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  • 1. ORGANIZINGFunction of Management
  • 2. What do managers do when theyorganize?Organizing: arranging and structuring work to accomplish the ‘organizations’ goals.Organizing structure: the formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.Organizational design: changing or developing an organization’s structure.
  • 3. Six Elements of OrganizationalStructure1. Work Specialization: dividing work activities into separate job tasks.2. Departmentalization: grouping like jobs back together. (Functional, product, geographical, process and customer)
  • 4. Six Elements of OrganizationalStructure3. Chain of Command: line of authority from top to bottom of organization clarifying who reports to whom.Authority – rights inherent in managerial position to tell others what to do and to expect them to do it.Responsibility – obligation to perform assigned duties.Unity of Command – idea that each person should report to only one manager.4. Span of Control: number of employee that a manager manages. * Depends on skill and abilities of manager and employees and work characteristics.
  • 5. Six Elements of OrganizationalStructure5. Centralization – Decentralization: where decision making is concentrated. Employee Empowerment – giving employees more authority to make decisions.6. Formalization: extent to which employees jobs are standardized and controlled.
  • 6. Factors that affect the type oforganizational structure managersdesign.1. Strategy - As strategy changes, structure changes to support strategy.2. Size -Large organizations tend to be more mechanistic.3. Technology4. Degree of environmental uncertainty.
  • 7. Common types of OrganizationalDesigns.Traditional: 1. Simple structure – Organizational design with low departmentalization wide spans of control, centralized authority and little formalization. 2. Functional structure – organizational design that groups similar or related occupational specialties together. 3. Divisional structure – organizational structure made up of separate, semi –autonomous units or divisions.
  • 8. Common types of OrganizationalDesigns.Contemporary: 1. Team structure – organizational structure in which the entire organization is made up of work groups or teams. 2. Matrix structure – organizational structure in which employee continuously work on projects. 3. Project structure – organizational on which employees continuously work on projects.
  • 9. Communication-The transfer and understanding of meaning.-Effective communication is when a transmitted thought or idea is received and understood by the receiver as it was intended by the sender.
  • 10. Functions of communication1. Acts to control behaviour.2. Encourages motivation.3. Provides a release to emotional expression of feeling and for fulfilment of social needs.4. Provides information.
  • 11. Interpersonal Communication Process• A communication source or sender.• Message• Encoding• The channel• Decoding• Receiver• Feedback
  • 12. Why does communication breakdown?• Filtering• Emotions• Information overload• Selective perception• Defensiveness• Language• Culture
  • 13. Human Resource ManagementAn important strategic tool that helps organization establish sustainable competitive advantage.
  • 14. How do organizations identify andselect competent employees.Identify: Recruitment process.Select: Predict which candidates will be good or not so good using valid and reliable selection tools.• Application Forms• Background investigation• Realistic job preview• Interviews• Written Test
  • 15. How do organizations help employeesadapt and stay up-to-date?Orientation: Introduction of new employee to his or her job and the organization.Training: What types of training do employees need? What method will be used to train?
  • 16. How do managers know whetheremployees are performing jobs well?• Written Essays• Graphic rating scales• Multi person comparison• 360-degree feedback
  • 17. HR issues Currently facing managers• Managing Downsizing.• Managing workforce diversity. (recruiting , selecting and orienting/training)• Work-family life balance.• Controlling HR costs.