choosing "Utilities".ExampleIn pricing, you use a customer-material discount. The condition records you create are basedon customer data from the document header and material data from each document item. Thediscount is only valid for 2% of your customers, however. Normally, this would mean that thesystem would needlessly search through every available item for 98% of your customers. Inthis case, pre step would improve system performance.Define Condition TypeA characteristic of a condition. For example, in pricing, different condition types are used todistinguish between a discount that refers to a net price and a discount that refers to a grossprice. 14
  • 15. Price elements are represented in the SAP system by condition types. Price elements can be, forexample, prices, surcharges, discounts, taxes or, freight, and are stored in the system incondition records.You can, for example, define whether a discount is calculated as a percentage or a fixedamount using the condition type.You specify an access sequence in every condition type. Thus, you define which fields the SAPsystem checks when searching for a valid condition record.Note • The pricing procedure groups all condition types together which the SAP system is to automatically take into account during pricing for a business transaction (see the section "Define and assign pricing procedures").Remember that you can only specify manually in a document those condition types which arecontained in the pricing procedure. • You can change the outcome of pricing in the sales document manually. You can limit options for changing a condition type in this IMG step.Recommendation • If you define your own condition types, the key should start with the letter Z since SAP reserves these letters for that purpose in the standard system. • Do not change the condition types which are contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.Actions1. Check to what extent you can use the condition types contained in the standard SAP R/3System.2. Create new condition types by copying a similar conditions type and changing it accordingto your requirements. One reason for creating a new condition type is you may require acalculation rule for a discount which is not available in the standard system.Specify an alphanumeric key which can have up to 4 digits, and a textual description.Specify an access sequence for the condition types. You do not need to specify an accesssequence for header conditions. 15
  • 16. 3. Maintain the detail screen of the condition type.You can also assign a reference condition type if the condition types you are working with aresimilar. Then you will only have to maintain condition records for the reference conditiontype.In addition, you can define the upper and lower limits for the value of a condition at conditiontype level. This way, you limit the amounts or the scale values in the corresponding conditionrecords.Define Pricing ProceduresThe pricing procedure defines the conditions permitted for a document and the sequence inwhich the system takes these conditions into account during pricing.A standard pricing procedure is defined in the standard SAP system. It contains conditionsmost commonly used. These include material prices, discounts, and surcharges, such asfreight, or tax.SAP Recommendation· Define your own pricing procedures which contain only those condition types which youuse. Otherwise, the system makes un neccessary accesses to conditions.· Do not change the pricing procedures contained in the standard SAP R/3 System.Actions1. Create new pricing procedures by copying a similar pricing procedure. o Specify a key with up to 6 characters and a description. o For a procedure, specify the condition types in the sequence of their usage.Maintain the lines of the pricing procedure2. Afterwards define the customer determination procedures for determining the procedure.3. Define the document pricing procedures for determining the procedure.4. Assign the procedure to the sales document types and billing types.5. To determine the procedure, define the allowed combinations of: o Sales area o Customer pricing procedure o Document pricing procedure 16
  • 17. o Pricing procedureShipping:The basis for shipping is delivery.Delivery document controls the following in deliveries • Number range • Item no increment • Storage location rule • Route determination • Text determination • Delivery split • Gen. packing material / item • Order requiredDelivery item category controls: • Check min delivery • Availability check • Relevant for picking • Storage location required • Determine storage location • Automatic batch determination • Text determination procedureBilling:Billing is the last phase in the SD process .Billing is the phase where the major integration ofSD and FI Module happens.Billing document has got the following structure: • Header • ItemBilling documents mainly control: • No. range • Posting block (Controls posting to accounting) 17
  • 18. • Relevant for rebate • Account determination procedure • Account determination recon account • Account determination pay.cards • Output determination procedureAccount Determination in SAPAccount determination in SAP-SD happens with the following ruleSales Organization*Chart of Accounts*Account assignment group –Customer*Account assignment group-Material*Account KeyG/L account on which the postings has to happen. 18